7( (Main Sentence Trunk ) 5 Criteria for a Sentence: Start with the MST( (Main Sentence Trunk )5 Criteria for a Sentence:It must begin with a capital.It must contain a noun as the subject.It must contain a verb as the predicate.It must end with punctuation: . ! ?It must express a complete thought.
8Nouns name a Person, Place, or Thing Common NounsboyprincipalparkcityvampirebuildingProper NounsJoeyMrs. StillmanCentral ParkSan DiegoDraculaTwin TowersNouns answer the question Who or What?
9Pronouns Single Subject Pronouns I You He She It Plural Subject PronounsWeTheySingle Object PronounsMeYouHimHerItPlural Object PronounsUsThem
10Action!!! Verbs show Run – zip, dart, jog, race, canter, sprint, rush Walk – amble, saunter, hike, parade, march, stride, trudge, stroll, lumberSay – exclaim, state, vocalize, declare, rambleVerbs answer the question Does / Did / Will Do What Action?
11Like top hats and bow ties, Articles are Optional A man jogged. / Mr Like top hats and bow ties, Articles are Optional A man jogged. / Mr. Short jogged. An elephant lumbered. / Babar lumbered. The teacher rambled. / Mrs. Hutson rambled.
12We start with a recipe for MST: Main Sentence Trunk MST = (Article: A, An, or The) + Noun + Verb.
13POP! Choose Your Words Use Specific Nouns and Vivid Verbs Use word choice to make even simple sentencesPOP!
14Name a Specific Who/What! Pair with a Vivid Verb! The horse ran.Can become…The majestic chestnut mare galloped.
15A crocodile slithered. Code an MST First, mark the capital by underlining the first letter three times.Second, circle the noun.Next, zigzag the verb by drawing four small triangles under it.Finally, circle the ending punctuation.4 codes should equal a complete thought.A crocodile slithered.
17Add a Fantastic Adjective (Adjectives describe the Noun ) CuteCuddlyViciousAngryHowlingSmartCleverWorriedTalkative
18Code your MSTs / Color your adjectives MST + AdjectiveThe crying boy pouted. (Which boy pouted?)The frustrated teacher grimaced. (Which teacher grimaced?)The calm water pooled. (Which body of water pooled?)Code your MSTs / Color your adjectives
20Recipe for When Expanders: When Expanders tell When the action took place.The sea turtle swam. When did the sea turtle swim?After midnight, the sea turtle swam.The sea turtle swam after midnight.(Notice the When Expander can be written Before or After the MST.Recipe for When Expanders:MST + When ExpanderWhen Expander, MST
21When Expanders Signal Words and Phrases When Signal WordsAsAfterBeforeDuringSinceUntilWhenAtOnWhileWhen phrasesAs the tide came inAfter midnightBefore the sun roseDuring the stormSince the beginning of timeUntil he was safeAt the start of the feeding cycleOn SundayWhile at the island
22When Expanders in Action! As the storm set in, the sea turtle swam.After the rain storm, the sea turtle swam.Before she ate, the sea turtle swam.The sea turtle swam during the night.The sea turtle had been swimming since sunrise.
23When Expanders Cont’dUntil she knew she was safe, the sea turtle swam.The sea turtle swam when the whale chased her.At dawn, the sea turtle swam.On the eve of the storm, the sea turtle swam.
24Before and After Write and Code Correctly During the storm, the turtle swam during the storm. After the rains, the turtle swam after the rains. While sharks slept, the turtle swam while sharks slept. Until she was safe, the turtle swam until she was safe.
25Recipe for Where Expanders: Where Expanders tell Where the action took place.The sea turtle swam. Where did the sea turtle swim?Above the coral, the sea turtle swam.The sea turtle swam above the coral.(Notice the Where Expander can be written Before or After the MST.Recipe for Where Expanders:MST + Where ExpanderWhere Expander, MST
26Where Signal Words (Prepositions) AboveAcrossAlongAgainstAroundBeforeBehindBelowBeneathDownFromInsideNearOnOutsideOverPastTowardUnderUpon
27Where Phrases (Prepositional Phrases) along the shoreagainst the currentaround the islandbefore the great reefbehind the sail boatupon the rockstoward the bay
28Where Expanders in Action The sea turtle swam against the current.The sea turtle swam outside the bay.The sea turtle swam past the ship.Beneath the ship’s hull, swam the sea turtle.Around the island, the sea turtle swam.
29Before and After Along the reef, the turtle swam along the reef. Near the boat, the turtle swam near the boat.Over the wave, the turtle swam over the wave.Upon the tide, the turtle swam upon the tide.Recipe Reminder:MST + Where Action ExpanderWhere Action Expander, MST
30Recipe for Why Expanders: Why Expanders tell Why the action took place.The sea turtle swam. Why did the sea turtle swim?To avoid the whale, the sea turtle swam.The sea turtle swam because she needed to reach shore.(Notice the Why Expander can be written Before or After the MST.Recipe for Why Expanders:MST + Why ExpanderWhy Expander, MST
31Why Expander Signal Words and Phrases Why Signal WordsBecauseSinceSo thatTo + action verbIn order toWhy Phrasesbecause he was tiredsince she had to make up for time lostso that she could lay her eggsto reach shorein order to survive (to survive…)
32Why Expanders: Examples In order to find her mate, the turtle swam.The turtle swam since she had to lay her eggs.
33(Why) Before and AfterTo find some food, the turtle swam to find some food.Since he was hungry, the turtle swam since he was hungry.So that he could eat, the turtle swam so that he could eatRecipe Reminder:MST + Why Action ExpanderWhy Action Expander, MST
34The Because ClauseYes, we can start a sentence with becauseIfWe follow it with an MST.Because she needed a place to lay her eggs, the turtle swam. (This is a complete sentence.)“Because she needed a place to lay her eggs” is NOT a complete sentence. It is a FRAGMENT - a piece of a sentence.
35Because Before and After Because she was a fast swimmer, the sea turtle escaped because she was a fast swimmer.Because she was able to hide, the sea turtle escaped because she was able to hide.Because the ocean coral disguised her, the sea turtle escaped because the ocean coral disguised her.
36A Word on Fragments Actually, all Action Expanders are fragments. Each Expander is addedto an already complete,simple sentence.So, make sure you follow or precedeyour Expander with an MST.MST + Action ExpanderorAction Expander, MST
37Around the road and through the tunnel. When she was biking. He ran. Which of these is a fragment?Because I want to.Around the road and through the tunnel.When she was biking.He ran.Because she was tired, she took a nap.
38Recipe for When Expanders: How ExpandersHow Expanders tell How the Who / What acted.The sea turtle swam. How did the sea turtle swim?Quickly, the sea turtle swam.The sea turtle swam quickly.(Notice the How Expander can be written Before or After the MST.Recipe for When Expanders:MST + How ExpanderHow Expander, MST
39How Signal Words (Adverbs) QuicklySlowlyHappilySadlyNervouslyWarilyGracefullyMenacinglyCarefullyDutifullyApprehensivelyWiselyUnwiselyQuietlyEnergeticallyEagerly
40How to convert an Adjective into an Adverb (or a What kind into a How) Add LYDrop y Add ilyNervous / NervouslySad / SadlyKind / KindlyLoud / LoudlyEager / EagerlyHungry / HungrilyDainty / DaintilyDROP E ADD LYGentle / gentlyAdorable / adorably
41How Signal Words and Phrases WithWithoutLikeUnlikeByAswith a song in her heartwithout a care in the worldlike her mother before herunlike her brotherby being courageousAs quietly as possible
43How Expanders as Similes Like the bright sun rising over the east, Lilly awoke with a great big smile.Leo moved through the grass like a cat.David ran to the cafeteria as quickly as a bunny.As gently as a butterfly, Flora fluttered to her desk.
44How Before and After Gently, the sea turtle laid her eggs gently. Sadly, the sea turtle swam away sadly.Like a small boat setting sail, the sea turtle swamtoward the rising sun like a small boat setting sail.Comma after Before ExpandersPeriod at sentence’s end.
45Condition ExpandersCondition Expanders tell what the situation is regarding the action.Even though the sea turtle swam quickly, she was unable to escape the shark. (What was the sea turtle’s situation?)She couldn’t swim faster than her predator.(Notice the Condition Expander can be written Before or After the MST. Condition Expander, MSTMST + Condition Expander
46Condition Expander Signal Words AlthoughThoughIfEven ifEven thoughUnlessDespiteIn spite ofregardless
47Condition Expander Clauses Although the sea was rough, the sea turtle was able to reach the shore.If the sea turtle were any less determined, she would never be able to swim so many miles.Despite the cold water, turtle babies are able to protect themselves with their thick skin.Regardless of the risk, female sea turtles trudge along the shore to lay their eggs.
48Before and After Condition Expanders In spite of the oil spill, the sea turtle was able to find fresh sea weed in spite of the oil spill.Even though people are more careful about protecting the ocean, the creatures of the sea still remain in danger even though people are now more careful about protecting the ocean.
49Double and Triple Your Expanders After the storm, the sea turtle swam to shore in order to lay her eggs.(Code and name the Expanders)When she had laid all her eggs, the sea turtle waddled back into the sea even though a storm was fast approaching. (Code and name the Expanders.)
50What to include for Stunning Sentence Fluency Different sentence beginnings. Only repeat beginnings for intentional effect. (Example: He was a stressed out guy. He was a teacher.)Varied sentence lengths. Count totals of words in each sentence. Make sure you have some long, languid sentences (30 words or more), some short power sentences (one to three or four words long, and some in between sentences.Keep sentences interesting by combing action expanders together in several sentences.
51All Together Now: Narrative Chunk On the eve of a menacing storm, a large sea turtle crawled from the blue frothy waves toward the sandy beach. Flump. Flump. Flump. Flump. She scratched her fins into the sand to raise her enormous form up the bank. As she lay her eggs, she heard human voices. She knew she must cover her eggs well in order for them to go undiscovered and unharmed.
52All Together Now: Informative Chunk Female sea turtles live in the sea but must come to shore to lay their eggs in the sand. Mother sea turtles choose the dead of night to crawl onto the shore and often amble laboriously over several feet of sand in order to lay their eggs in a safe place along the shore. Regardless of the care she shows in depositing her eggs, only one or two out of the hundred- egg batch will live to adulthood.