Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH? Prof. Patricia Murillo USB ID1-101 Oct 2008."— Presentation transcript:
WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH? Prof. Patricia Murillo USB ID1-101 Oct 2008
A PARAGRAPH IS… A collection of related sentences dealing with one topic
WHAT IS A TOPIC SENTENCE? The Topic Sentence: Expresses the main idea of a paragraph. Is usually the first sentence of a paragraph. Contains the central idea. Is also the most general sentence in a paragraph.
EXAMPLE OF A TOPIC SENTENCE There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries of the world.
WHAT IS A SUPPORTING SENTENCE? The Supporting Sentence: Develops, explains and supports the main idea of the paragraph. Contains facts, examples and details. Explains why the main idea it’s true.
EXAMPLES OF SUPPORTING SENTENCES First, Canada has an excellent health care system. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Finally, Canada’s cities are clean and efficiently managed.
WHAT IS A CONCLUDING SENTENCE? The Concluding Sentence: Is usually the last sentence of the paragraph. Restates the main idea. Is used to finish the paragraph or to prepare the reader for the following paragraph.
EXAMPLES OF CONCLUDING SENTENCES As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live. For those reasons, Canada attracts a lot of immigrants. Wouldn’t you like to live there? Canada is a great model for other countries to follow.
ANALYZE… Which of the following examples cannot be used as a topic sentence and why? My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features. There are two reasons why some people like to buy cars with automatic transmissions and two reasons why others like to buy cars with manual transmissions. Clouds are white.
CHECK THE STRUCTURE OF THIS PARAGRAPH… Through the centuries rats have managed to survive all our efforts to destroy them. We have poisoned them and trapped them. We have fumigated, flooded, and burned them. Some rats even survived atomic bomb tests conducted on Entwetokatoll in the Pacific after World War II. In spite of all our efforts, these enemies of ours continue to prove that they are the most indestructible of pests. Can you identify the TS, SS and CS?
TS, SS & CS Through the centuries rats have managed to survive all our efforts to destroy them. We have poisoned them and trapped them. We have fumigated, flooded, and burned them. Some rats even survived atomic bomb tests conducted on Entwetokatoll in the Pacific after World War II. In spite of all our efforts, these enemies of ours continue to prove that they are the most indestructible of pests.
WHEN WRITING A PARAGRAPH REMEMBER… To check: Content Structure Form
Now it’s your turn. What does this prompt want you to do? Do you think that athletes and entertainers are often paid huge sums of money for the work they do? How does society justify the difference between their salaries and those of people who make much less money doing other jobs? Be sure to develop your response fully.
Position: Athletes and entertainers make too much money. 3 MAIN reasons why EVIDENCE 1: Other people work just as hard/harder and get paid way less. EVIDENCE 2: Use money for terrible lifestyles. EVIDENCE 3: These people make no significant contribution to society.
Outline Paragraph 1 (too much $) 1. First, athletes and entertainers make way too much money because other people work just as hard as they do and get paid way less. A. Ms. Moore, a teacher at North Ogden Jr. High, frequently works 90 hours a week but gets paid only $36,000/year. 1. Athletes and entertainers rarely spend this much time working, and they get paid far more. 2. Ms. Moore is dedicated to her students and supports them outside of school. 3. Her life revolves around her students, and she’s good at her job. B. Nikolai Wedekind, an Apache helicopter pilot for the Army risks his life for his job and receives little pay. 1. He, like athletes and performers, must maintain peak physical shape, but he isn’t given an expensive personal trainer and provided with workout equipment and exercise gear like celebrities. 2. He has to dress head to toe in protective clothing and be exposed to excruciating heat and outdoors conditions instead of being lodged in a posh hotel like celebrities.
Outline, cont. 3. He works day and night and is away from friends and family for years at a time while deployed, and the government does not pay him even a quarter of what a C-list celebrity makes. C. Volunteer firefighters risk their lives for people they do not even know and get paid nothing. 1. Volunteer firefighters even put themselves through their own training, using their own money to pay for these classes. 2. Companies, designers and the media cater to athletes and entertainers, giving them as much free swag as they want, just so their brand names will receive more attention. 3.Athletes and entertainers should make less so that heroes like teachers, military personnel, and rescue workers can make more.
Put it together: make too much Write the sentences from your outline all together into a paragraph. This is only your FIRST body paragraph Add in transitions and/or extra sentences to help your writing flow together.
Position: Athletes and entertainers make the correct amount of money. 3 MAIN reasons why EVIDENCE 1: Work long hours EVIDENCE 2: Travel constantly EVIDENCE 3: No personal privacy
Development: Get paid correct amount MAIN REASON/ EVIDENCE 1: work long hours How do I know this? Support A: Conditioning Support B: Practices Support C: Games/concerts then autographs, appearances, etc.
Details SUPPORT A: Conditioning What examples can I give to back up that conditioning takes a long time? Which don’t belong? Which can be combined? Example 1: Ray Rice posted on Facebook that he had to get ready for his post-season workout. Example 2: This indicates that athletes train all year long. Example 3: Similarly, NOJH football players are currently conditioning for fall football season, and it’s only February. Example 4: Movie stars work out, have personal trainers, acting coaches, etc. Example 5: Singers take voice lessons, dance classes, work out, and follow strict diets.
Put it together: The first reason athletes and entertainers deserve the amount of money they make is because they work long hours. For example, athletes must train for their sport year round; this is called conditioning. Entertainers also must exercise daily to meet rigorous physical requirements set by the entertainment industry. Ray Rice, a running back for the Baltimore Ravens frequently posts on Facebook about his post-season workout, meaning that even though his season is over, he must still work out every day to maintain peak performance status. Similarly, movie stars have ridiculous work out routines to maintain their rock hard abdominals that are featured on the big screen. Just look at Taylor Lautner. His muscular definition could not be maintained if he did not work out every day. Finally, singers and actors take classes to improve their craft. In Michael Shurtluff’s book, Audition, a famous casting director tells his readers that entertainers must continue to take classes and improve if they want to continue to work. Celebrities are cast based upon their talent, not their status, so they must work hard to stay on top. For these reasons, athletes and entertainers deserve large sums of money equivalent to the amount of time they spend working.
CONTENT Develop only one idea. Be coherent. This makes your paragraph easy to understand. Focus on the main idea. Elaborate and develop your topic sentence. This means that the topic should be explained in detail. Add explanations, details and examples to the supporting sentences.
STRUCTURE Make sure your paragraph has: One topic sentence. As many supporting sentences as you need. A concluding sentence.
FORM Make sure your paragraph: Has a five-space indentation. There are no lines or blank spaces in between sentences. And that you: Write clear and simple sentences (S+V+C) Check your spelling and grammar.