3 What is Addiction? Defined by tolerance, withdrawal, & compulsion Involves a person's heightened and habituated need for a substance (or engagement in a particular behavior)It causes discomfort or suffering that results from discontinuation of its useAddicted individuals will sacrifice things and people they value (to the point of self-destruction) for their addiction.
4 Drug AddictionDrug addiction is conceptualized as a chronic relapsing syndrome that moves from an impulse control disorder involving positive reinforcement to a compulsive disorder involving negative reinforcement
6 Drug Addiction in Context Prevalence of AddictionAddiction Across CulturesHeredity Influences in AddictionEnvironmentalDrug use is a learned coping strategy in response to past learning and current life eventsDiathesis/Stress ModelGenetic predisposition combined with environmental factors
7 Causes of Addiction: Personality-Heredity Particular personality traits predispose one to addictionSensation seekingThe seeking of novel experiences and sensationsImpulsivityAn inability to delay gratificationThe preference of immediate small rewards over large, but more delayed rewardsDecision-making without consideration of potential negative consequences
8 Support for Personality Theory of Drug Abuse Why is this relevant?If we can identify factors that place individuals at an increased risk for drug use/abuse, then we may be able to target these groups for preventionTreatment based on this theory has yet to be developed in spite of evidence from research
9 Causes of Addiction: Environmental BehavioralClassical Conditioning: Stimuli related to the addictive behavior become paired with the behaviorFurther contact produces conditioned responseOperant Conditioning: Past addictive behavior produced positive consequencesFuture use in presence of discriminative stimuliAddictive behavior is more rewarding than alternativesExpectancy TheoryFrom past experience with substances, one develops an expectancy about what the substance can do for themSelf-medication hypothesis
10 Support for Environmental Explanations of Addiction Untreated Heroin recovery (Robins, 1975)Research on 451 Vietnam veterans who had been addicted to narcotics in during the warOnly 14 percent became re-addicted after their returnEnvironmental cues for addiction no longer activeHeroin overdoseIn the presence of heroin cues, body has compensatory reaction (Falk, 1983)If drug taken out of typical environment, body does not prepare for drug that comesIf no drug taken in typical environment, body prepares for drug that never comes
11 Causes of Addiction: Diathesis/Stress Model Certain people, due to a variety of biologically-based factors (genetics, neurocognitive functioning, stress response), may be predisposed (diathesis) to developing an addiction to something, be it alcohol, heroin, gambling, sex, shopping, or on-line computer services. They could go through their entire lives never developing any kind of addiction. On the other hand, if the right stressor, or combination of stressors, affects the person at a critical time, the person may be more inclined to develop an addiction.
12 Tracing the Neurobiological Roots of Addiction Neural Circuits Involved in Establishing AddictionRole of the nucleus accumbensRole of the orbitofrontal cortex