2Use and misuse of language (“voluntary”) Chapter 6Animals believe all the hard work is for their benefit.“Voluntary” Sunday-work –only half food ration.Harvest not as good.Windmill difficultiesBoxer: “I will work harder”Trade with neighbouring farms.Former rules against trade, contact with humans –dogs silence protests.Pigs move into farmhouse and sleep in beds.“No animal shall sleep in a bed WITH SHEETS.”Half-built windmill blown down during a storm – Snowball’s fault…THEME:Use and misuse of language (“voluntary”)
3Misuse of the media: Squealer is a “spin doctor” Scapegoat = SNOWBALLPrevents them from comparing conditions with what they had beforeKeep masses busy with work and celebrations.Typical strategy of a dictator is to change history and people’s memories of the past to suite his needs.
4Napoleon’s building of the windmill Stalin’s Five-year Plan for Communist Russia
5Chapter 7 Rebuilding of the windmill. Boxer’s determination. Food shortages – N uses tricks so that the outsiders don’t know what is going on.N stays in farmhouse – orders through Squealer.Eggs and strikeBlame SB“If comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right.”N awarded himself “Animal Hero” medals.Traitors killed“Beasts of England” banned
6What do these events reveal about Napoleon’s true character? He deceives the humans as well as the animals.He exercises control over the hens.He savagely puts down any opposition.He ensures the animals’ loyalty by instilling fear.He revises the past.He makes the animals feel guilty if they criticise the running of the farm.He uses Snowball as a constant threat.
7Physical details about Clover She protects the ducklings during Old Major’s speech.She is a “motherly mare” who, like Boxer, is a firm supporter of Animalism.Lacks Boxer’s physical strength but nevertheless does her full share.Together with Boxer harnessed herself to the cutter.FIND QUOTES OR EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THESE STATEMENTS.
8Clear signs of Clover’s character Notices signs of Mollie’s defection – courage to confront her.Show concern for Boxer when he overworks himself.Feels unease at the way the pigs disregard and break the Seven Commandments.
9“her eyes filled with tears…” Clover displays some insight.Realises ideals of animalism have not been fulfilled.Equality and freedom have been replaced by fear and cruelty.In spite of her sadness and disappointment, she remains faithful to animalism.Still believes that what the animals have is better than being slaves to humans.
10HONESTY, DECENCY AND GOODNESS ARE OFTEN EXPLOITED BY THOSE IN POWER CLOVER is a symbol of a believer who remains faithful in spite of doubts.HONESTY, DECENCY AND GOODNESS ARE OFTEN EXPLOITED BY THOSE IN POWER
11The Confessions and the Killings Reasons why the animals confess to crimes they did not commit.The hope that they might receive mercy from Napoleon.A general feeling of guilt about the accusations.The possibility that they might have been brainwashed.A kind of paranoia (a sort of mass madness). Look at the trivial things that the animals confess to – stealing corn and chasing the ram.A feeling of helplessness produced by the horrible nature of what is happening.
12This incident has its parallel in the Russia that Orwell satirises Stalin killed millions of people during his reign.The dissidents (those that disagreed with him) were killed, exiled or deprived of any power or possible say.Others who disagreed were too scared to speak out.Others were also fooled by State propaganda.