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Mechanics Professor Edward M Winter Welcome to today’s Webinar Edward M Winter BEd MSc PhD DSc FBASES FafPE Professor of the Physiology of Exercise Terms.

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Presentation on theme: "Mechanics Professor Edward M Winter Welcome to today’s Webinar Edward M Winter BEd MSc PhD DSc FBASES FafPE Professor of the Physiology of Exercise Terms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mechanics Professor Edward M Winter Welcome to today’s Webinar Edward M Winter BEd MSc PhD DSc FBASES FafPE Professor of the Physiology of Exercise Terms and Nomenclature to Describe Exercise

2 Mechanics Professor Edward M Winter About today’s webinar Today’s webinar is part of a series being produced jointly by the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) and Human Kinetics. It scheduled to last for about an hour and will be recorded and made available for download and playback. You will automatically receive an containing a link to the recording when it is available. All microphones and phone lines are muted so we ask that you submit questions by typing them into the question box, located in the lower right-hand corner of your screen and click “send.” We’ll collect any questions sent throughout the presentation and Edward will answer as many as possible during a Q&A segment at the end of the session.

3 Mechanics Professor Edward M Winter About today’s speaker Professor Winter was a founder member of BASES, co- designer of the Association's accreditation scheme and until recently, was accredited both for research and scientific support in physiology. He has authored more than 200 publications, been involved in the review of more than 2000 manuscripts and abstracts for all of the major journals in sport and exercise, has extensive experience of supervising and examining DSc, PhD, MPhil and MSc-by-research candidates and still plays county-standard squash. He is resolute in his determination to ensure that sport and exercise science upholds the principles and practices of science.

4 Sport and Exercise Science  The scientific study of factors that influence our ability to perform exercise  Quantify the ability to perform exercise  Correctly apply mechanical constructs  Frequently this does not occur  In spite of Newton and the laws of physics  In spite of the SI

5 Classical mechanics

6 Definitions of Exercise  Repetitive, purposeful movement  Fails the first characteristic of science i.e. observation  In sport, movement can be deprecated  In activities of daily living, isometric muscle actions occur deliberately and purposely

7 Definition of Exercise  A potential disruption to homeostasis by muscle activity that is either exclusively or in combination, concentric, isometric or eccentric.

8 Function of Muscle  Muscle contracts  No it doesn't!

9 Function of Muscle  Muscle contracts  No it doesn't!  Muscle activity

10 Function of Muscle  Irrespective of the type (skeletal, cardiac or smooth):  The function of muscle is to exert force  It does so by attempting to shorten  Hence, concentric, isometric or eccentric activity/actions

11 Concerns u Adamson and Whitney (1971) u Knuttgen (1978) u Winter u Winter and Fowler (2009) u Knudson (2009)

12 Concerns u Force u Work u Velocity u Power u Efficiency u Work-energy and impulse-momentum approaches

13 Concerns: mass and weight u Mass: amount of matter (kg) u Weight: the force that that mass exerts under prevailing gravity (N)

14 Concerns: velocity and speed u Velocity: a vector (implies magnitude and direction) u Speed: a scalar quantity (only magnitude)

15 Concerns: work  Mechanical work is done when a force moves its point of application such that some resolved part of the displacement lies along the line of action of that force u Force (N) x distance (m) u Nm: joules (J) u Workload (abomination) u Isometric muscle activity...

16 Concerns: power u The rate of doing work u Not the product of force and velocity u Not "work rate" (colloquial) u Unit: watt (W) u James Watt ( ) u Horsepower (1782) u 33,000 (32,572) ft.lb/min u 550 ft.lb/s u W

17 Concerns: power

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19 Concerns: work-energy or impulse-momentum?  Newton II  Changes in momentum u Projectiles u Impulse (Ft) u Endurance u Total energy i.e. sum of translational and rotational kinetic energies, potential energy, heat, acoustic...

20 How hard is someone exercising? u Intensity u All forms of activity (m, s, N, Nm, m·s -1, W) u Physiological responses to imposed demands (%) u Exercise performed (%)

21 Domains of Intensity u Moderate, heavy, very heavy, severe and extreme u Based on physiological responses to imposed demands

22 Critical power u 50 years old u A limit of tolerance to exercise u Isometric muscle activity... u Running, swimming etc.... u Velocity and speed u Cycling - internal and external components...

23 Sport and Exercise Science u The term "critical power" has at best limited application and should be abandoned u The term "critical intensity" applies to all forms of exercise, adheres to principles of classical mechanics, the SI and hence principles of science and should be used instead

24 Mechanics Professor Edward M Winter Any Questions? We have received quite a number of questions and we will try and answer as many as possible in the time remaining. I’ll keep the Q & A session going as long as is practical and we still have an audience to address. Any that remain unanswered will be forwarded to Edward and he’ll try and you a reply in due course.

25 Mechanics Professor Edward M Winter Thanks Thank you to everyone for joining us today and thanks also to Professor Winter for what I’m sure you will agree was a great presentation. Please take a few moments when your webinar window closes to complete a short survey on today’s webinar – we appreciate your feedback as it helps us continually improve our webinars. We will everyone a link to the recording of today’s presentation, so you can view it yourself or pass it along to friends or colleagues. Thank you again for your participation today and I hope you will join us on Wednesday, 23 rd October at 9.00am, when Vicki Aitken will present “The Playing Attitude: Why we can’t think technically if we want to perform at our best.”. Thanks and enjoy the rest of your day.


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