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Testing, testing…Papers 1, 2, & 3… Paper 1: Communism in Crisis: 1976-1989 – Collapse of the USSR Brezhnev (Doctrine) Gerontocracy: Andropov & Chernenko.

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Presentation on theme: "Testing, testing…Papers 1, 2, & 3… Paper 1: Communism in Crisis: 1976-1989 – Collapse of the USSR Brezhnev (Doctrine) Gerontocracy: Andropov & Chernenko."— Presentation transcript:

1 Testing, testing…Papers 1, 2, & 3… Paper 1: Communism in Crisis: – Collapse of the USSR Brezhnev (Doctrine) Gerontocracy: Andropov & Chernenko Gorbachev: Glasnost, Perestroika, Democratization – Independence Movements in Eastern Europe Polish Solidarity Czechoslovakia: Velvet Revolution Berlin/German re-unification – Restructuring of the PRC Struggle for power after Mao Deng = economic (Four Modernizations) Deng = political (5 th Modernization? & Tiananmen) Paper 1: Communism in Crisis: – Collapse of the USSR Brezhnev (Doctrine) Gerontocracy: Andropov & Chernenko Gorbachev: Glasnost, Perestroika, Democratization – Independence Movements in Eastern Europe Polish Solidarity Czechoslovakia: Velvet Revolution Berlin/German re-unification – Restructuring of the PRC Struggle for power after Mao Deng = economic (Four Modernizations) Deng = political (5 th Modernization? & Tiananmen) Paper 2: 2/6 Topics, 1 essay per topic, 5 choices per topic – Topic 3: SPS Origins, Establishment, Impact Single leader OR C/C Successes/Failures – Topic 5: Cold War Origins Nature Development Conflicting aims & policies End Paper 3: 3/24 Essays – Independence Movements – Civil War – Great Depression – Civil Rights Paper 2: 2/6 Topics, 1 essay per topic, 5 choices per topic – Topic 3: SPS Origins, Establishment, Impact Single leader OR C/C Successes/Failures – Topic 5: Cold War Origins Nature Development Conflicting aims & policies End Paper 3: 3/24 Essays – Independence Movements – Civil War – Great Depression – Civil Rights

2 Single Party State Themes: Theme 1: Origins and nature of authoritarian and single- party states Theme 2: Establishment of authoritarian and single party states Theme 3: Domestic policies and impact  Conditions that produced authoritarian and single- party states  Totalitarianism: the aim and the extent to which it was achieved  Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support  Methods: force, legal  Form of government, (left-and right-wing) ideology  Nature, extent and treatment of opposition  Structure and organization of government and administration  Political, economic, social and religious policies  Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda  Statues of women, treatment of religious groups and minorities

3 Topic 3: SPS:‍ Theme 1: Origins and nature of authoritarian and single-party states  Conditions that produced authoritarian and single-party states  Totalitarianism: the aim and the extent to which it was achieved  Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support

4 Topic 3: SPS:‍ Theme 1: Origins and nature of authoritarian and single-party states  Conditions that produced authoritarian and single-party states  Totalitarianism: the aim and the extent to which it was achieved  Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support

5 Topic 3: SPS: Theme 2: Establishment of authoritarian and single party states  Methods: force, legal  Form of government, (left-and right-wing) ideology  Nature, extent and treatment of opposition

6 Topic 3: SPS: Theme 2: Establishment of authoritarian and single party states  Methods: force, legal  Form of government, (left-and right-wing) ideology  Nature, extent and treatment of opposition

7 Topic 3: SPS: Theme 3: Domestic policies and impact  Structure and organization of government and administration  Political, economic, social and religious policies  Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda  Statues of women, treatment of religious groups and minorities

8 Rise to Power

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10 Maintenance of Power & Domestic Policies

11 Global Impact & Foreign Policies

12 2013 To what extent did two single-party rulers, each chosen from a different region, fulfill the promises made during their rise to power? By what methods, and with what success, did one single-party leader try to eliminate domestic opposition? Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of Perón and Castro. Assess the importance of each of the following in the rise to power of Stalin: errors made by rivals; the use of propaganda; popular support. With reference to either Hitler or Mao, examine the reasons for, and results of, educational policies in the single-party state. Analyse the impact of single-party rule upon minorities in two single- party states, each chosen from a different region.

13 Paper 2: Topic 5: The Cold War Origins of Cold War – Ideological differences; Mutual suspicion and fear; From wartime allies to post-war enemies Nature of the Cold War – Ideological opposition; Superpowers and spheres of influence; Alliances and diplomacy in the Cold War Development and Impact of the Cold War – Global spread of the Cold War from its European origins; Cold War policies of containment, brinkmanship, peaceful coexistence, détente; Role of the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement; Role and significance of leaders; Arms race, proliferation and limitation; Social, cultural and economic impact Examine the conflicting aims and policies of rival powers – The Struggle for Europe – USSR, Germany/Berlin, Eastern Europe; Globalization of the Cold War – Asia, Latin America, Middle East; Competition and Co-Existence End of the Cold War – Break-up of Soviet Union: internal problems and external pressures; Breakdown of Soviet control over Central and Eastern Europe

14 1940s1950s1960s1970s1980s -WWII Conferences/Big 3 -Truman Doctrine -Marshall Plan -George Keenan/ Long Telegram -Berlin Blockade/Airlift -NATO -Mao & PRC -Tito & Yugoslavia -NSC-68 -Korean war -Fall of Dien Bien Phu -SEATO -Warsaw Pact -Secret Speech -Nasser, Egypt, Aswan, Suez -Hungarian uprising -Eisenhower Doctrine -Berlin Wall -Non-Aligned Movement -U2 Crisis -Cuban Revolution (Castro) -Bay of Pigs Invasion -Cuban Missile Crisis -Kennedy Doctrine -Six Day War -Brezhnev Doctrine -Prague Spring -Nixon Doctrine / Vietnamization -Detente -Yom Kippur War -Camp David Accords -Fall of Saigon -Deng Xiaoping, Four Modernizations -Iranian Revolution -Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan -Solidarity in Poland -Carter Doctrine -Gorbachev: Perestroika, Glasnost, Democratization, Sinatra Doctrine -Independence Movements in Eastern Europe -Fall of the Berlin Wall -Tiananmen Square -Yeltsin & Fall of USSR

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17 Examples of what to know Key dates:US Presidents:SPS Leaders: : WWII --Wartime conferences = : Origins of the Cold War : Korean War 1956: Suez Canal Crisis 1959: Cuban Rev, 1961: Bay of Pigs, 1963: Cuban Missile Crisis 1979: Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1980s: Solidarity 1989: Independence movements in E. Europe 1991: Collapse of USSR Roosevelt: Truman: 1945 – 1953 Eisenhower: 1953 – 1961 Kennedy: …LBJ…domestic…Great Society… for paper 3 Nixon: Carter: Reagan: *Know FOREIGN & DOMESTIC policies for Paper 3 Stalin: 1924 – Khrushchev: 1953 – Brezhnev: 1964 – Andropov/Chernenko ---Gorbachev: Mao: 1949 – Deng Xiaoping: 1980s Nasser: 1956 – 1970 Castro: 1959 – 2008

18 2011: “The Potsdam Conference marked the end of the wartime alliance and laid the foundations for post-war hostility.” With reference to the period up to 1949, to what extent do you agree with this statement? With reference to two countries, each chosen from a different region (excluding the US or the USSR), assess the social and economic impact of the Cold War. In what ways, and with what success, did the US and the USSR attempt to reduce Cold War tensions between 1956 and 1979? For what reasons, and with what results, did the Cold War affect the Middle East between 1956 and 1979? Compare and contrast the impact of two of the following leaders on the Cold War: Mao; Castro; Kennedy. To what extent did (a) ideological and (b) economic factors contribute to the ending of the Cold War? 2012: Assess the role of Truman and Stalin in the origins and development of the Cold War. “The sovietization of Eastern and Central Europe after the Second World War was undertaken as a defensive measure by the Soviet Union.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? Analyse the reasons for, and consequences of, the breakdown of Sino–Soviet relations in the 1950s and 1960s. Assess the economic and social impact of superpower involvement in one of the following: Cuba (after 1959); Congo (after 1960); Afghanistan (after 1979). In what ways, and with what significance, did either Kennedy or Reagan influence the development of the Cold War? For what reasons, and in what ways, did Cold War tensions hinder the work of the United Nations?

19 2013 “Post-war enmity was the product of longer term ideological differences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement on the origins of the Cold War up to 1949? For what reasons, and with what success, did the United States adopt a policy of containment between 1947 and 1962? Account for the change in Sino–Soviet relations after the death of Stalin in Assess the contribution of one of the following to the development of Cold War tensions: Truman; Mao; Castro. Analyse the reasons for, and results of, Soviet involvement in the war in Afghanistan (1979–1988). With reference to two states, each chosen from a different region, examine the cultural impact of the Cold War.

20 Assess the role of Truman and Stalin in the origins and development of the Cold War. (2012) Compare and contrast the impact of two of the following leaders on the Cold War: Mao; Castro; Kennedy. (2011) “The sovietization of Eastern and Central Europe after the Second World War was undertaken as a defensive measure by the Soviet Union.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? (2012) Assess the contribution of one of the following to the development of Cold War tensions: Truman; Mao; Castro. (2013)

21 Analyse the responsibility of the USA and the USSR for the outbreak and development of the Cold War, up to (2006) For what reasons, and with what success, did the United States adopt a policy of containment between 1947 and 1962? (2013) "Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous development." To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (2003) Analyse the nature of the Cold War and explain why, in spite of serious crises, it did not turn into a Third World War. (2003) Analyse the factors which led to the ending of the Cold War. (2005) To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War? (2007) When and why did the Cold War end? (2008)

22 Assess the role of Truman and Stalin in the origins and development of the Cold War. (2012) Compare and contrast the impact of two of the following leaders on the Cold War: Mao; Castro; Kennedy. (2011) “The sovietization of Eastern and Central Europe after the Second World War was undertaken as a defensive measure by the Soviet Union.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? (2012) Truman: WWII, Conferences (FDR)(Potsdam), Atomic bomb, Truman doctrine, Marshall Plan, containment, NATO Stalin: WWII, Conferences (Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam), E. Europe, Communist bloc/ satellite states, Poland, SSRs,  Germany (Berlin crisis: blockade, airlift)  Korean war  Arms race, defense… Kennedy / Castro: Kennedy: (IKE legacy), doctrine, role in LA, role in Cold War… Castro: Rise to power (SPS): Anti-Batista, July 26 th Revolutionary movement  Sierra Maestra rebels, NATIONALIZES  US embargo **Bay of Pigs invasion **Cuban Missile Crisis: Historiography (Missiles removed from Cuba & Turkey) Impact on the Cold War  Détente (cost of MAD) Assess the contribution of one of the following to the development of Cold War tensions: Truman; Mao; Castro. (2013)

23 Assess the role of Truman and Stalin in the origins and development of the Cold War. (2012) Compare and contrast the impact of two of the following leaders on the Cold War: Mao; Castro; Kennedy. (2011) “The sovietization of Eastern and Central Europe after the Second World War was undertaken as a defensive measure by the Soviet Union.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? (2012) Conferences Atomic Bomb *Truman  Long telegram  containment Truman doctrine Marshall Plan *Stalin  costs of WWII, Poland, E Europe, BERLIN!!!!, Korea Castro & Kennedy Assess the contribution of one of the following to the development of Cold War tensions: Truman; Mao; Castro. (2013)

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25 Analyse the responsibility of the USA and the USSR for the outbreak and development of the Cold War, up to (2006) For what reasons, and with what success, did the United States adopt a policy of containment between 1947 and 1962? (2013) "Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous development." To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (2003) Analyse the nature of the Cold War and explain why, in spite of serious crises, it did not turn into a Third World War. (2003) Analyse the factors which led to the ending of the Cold War. (2005) To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War? (2007) When and why did the Cold War end? (2008) Up to 49  before Korean War :  Regionally vs. chrono  Europe: Cold War origins, Germany, E. Europe  Asia: Korea  LA: Cuba / MidEast: Egypt Began in Europe (dangers):  End of WWII, Big 3, Conferences (Y/P), Poland, Germany 1948 (block / air), NATO, Warsaw, Containment, Truman doctrine, Marshall Plan, E. bloc, SSRs, Iron curtain… Spread to other regions (dangers):  : Korean war, 1960s Castro, Bay of Pigs, Cuban missile crisis, Vietnam, domino theory, middle east (Egypt), LA, 1979: Afghanistan Which more dangerous?  Agree/disagree  Depends on POV…Historiography Why no WWIII?  Atomic bomb, MAD, arms race, détente, SALT, START, SDI…

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27 Analyse the responsibility of the USA and the USSR for the outbreak and development of the Cold War, up to (2006) For what reasons, and with what success, did the United States adopt a policy of containment between 1947 and 1962? (2013) "Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous development." To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (2003) Analyse the nature of the Cold War and explain why, in spite of serious crises, it did not turn into a Third World War. (2003) Analyse the factors which led to the ending of the Cold War. (2005) To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War? (2007) When and why did the Cold War end? (2008) P-E-S…Regional….Chrono… 1970s: MAD  Détente (bombs = $$) -1979: Afghan war (USSR) 1980s:Perestroika & Glasnost -E. European movements for independence  Poland (Lech Walesa, Solidarity), Czechoslovakia (Velvet Rev), Baltic revs… 1989: Fall of Berlin Wall 1991: USSR falls, German reunification

28 Independence MovementsCivil war Great Depression Independence movements: This section focuses on the various forces that contributed to the rise of the independence movements, the similar and different paths that the movements followed and the immediate effects of independence in the region. It explores the political, intellectual and military contributions of their leaders and the sometimes contradictory views that shaped the emergence of the new nations. Independence movements in the Americas: political, economic, social, intellectual and religious causes; the role of foreign intervention; conflicts and issues leading to war Political and intellectual contributions of leaders to the process of independence: Washington, Bolivar (suitable 4 choices could be Adams, Jefferson, San Martín, O’Higgins) United States Declaration of Independence; processes leading to the declaration; influence of ideas; nature of the declaration; military campaigns and their impact on the outcome (suitable examples could be Saratoga and Yorktown) Independence movements in Latin America: characteristics of the independence processes; reasons for the similarities and/or differences in two countries in the region; military campaigns and their impact on the outcome (suitable examples could be Chacabuco, Maipú, Ayacucho, Boyacá and Carabobo) United States’ position towards Latin American independence; events and reasons for the emergence of the Monroe Doctrine Impact of independence on the economies and societies of the Americas: economic and social issues; new perspectives on economic development; impact on different social groups: Native Americans, African Americans, Creoles -Which social and economic groups gained and which lost from the United States Civil War? 95. How successful was Reconstruction following the American Civil War? -How important were the abolitionists in the coming of the American Civil War? 97. What were the political causes and results of the US Civil War? -“Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while Lincoln believed that secession was a rejection of democracy.” Explain and justify these opposing beliefs. -To what extent was President Lincoln more interested in preserving the Union than emancipating the slaves? -“Southern leaders risked civil war because they underestimated the North’s strength and overestimated the South’s power.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? -How and why did the antislavery movement in the United States change during the course of the nineteenth century? -‘It was the result of tensions between two different ways of life’. ‘The war was caused by unnecessary fanatical agitation’. Which of these explanations for the outbreak of the Civil War in the United States do you consider to be the most appropriate and why? -To what extent, and for what reasons, did the election of Abraham Lincoln contribute to the onset of the Civil War in the United States? -Why did the North win the Civil War in the United States? -Why the United States Civil War break out in 1861? -Analyse the immediate and long-term political effects of the United States Civil War in the period 1865 to Assess the relative strengths of the North and the South at the beginning of the United States Civil War in Why, in spite of the advantages of the North over the South, did the Civil War in the United States last so long? -Why was compromise no longer possible between the North and the South in the United States by 1860? 1.) To what extent was the Wall Street Crash a cause of the Great Depression of 1929? Support your argument with specific examples from one country of the region. May ) Analyse the causes of the great depression in one country in the Americas. May ) Explain how one country of the region changed its policy on the role the government should play in the economy as a result of the Great Depression. Nov ) With reference to one country of the region, analyse the causes of the Great Depression and assess the political impact of the Great Depression on that country. May ) “The Great Depression changed governments’ views of their role and responsibility.” Assess the validity of this statement with examples taken from two countries of the region. Nov ) How, and with what success, did the government of any one country in the Americas try to solve the problems caused by the Great Depression? May ) Analyse the political and economic changes caused by the Depression to one country of the region. Nov ) How successful were government programmes in solving problems caused by the Great Depression, in two countries of the region? May ) Assess the impact of the Great Depression on the society of any one country of the region. Provide specific example to support your answer. May 2002

29 Civil Rights Political developments in the Americas after the Second World War 1945 ‑ 79: COLD WAR -Analyse the successes and failures of the United States’ Civil Rights movement between 1954 and In what ways, and for what reasons, did the African American struggle for civil rights in the United States change between the early and late 1960s? -Evaluate the impact of Black Power on the civil rights movement in the United States during the second half of the 1960s. - In what ways, and for what reasons, did the civil rights movement in the United States make significant progress in the period 1950 to 1964? -Explain why and how the Civil Rights movement became more radical as the 1960s progressed. -Compare and contrast the impact of the African American civil rights movement in the United States on other civil rights movements in one country of the region. -To what extent had African Americans in the United States gained their civil and political rights by 1968? -Describe the origins and achievements of a Native American movement in one country of the region after Contrast the roles and policies of Dr Martin Luther King and Malcolm X in the development of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. -With reference to two countries of the region, to what extent did the civil rights of Native Americans change from the 1960s to the 1980s? -Why was the African American Civil Rights Movement in the United States more effective in the years 1954 to 1964 than in the late 1960s? This section focuses on domestic concerns and political developments after The majority of states in the Americas experienced social, economic and political changes and challenges. Political responses to these forces varied from country to country: from the continuation of democracy to multi-class “populist” alliances to outright conflict, revolution and the establishment of authoritarian regimes in the 1960s and 1970s. Areas of study include: conditions for the rise to power of new leaders; economic and social policies; treatment of minorities. Note: Vargas and Cárdenas came to power before 1945 but their rule and influence in their respective states continued after United States: domestic policies of Truman, Eisenhower and Kennedy Johnson and “the Great Society”; Nixon’s domestic reforms Canada: domestic policies from Diefenbaker to Clark and Trudeau (both were prime ministers in 1979) Causes and effects of the Silent (or Quiet) Revolution Populist leaders in Latin America: rise to power; characteristics of populist regimes; social, economic and political policies; the treatment of opposition; successes and failures (suitable examples could be Perón, Vargas or any relevant Latin American leader) The Cuban Revolution: political, social, economic causes; impact on the region Rule of Fidel Castro: political, economic, social and cultural policies; treatment of minorities; successes and failures Military regimes in Latin America: rationale for intervention; challenges; policies; successes and failures 1.) How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin America or Canada between ? May ) Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Eisenhower ( ) or Kennedy ( ). May ) In what ways, and to what extent, did the foreign policy of Ronald reason ( ) affect the Cold War? May ) How did the Cold War change relations between the U.S. and either Latin America or Canada between ? Nov ) In what ways, and with what results, did the Cold War influence relations between either Latin America or Canada with the United States in the period ? May ) Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of two of the following U.S. president: Harry S. Truman ( ); Dwight D. Eisenhower ( ); Ronald Reagan ( ). May ) Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of either Harry S. Truman ( ) or Richard Nixon ( ). May ) Analyse the short-term and longer-term consequences for Cuba between 1959 and 1995 of Castro’s rule? May ) How did the Cold War change relations between the United States and either Latin America or Canada between ? Nov ) Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of Truman and Eisenhower. May 2002


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