2The Body as a Whole… Your body is busy working 24/7 Blood is pumped through vessels by your heart…Air is pushed in and out of your body by your lungs…
3The Body as a Whole…Your intestines are giving off chemicals that break food down…Nerves are sending out signals from your brain to all parts of your body
4The Body as a Whole…Chemical messengers are regulating all kinds of processesThese activities may seem quite different- and in many ways they are, but…
5The Body as a Whole…They all have the same purpose: to delicately control the body’s internal environment.The human body’s internal environment must remain stable, or constant, even during extreme changes in its environment or activities of the body.
6The Body as a Whole… Homeostasis – stable internal environment. AKA the process by which the body’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.
7Levels of Organization…Cells Cells: the basic unit of structure and function of all living things.
8Levels of Organization…Cells Each cell of your body has its own job.For example:Absorbing cellsCells lining the small intestine absorb digested food and transport it to the bloodstream which delivers it to all parts of the body
9Levels of Organization…Cells More examples:Assembly cellsThese cells are responsible for putting together important chemical substances. For example, the pancreas contains a variety of assembly cells. Some produce enzymes and some produce hormones.Enzyme=chemicals that help break food down into simpler substancesHormones=chemical messengers that help to regulate certain activities of the body
10Levels of Organization…Cells More examples:Cells for movementFor example, muscle cellsThese cells are unlike any other cells in your bodyThey have the ability to contract, or shortenThis causes movement
11Levels of Organization…Tissue Tissues: a group of similar cells that perform the same functionThere are 4 basic types of tissue in the human bodyMuscleConnectiveNerveepithelial
12Levels of Organization…Tissue Muscle tissueThe only kind of tissue in the body that has the ability to contract, or shorten
13Levels of Organization…Tissue Types of muscle tissue:One type causes your body to move by pulling on bones when it contractsAnother type lines the walls of structures inside your body and moves food from your mouth to your stomachA third type is found only in your heart, and enables the heart to contract to pump blood
14Levels of Organization…Tissue Connective tissueProvides support for your body and connects all of its partsBone- provides structure and supportBlood- carries food and oxygen to all cells of the body
15Levels of Organization…Tissue And fat- keeps the body warm, cushions internal structures from the shock of sudden blows, and also stores food
16Levels of Organization…Tissue Nerve tissueCarries messages back and forth between your brain, spinal cord, and every other part of your bodyNerve messages can travel at speeds of up to 100 meters per sec
17Levels of Organization…Tissue Epithelial tissueForms a protective surface on the outside of your bodyOne kind makes up your skinAnother kind lines the cavities, or hollow spaces of the mouth, throat, ears, stomach and other body parts
18Levels of Organization… Organs Organs – different types of tissues combine to form organsAn organ is a group of different tissues with a specific jobFor example: heart, stomach, brain, eye, skin, tongue
19Levels of Organization…Organ Systems Organ system – a group of organs that work together to perform a specific jobEach system performs a special function for the body, yet no one system acts aloneThere are eleven organ systems of the human body
20Human Body Organ Systems System FunctionSkeletal Protects, supports, allowsmovement, produces bloodcells, and stores mineralsMuscular Allows body movement andmaintains posture
21Human Body Organ Systems System FunctionDigestive Breaks down food andabsorbs nutrientsCirculatory Transports nutrients, wastes,and other materials and playsa role in the immuneresponse
22Human Body Organ Systems System FunctionRespiratory Exchanges oxygen andcarbon dioxide betweenblood and airExcretory Removes solid and liquidwastes
23Human Body Organ Systems System FunctionNervous Detects sensation andcontrols most functionsEndocrine Plays a part in the regulationof metabolism, reproduction,and many other functions
24Human Body Organ Systems System FunctionReproductive Performs reproduction andcontrols male and femalefunctions and behaviorsImmune Controls the immuneresponse and fights disease
25Human Body Organ Systems System FunctionIntegumentary Protects, regulates(skin) temperature, prevents waterloss
26Human Biology Review List the levels of organization in humans. What are the four basic types of human tissue?List the organ systems of the human body.Using any type of machine as an example, explain how each part of the machine works together with every other part so that the machine can do its job. Compare this with the way the systems of the body work together.
27Levels of Organization Review The body as a wholeThe process by which the body’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment is called homeostasis.Humans, like all living things, need energy to do work.
28Human Biology Review Levels of Organization The levels of organization in a multicellular living thing include cells, tissues, organs, and organ systemsCells come in all shapes and sizes. Regardless of its job or shape, a cell works in harmony to keep the body aliveCells are the building blocks of living things
29Human Biology Review Levels of Organization, continued A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform the same functionThere are four types of tissues in the human body: muscle, connective, nerve, epithelialMuscle tissue has the ability to contract, or shorten, allowing one type of muscle tissue to make the body move.
30Human Biology Review Levels of Organization, continued Another type of muscle tissue lines walls of internal structures of the bodyA third type of muscle tissue enables the heart to contractConnective tissue provides support for the body and connects its partsNerve tissue carries messages back and forth between the brain and spinal cord and every other part of the body
31Human Biology Review Levels of Organization, continued Epithelial tissue forms a protective surface on the outside of the body and lines its internal cavitiesAn organ is a group of tissues with a specific functionAn organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform a specific job