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Chapter Six: Relationships II In Chapter 5, you learned how authors use transitions and patterns of organization to show relationships and make their ideas.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Six: Relationships II In Chapter 5, you learned how authors use transitions and patterns of organization to show relationships and make their ideas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Six: Relationships II In Chapter 5, you learned how authors use transitions and patterns of organization to show relationships and make their ideas clear. You also learned about two common types of relationships: Relationships that involve addition Relationships that involve time In this chapter, you will learn about three other types of relationships: Relationships that involve illustration Relationships that involve comparison and contrast Relationships that involve cause and effect

2 Words That Show Illustration Look at the following items. Which one is easier to read and understand? 1. I’ve become very absent-minded. Last week I went to work on my day off. 2. I’ve become very absent-minded. Last week, for instance, I went to work on my day off.

3 The second item is easier to understand. The words for instance make it clear that what happened on that day off is just one example of the absent-mindedness. For instance and other words and phrases like it are illustration words.

4 Illustration words signal that an author is providing one or more examples to develop and clarify an idea. In the cartoon above, the husband gives examples of what, to him, are deep emotions. Here are some common words that introduce examples: (for) exampleincluding(as an) illustration one (for) instancespecificallyto illustrate once such asto be specific © 2003 by Randy Glasbergen.

5 Once again, find the item that is easier to read and understand: 1. Driving a car is a skill that we learn through practice. Writing a paper is a skill that we learn through hands-on experience. 2. Driving a car is a skill that we learn through practice. Similarly, writing a paper is a skill that we learn through hands-on experience. HERMAN: © Jim Unger/Dist. By Newspaper Enterprise Association. Inc. Words That Show Comparison

6 The second item is easier to understand. The first item makes us wonder, “What does learning to drive a car have to do with writing a paper?” The word similarly makes it clear that the author intends to compare learning to write a paper with learning to drive a car. Similarly and words like it are comparison words.

7 Comparison words signal similarities. They show that a second idea is like the first one in some way. In the cartoon above, the word resemble helps show a comparison is being made. Here are some common words that show comparison: Comparison words signal similarities. They show that a second idea is like the first one in some way. In the cartoon above, the word resemble helps show a comparison is being made. Here are some common words that show comparison: (just) aslikewisein a similar manner (just) likein like mannerin the same way alikesimilarlyresemble DRABBLE: © Kevin Fagan/Dist. by United Feature Syndicate, Inc.

8 Look at the following items. Which one is easier to read and understand? 1. A roller coaster scares many people. They love riding on it. 2. Even though a roller coaster scares many people, they love riding on it. Words That Show Contrast

9 The second item is easier to understand. In the first item, the two sentences seem to contradict each other. We want to ask, “Do people like a roller coaster, or don’t they?” In the second item, the phrase even though makes clear the relationship between the two ideas: In spite of the fact that a roller coaster is scary, people still love riding on it. Even though and other words and phrases like it are contrast words.

10 Contrast words show that things differ in one or more ways. In the cartoon, the speaker is contrasting two ways to die. Here are some common words that show contrast: butinsteadstilleven though yetin contrastas opposed todifferent(ly) howeveron the other handin spite ofdiffers from althoughon the contrarydespiteunlike neverthelessconverse(ly)rather thanwhile

11 Words That Show Cause and Effect Look at the following items. Which one is easier to read and understand? 1. The paint has worn off the wooden siding. Fungus has begun to grow on it. 2. Because the paint has worn off the wooden siding, fungus has begun to grow on it. Look at the following items. Which one is easier to read and understand? 1. The paint has worn off the wooden siding. Fungus has begun to grow on it. 2. Because the paint has worn off the wooden siding, fungus has begun to grow on it.

12 The second item is easier to understand. In the first item, it seems the author is simply listing two things that have happened to the wooden siding. The word because in the second item makes clear the relationship between the two ideas: the protective paint wore off, and, for this reason, the fungus was able to grow. Because and words like it are cause and effect words.

13 Cause and effect words signal that the author is explaining the reason why something happened or the result of something happening. In the cartoon, the applicant is told that the result of interest rates going up or down will, unfortunately for him, be the same: Either way, his mortgage payment will go up! thereforesoresultbecause (of) thusas a resulteffectreason as a consequenceresults incauseexplanation consequentlyleads toif... thenaccordingly due tosinceaffect Here are some common words that show cause and effect: © 2007 by Randy Glasbergen.

14 Chapter Review In this chapter, you learned about three kinds of relationships that authors use to make their ideas clear: ∆ Definitions and examples  To help readers understand the important ideas and terms in a subject, textbook authors often take time to include key definitions (often setting them off in italic or boldface) and examples of those definitions. When reading a textbook, it is usually a good idea to mark off both definitions and examples.  Transition words that signal the definition and example pattern include for example, for instance, to illustrate, and such as. ∆ Comparison and/or contrast  Authors often discuss how two things are alike or how they are different, or both.  Transition words that signal comparisons include alike and similar.  Transition words that signal contrasts include but, however, and in contrast. ∆ Cause and effect  Authors often discuss the reasons why something happens or the effects of something that has happened.  Transition words that signal causes include reason and because.  Transition words that signal effects include therefore, consequently, and as a result. Note that pages 265–272 list and offer practice in all the transitions and patterns of organization you have studied in “Relationships I” and “Relationships II.” The next chapter—Chapter 7—will sharpen your ability to make inferences in reading.


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