让步状语从句 Adverbial Clause of Concession 1 ） though, although, even if/though 引 导 _________, Mr. Wells is scarcely in sympathy with the working class. A) Although he is a socialist B) Even if he is a socialist C) Being a socialist D) Since he is a socialist
2 ） as 引导 Fool ___Jane is, she could not have done such a thing. A. who B. as C. that D. like 作表语用的单数可数名词放句首，前面不加 冠词。 Child as he is, he knows a lot. 动词、现在分词放句首，谓语要补加助动词 do/does, will 等。 Fail as he did, he would never give up.
Try as you may, you will never succeed. as 从句的主语是代词时，主谓不倒装；如果 主语是名词时，可以倒装。 Difficult as was the work, they finished it in time. Difficult as it was, they finished it in time. Young as he is, he is experienced.
3 ） while, whereas 引导，表示并列的转折。 ___I sympathize, I can’t really do very much to help them out of the difficulties. A. As long as B. As C. While D. Even
4 ） No matter how / however 引导 No matter what = whatever No matter where = ？ ___he always tries his best to complete it on time. A. However the task is hard B. However hard the task is C. Though hard the task is D. Though hard is the task D. Though hard is the task
You can’t come in, whoever you are. Don’t believe him, no matter what he says. Whether…or… = no matter whether…or… I am going whether it is raining or not. “I hope I can find a good woman, no matter whether (if) she is handicapped or not,” he said.
5) 其它引导短语： granted/granting that, admitting (that), in spite of /despite the fact that Granted that he has enough money to buy the house, it doesn’t mean he’s going to do so. He went out in spite of the fact that he had a bad cold.
条件状语从句 Adverbial Clause of Condition 引导词有： if, unless, provided/ providing (that), so/as long as, on condition that, suppose/ supposing (that), given that, in case that, in the event that. This is an illness that can result in total blindness ___ left untreated. A. after B. if C. since D. unless
Supposing/ suppose he can’t come, who will do the work? She will go providing/ provided her friends can go also. In the event that our team wins, there will be a celebration. In case it rains, do not expect me. Take a raining coat with you in case it should rain.
时间状语从句 Adverbial Clause of Time 引导词有： when, whenever, after, as, while, since, before, until, as soon as, now that, once, directly 等。 ____ to sleep than the telephone rang once more. A) Hardly he had gone B) No sooner had he gone C) Not until he went D) Scarcely did he go Hardly /Scarcely… when 和 No sooner… than
She comes to me whenever she feels lonely. Once you object to a man, everything he does is wrong. Now (that) you mention it, I do remember. Directly he was out of sight of her, he wanted to see her. I didn’t wait a moment, but came immediately you called.
The minute/ moment/ day, the first/ second/last time, each/every/next time 都可引导时间状语从句。 The day he returned home, his father was already dead.
地点状语从句 Adverbial Clause of Place where, wherever, anywhere 引导 I’ll take you anywhere you like. Where there is a will, there is a way. Put in articles where necessary in the following passages.
原因状语从句 Adverbial Clause of Cause 引导词有： because, as, since, for, on the ground that, in that, now that I came to see you on the ground that Mr. Anderson said that you were interested in our project. This is not a good plant for your garden in that its seeds are poisonous. Now that you are all here, let’s try and reach a decision.
结果状语从句 Adverbial Clause of Result so that, such that, with the result that 引导 I was in the bath, with the result that I didn’t hear the telephone. His anger was such that he lost control of himself.
程度状语从句 Adverbial Clause of Degree 引导词有： so that, such that, as/so far as, as long as, to the degree/ extent that, in so far as, etc. At that time politicians were not known to the degree they are today. I’ll help you in so far as I can.
方式状语从句 Adverbial Clause of Manner 引导词有： as, as if/though, the way, how She did her work ___her manager had instructed. A. as B. until C. when D. though Do it the way you were taught. Do it how you can. He paused as if expecting her to speak.
比较状语从句也是一种方式状语从句。 He woke up as suddenly as he had fallen asleep. I have never seen so much rain as fell that February. I can walk faster than you can run. You are a little heavier than when I saw you last.
定语从句 Attributive Clause which, that, who/whom 用法区别 先行词是不定代词时（ all, much, none, any, something, everything 等）， 只能用 that 引导。 That’s all (that) I can do. 先行词是 anyone, everyone, somebody 等 时， 关系代词多用 who 或 whom 。 Is there anyone here who can dance?
先行词被形容词最高级及 first, last, only, very, no 等修饰时，关系代词用 that 。 He is the only person that I dislike in our class. 先行词包括人和物时，关系代词用 that 。 A victim is a person, animal or thing that suffers pain, death, harm, etc.
as 同 such, the same, as (so) 连用，引导限 定性定语从句。 Such people as wish to leave may do so now. Where = in/ at/ on +which This company has now introduced a policy ____ pay rises are related to performance at work. A) which B) where C) whether D) what
同位语从句 Appositive Clause 接同位语从句的词有： answer, belief, concept, decision, discovery, problem, promise, statement, probability 等。 同位语从句多由 that 引导，疑问代词 who, which, what 和疑问副词 where, when, how, why 也可以。 The news that he has won the game is exciting. It is the question where we should have dinner.
I am surprised ____ this city is a dull place to live in. A) that you should think B) by what you are thinking C) that you would think D) with what you were thinking
主语从句 Subjective Clause That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them. Whoever comes is welcome. It’s said that he had made a mistake. How strange it is that the children are so quiet!
表语从句 Predicative Clause 用在 be 动词或连系动词后 (look, remain, sound 等 ) 。 The question is how he did it. The trouble is that I have lost his address. He looked just as he had looked ten years before. Twelve is to three___ four is to one. A) what B) as C) that D) like
Practice Above the trees are the hills, _____ magnificence the river faithfully reflects on the surface. A) where B) of whose C) whose D) which He is quite worn out from years of hard work. He is not the man ____ he was twenty years ago. A) which B) that C) who D) whom
Intellect is to the mind ___sight is to the body. A. what B. as C. that D. like Barry had an advantage over his mother ___he could speak French. A. since that B. in that C. at that D. so that
It is not so much the language ___ the cultural background that makes the book difficult to understand. A. but B. nor C. as D. like He’s ___ as a “bellyacher” —— he’s always complaining about something. A. who is known B. whom is known C. what is known D. which is known A. who is known B. whom is known C. what is known D. which is known