Presentation on theme: "Norio Narita National Astronomical Observatory of Japan"— Presentation transcript:
1 Norio Narita National Astronomical Observatory of Japan Measuring Spin-Orbit Alignment of Transiting Exoplanets with Subaru/HDSNorio NaritaNational Astronomical Observatory of Japan
2 Outline Backgrounds Planetary orbital distribution Planetary migration modelsThe Rossiter effectSubaru observations and resultsDiscussions and summary
3 Semi-Major Axis Distribution of Exoplanets Snow lineJupiterNeed planetary migration mechanisms!
4 Standard Migration Models Type I and II migration mechanismsconsider gravitational interaction betweenproto-planetary diskplanetsType I: less than 10 Earth mass proto-planetType II: more massive casewell explain the semi-major axis distributione.g., a series of Ida & Lin paperspredict small eccentricities for migrated planets
5 Eccentricity Distribution Eccentric PlanetsJupiterCannot be explained by Type I & II migration model.
6 Migration Models for Eccentric Planets consider gravitational interaction betweenplanet-planet (planet-planet scattering models)planet-binary companion (the Kozai migration)Cf. Kozai-san = the first NAOJ directormay be able to explain eccentricity distributione.g., Nagasawa+ 2008, Chatterjee+ 2008predict a variety of eccentricities and misalignments between stellar spin and planetary orbital axesHow can we confirm these models by observations?
7 The Rossiter Effect for Transiting Planets When a transiting planet hides stellar rotation,starplanetplanethide approaching side→ appear to be recedinghide receding side→ appear to be approachingradial velocity of the host star would show an anomaly.
8 What can we learn from the effect? The shape of the Rossiter effectdepends on the trajectory of the transiting planet.well alignedmisalignedRadial velocity = Keplerian motion + Rossiter effectGaudi & Winn (2007)
9 Spin-Orbit Alignment λ： sky-projected angle between the stellar spin axis and the planetary orbital axis(e.g., Ohta et al. 2005, Gimentz 2006, Gaudi & Winn 2007)
10 Past Subaru Observations Proposals and target listS06A-029: TrES-1S07A-007: TrES-4S07B-091: TrES-3, WASP-1, WASP-2, HAT-P-1S08A-021: XO-2, HAT-P-7S08B-086: XO-3S08B-087: HD17156Blue: Planets in Binary System / Green: Eccentric Planets
11 TrES-1: Slow Rotation and Faint Target Our first observation with Subaru/HDS – difficult targetNN et al. (2007)Thanks to Subaru, clear detection of the Rossiter effect.We confirmed a prograde orbit and alignment of the planet.
12 TrES-3: Slower and Fainter Target More difficult targetNN et al. in prep.Very weak detection of the Rossiter effect.This planet also orbits in a prograde and aligned way.
13 TrES-4: Fast Rotating Binary Target The Rossiter effect is greater than the Keplerian motion!NN et al. in prep.Well aligned in spite of its binarity.
14 HD17156: Eccentric TargetEccentric planet with the orbital period of 21.2 days.NN et al. (2009)Aligned in spite of its eccentricity.
15 XO-3: Another Eccentric Target Hebrard et al. (2008)λ = 70 ± 15 degLarge misalignments were reported,but not yet confirmed.(2σ discrepancy)Winn et al. (2009)λ = 37.3 ± 3.7 degUnfortunatelyS08B Subaruobservationfailed due tobad weather.
16 List of Previous Studies HD Queloz et al. 2000, Winn et al. 2005HD Winn et al. 2006TrES NN+ 2007HAT-P Winn et al. 2007, Loeillet et al. 2008HD Wolf et al. 2007HD NN+ 2008,2009, Cochran+ 2008, Barbieri+ 2009TrES Winn et al. 2008CoRoT-Exo-2 Bouchy et al. 2008HAT-P Johnson et al. 2008XO Hebrard et al. 2008, Winn et al. 2009WASP Joshi et al. 2008(TrES-3, 4, WASP-1, 2, HAT-P-7, XO-2 NN+ in prep.)
17 Statistical Study Fabrycky and Winn (2009) considered two models, A perfectly aligned (with large dispersion) distributionCorresponding to Type II migration modelAligned distribution + partly isotropic distributionCorresponding to a combination of migration modelsWinn et al. (2009) reportedThe second model is preferred with a confidence of 96.6%But it is not robust because XO-3 is the only one sampleMore samples needed
18 Summary and Future Prospects So far almost all planets show no large misalignmentconsistent with standard Type II migration modelsHD17156b (eccentric planet) also show no misalignmentOnly 1 exception is XO-3bλ= 70 ± 15 deg (Hebrard et al. 2008)λ= 37.3 ± 3.7 deg (Winn et al. 2009)formed through planet-planet scattering?Statistical study is just beginningMore samples (especially eccentric planets) neededThe Rossiter effect is useful to study planet migration!