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Chapter 31 Review and Discussion. Explain the reasons for the Soviet Union’s economic success during the 1930s Stalin’s goal Stalin’s goal Transform the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 31 Review and Discussion. Explain the reasons for the Soviet Union’s economic success during the 1930s Stalin’s goal Stalin’s goal Transform the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 31 Review and Discussion

2 Explain the reasons for the Soviet Union’s economic success during the 1930s Stalin’s goal Stalin’s goal Transform the USSR into an industrial nation and increase the power of the communist party (not to produce consumer goods for mass production) Transform the USSR into an industrial nation and increase the power of the communist party (not to produce consumer goods for mass production) First Five-Year Plan First Five-Year Plan increased Soviet military and industrial might by developing electric power and heavy industry (iron, coal, steel, and machinery) increased Soviet military and industrial might by developing electric power and heavy industry (iron, coal, steel, and machinery) Collective agriculture Collective agriculture was used to ensure an adequate food supply was used to ensure an adequate food supply Turned small private farms into collective farms Turned small private farms into collective farms Collectivization transformed Soviet rural society, imposing an urban-industrial way of life on the peasantry. Collectivization transformed Soviet rural society, imposing an urban-industrial way of life on the peasantry. Rebellion among the kulaks resulted in widespread starvation and hardship because they burned their crops and killed their livestock Rebellion among the kulaks resulted in widespread starvation and hardship because they burned their crops and killed their livestock Second Five Year Plan ( ) Second Five Year Plan ( ) After Nazi Germany’s rise to power, the Second Five-Year Plan abandoned its goal of producing consumer goods and focused instead on military expansion. After Nazi Germany’s rise to power, the Second Five-Year Plan abandoned its goal of producing consumer goods and focused instead on military expansion. In spite of the terror of purges and persecutions, economic expansion continued. In spite of the terror of purges and persecutions, economic expansion continued. Women in particular entered employment and careers formerly denied them. Women in particular entered employment and careers formerly denied them.

3 The Depression in the 1930s was the deepest and most widespread economic collapse in history. What were its international economic and political consequences? Stock market crash of 1929 Stock market crash of 1929 Consumption and production of manufactured goods around the world declined. Consumption and production of manufactured goods around the world declined. Unemployment rose drastically. Unemployment rose drastically. American banks called in overseas loans to offset their losses. American banks called in overseas loans to offset their losses. Nations deeply in debt from war loans or reparation payments could not afford early repayment, and panic spread. Nations deeply in debt from war loans or reparation payments could not afford early repayment, and panic spread. Smoot-Hawley tariff Smoot-Hawley tariff Highest import duty in American history Highest import duty in American history In retaliation, other countries raised their tariffs In retaliation, other countries raised their tariffs resulting in decreased export industries and additional reductions in world trade. resulting in decreased export industries and additional reductions in world trade. Effects of the depression on nations Effects of the depression on nations France and Britain were to some extent insulated from the world economy by their overseas colonies. France and Britain were to some extent insulated from the world economy by their overseas colonies. Those colonies, particularly India, also fared well. Nations that were heavily dependent on imported food and raw materials suffered the most from the Depression. Those colonies, particularly India, also fared well. Nations that were heavily dependent on imported food and raw materials suffered the most from the Depression. Japan and Germany suffered much more because they relied on exports to pay for imports of food and fuel Japan and Germany suffered much more because they relied on exports to pay for imports of food and fuel South Africa’s economy boomed because Depression made gold more valuable South Africa’s economy boomed because Depression made gold more valuable Radical reforms and leaders Radical reforms and leaders Widespread economic distress had profound political consequences. Widespread economic distress had profound political consequences. United States enacted sweeping New Deal legislation, and radical politicians came to power in Germany, Italy, and Japan. United States enacted sweeping New Deal legislation, and radical politicians came to power in Germany, Italy, and Japan.

4 Explain the rise of fascism in Europe and the events leading up to the Second World War. Fascism Fascism was a direct result of the social and economic instability caused by World War I and the Depression. was a direct result of the social and economic instability caused by World War I and the Depression. Opportunistic politicians used wartime propaganda techniques to appeal to disgruntled Europeans. Opportunistic politicians used wartime propaganda techniques to appeal to disgruntled Europeans. Those politicians promised prosperity, the prevention of communism, territorial conquests, and a cure for social problems. Those politicians promised prosperity, the prevention of communism, territorial conquests, and a cure for social problems. Mussolini and Hitler Mussolini and Hitler Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, both of whom appealed to unemployed veterans and violent youths. Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, both of whom appealed to unemployed veterans and violent youths. Economic well-being outweighed a loss of liberty Economic well-being outweighed a loss of liberty Il Duce (the leader) became prime minister after threatening to march on Rome. Installed Fascist party members in all government jobs and crushed all opposition Il Duce (the leader) became prime minister after threatening to march on Rome. Installed Fascist party members in all government jobs and crushed all opposition Hitler became chancellor in 1933; Fuhrer (leader) 1934 Hitler became chancellor in 1933; Fuhrer (leader) 1934 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia 1935, while Germany reentered the Rhineland and annexed Austria and portions of Czechoslovakia. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia 1935, while Germany reentered the Rhineland and annexed Austria and portions of Czechoslovakia. Hitler also emphasized Aryan racial superiority (Germans, Britons, Scandinavian) and blamed Jews for Germany’s postwar troubles. Hitler also emphasized Aryan racial superiority (Germans, Britons, Scandinavian) and blamed Jews for Germany’s postwar troubles.

5 Warning signs Hitler tested French and British resolve by repeatedly violating the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler tested French and British resolve by repeatedly violating the Treaty of Versailles. In 1933 Hitler withdrew from the League of Nations In 1933 Hitler withdrew from the League of Nations In 1935 Hitler built and army and created an air force In 1935 Hitler built and army and created an air force Britain and France responded with Britain and France responded with The “appeasement” of the Munich Conference in 1938 revealed a lack of British and French resolve. Allowed Hitler to annex Czechoslovakian territory The “appeasement” of the Munich Conference in 1938 revealed a lack of British and French resolve. Allowed Hitler to annex Czechoslovakian territory War seemed imminent after Munich, as Germany invaded Czechoslovakia, made an alliance with the Soviet Union, and invaded Poland in War seemed imminent after Munich, as Germany invaded Czechoslovakia, made an alliance with the Soviet Union, and invaded Poland in 1939.

6 Briefly compare and contrast the military aspects of the First and Second World Wars. Similarities Similarities They were both fought around the globe and resulted in tremendous numbers of casualties as well as physical and environmental damage. They were both fought around the globe and resulted in tremendous numbers of casualties as well as physical and environmental damage. Both wars took advantage of technological innovations that altered the face of warfare. Both wars took advantage of technological innovations that altered the face of warfare. Differences Differences World War II was larger in both geographic and human scope, taking place in practically every corner of the world; it also resulted in far more casualties. World War II was larger in both geographic and human scope, taking place in practically every corner of the world; it also resulted in far more casualties. Whereas deaths from World War I were primarily confined to the military, there were far fewer military than civilian deaths in World War II. Whereas deaths from World War I were primarily confined to the military, there were far fewer military than civilian deaths in World War II. Huge bombing raids on cities and intentional assaults on civilians, especially the Holocaust (6 million Jews), were responsible for many of those deaths. World War I was a defensive war fought in trenches; World War II was an offensive war of blitzkriegs (lighting war), tanks, carpet bombing, and aircraft carriers. Huge bombing raids on cities and intentional assaults on civilians, especially the Holocaust (6 million Jews), were responsible for many of those deaths. World War I was a defensive war fought in trenches; World War II was an offensive war of blitzkriegs (lighting war), tanks, carpet bombing, and aircraft carriers. World War I was a war of steam and coal; World War II was a war of oil and internal combustion engines. World War I was a war of steam and coal; World War II was a war of oil and internal combustion engines. Massive landings of men and material on Pacific and European beaches dwarfed anything previously imagined. Practically the entire industrial output of the world was devoted to military production. Massive landings of men and material on Pacific and European beaches dwarfed anything previously imagined. Practically the entire industrial output of the world was devoted to military production.

7 What were some of the technological advances during World War II that made it a “war of science”? Existing technology underwent considerable improvement during World War II. Existing technology underwent considerable improvement during World War II. Airplanes were larger and faster, flew farther, and dropped many tons of bombs each. Airplanes were larger and faster, flew farther, and dropped many tons of bombs each. Jet planes appeared for the first time. Jet planes appeared for the first time. Heavily armored tanks ruled the battlefields. New inventions also began to dominate warfare. Heavily armored tanks ruled the battlefields. New inventions also began to dominate warfare. Synthetic rubber and oil reduced the dependence on foreign imports and the control of the seas. Synthetic rubber and oil reduced the dependence on foreign imports and the control of the seas. Aircraft carriers and submarines made battleships obsolete. Aircraft carriers and submarines made battleships obsolete. Radar warned of aircraft attacks. Radar warned of aircraft attacks. Code breakers and intelligence specialists predicted enemy attacks. Code breakers and intelligence specialists predicted enemy attacks. Guided missiles delivered unstoppable offensive attacks. Guided missiles delivered unstoppable offensive attacks. The antibiotics used in World War II resulted in a significant drop in mortality among wounded soldiers. The antibiotics used in World War II resulted in a significant drop in mortality among wounded soldiers. In the war’s ultimate technological achievement, the United States committed enormous resources to develop the atomic bomb in a race against Germany. In the war’s ultimate technological achievement, the United States committed enormous resources to develop the atomic bomb in a race against Germany.

8 Compare the lives of civilians on the home front in the United States during World War II with the experiences of civilians in Europe and Asia. (Holocaust) Effects on the civilian population Effects on the civilian population The civilian populations of Europe and Asia suffered the depredations of invading armies, disease, starvation, and exposure to the elements. The civilian populations of Europe and Asia suffered the depredations of invading armies, disease, starvation, and exposure to the elements. Millions abandoned their homes or watched them being destroyed. Millions abandoned their homes or watched them being destroyed. In World War II more civilians were killed than soldiers. Many of these deaths were deliberate murder. In World War II more civilians were killed than soldiers. Many of these deaths were deliberate murder. Final Solution Final Solution Nazis attempted to achieve their policy of eliminating entire races of people. Nazis attempted to achieve their policy of eliminating entire races of people. Jews were deprived of citizenship and legal rights and forced into ghettoes. Jews were deprived of citizenship and legal rights and forced into ghettoes. In 1942 the “final solution” started the systematic extermination of human beings. In 1942 the “final solution” started the systematic extermination of human beings. Concentration camps such as Auschwitz were created for the sole purpose of extracting work and killing prisoners. Concentration camps such as Auschwitz were created for the sole purpose of extracting work and killing prisoners. Holocaust Holocaust It is estimated that over 6 million Jews lost their lives. In addition, 3 million Polish Catholic elite were killed. Special targets of the Nazis included homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Gypsies, the disabled, the mentally ill, and Communists. It is estimated that over 6 million Jews lost their lives. In addition, 3 million Polish Catholic elite were killed. Special targets of the Nazis included homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Gypsies, the disabled, the mentally ill, and Communists.

9 Compare the lives of civilians on the home front in the United States during World War II with the experiences of civilians in Europe and Asia. Hiroshima Hiroshima (August 1945) Hiroshima (August 1945) was the site where the United States dropped the first atomic bomb, killing approximately 200,000 people. was the site where the United States dropped the first atomic bomb, killing approximately 200,000 people. Three days later, another atomic bomb destroyed Nagasaki. Three days later, another atomic bomb destroyed Nagasaki. Led to Japanese surrender in September 1945 Led to Japanese surrender in September 1945 U.S. U.S. Japanese Internment camps; result of the bombing of Pearl Harbor Japanese Internment camps; result of the bombing of Pearl Harbor The war pulled the United States out of the last stages of the Depression, eliminating unemployment and improving nutrition and health. The war pulled the United States out of the last stages of the Depression, eliminating unemployment and improving nutrition and health. Women in the United States entered industry in large numbers, and the booming economy had long-lasting positive consequences for American society. Women in the United States entered industry in large numbers, and the booming economy had long-lasting positive consequences for American society.

10 What was the source of conflict between Japan and China from 1931 to 1945? Depression Depression economic dislocation of the Great Depression and growing militarism in Japan led to this military confrontation. economic dislocation of the Great Depression and growing militarism in Japan led to this military confrontation. When the Great Depression hit, China and the United States erected tariff barriers against Japanese imports. When the Great Depression hit, China and the United States erected tariff barriers against Japanese imports. The collapse of demand for rice and silk ruined Japanese farmers; to survive, many sold their daughters into prostitution while their sons flocked to the military. The collapse of demand for rice and silk ruined Japanese farmers; to survive, many sold their daughters into prostitution while their sons flocked to the military. nationalists viewed a colonial empire as a solution to Japan’s dependence on foreign trade. nationalists viewed a colonial empire as a solution to Japan’s dependence on foreign trade. Although most of Asia’s potential colonies had been claimed, China with its vast population and resources was not colonized. Although most of Asia’s potential colonies had been claimed, China with its vast population and resources was not colonized. Japanese conquest Japanese conquest The confrontation of the Second World War began with the Japanese seizure of Manchuria by junior officers in the military. The confrontation of the Second World War began with the Japanese seizure of Manchuria by junior officers in the military. They renamed the region Manchukuo. They renamed the region Manchukuo. When Chinese students, workers, and housewives boycotted Japanese goods, Japanese troops briefly took over Shanghai and the area around Beijing. When Chinese students, workers, and housewives boycotted Japanese goods, Japanese troops briefly took over Shanghai and the area around Beijing. During the next few years the Japanese sped up their rearmament, especially the building of warships. During the next few years the Japanese sped up their rearmament, especially the building of warships. In 1937, Japanese leaders once again considered options for solving Japan’s economic problems. Some proposed conquest of China while others advocated war with the Soviet Union. In 1937, Japanese leaders once again considered options for solving Japan’s economic problems. Some proposed conquest of China while others advocated war with the Soviet Union. But once again, junior officers took matters into their own hands. On July 7, 1937, Japanese troops attacked Chinese forces near Beijing. But once again, junior officers took matters into their own hands. On July 7, 1937, Japanese troops attacked Chinese forces near Beijing. Within weeks, Japanese troops seized Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and other coastal cities, and the Japanese navy blockaded the entire Chinese coast. Within weeks, Japanese troops seized Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and other coastal cities, and the Japanese navy blockaded the entire Chinese coast.

11 The United States and the League of Nations denounced the Japanese atrocities, but were too preoccupied with economic problems and events in Europe to risk military confrontation. The United States and the League of Nations denounced the Japanese atrocities, but were too preoccupied with economic problems and events in Europe to risk military confrontation. The Chinese armies were large and fought bravely, but they were poorly led and armed and lost every battle. The Chinese armies were large and fought bravely, but they were poorly led and armed and lost every battle. Japanese planes bombed Nanjing, Hankou, and Canton while on the ground soldiers broke dikes and burned villages, killing thousands of civilians. Japanese planes bombed Nanjing, Hankou, and Canton while on the ground soldiers broke dikes and burned villages, killing thousands of civilians. In spite of Japanese organizational and fighting skills, the attack on China did not bring the victory Japan had hoped for. In spite of Japanese organizational and fighting skills, the attack on China did not bring the victory Japan had hoped for. The Chinese continued to resist. Japan’s periodic attempts to turn the tide by conquering more of China only pushed Japan deeper into the quagmire. The Chinese continued to resist. Japan’s periodic attempts to turn the tide by conquering more of China only pushed Japan deeper into the quagmire. For the Japanese people, life became harsher and more repressive as taxes rose, food and fuel became scarce, and more young men were drafted. For the Japanese people, life became harsher and more repressive as taxes rose, food and fuel became scarce, and more young men were drafted. Japanese leaders realized that the war with China was a drain on the Japanese economy and manpower and that their war machine was becoming increasingly dependent on the United States for steel and machine tools and for nine-tenths of its oil. Japanese leaders realized that the war with China was a drain on the Japanese economy and manpower and that their war machine was becoming increasingly dependent on the United States for steel and machine tools and for nine-tenths of its oil. Warfare between China and Japan was incredibly violent. Warfare between China and Japan was incredibly violent. In the winter of , Japanese troops took Nanjing, raped 20,000 women, killed 200,000 prisoners and civilians, and looted and burned the city. In the winter of , Japanese troops took Nanjing, raped 20,000 women, killed 200,000 prisoners and civilians, and looted and burned the city.

12 Communism in China Mao Zedong ( ) Mao Zedong ( ) communism founded in 1921 was a radical departure from the traditional ideology communism founded in 1921 was a radical departure from the traditional ideology Goal was to use the peasantry, not industrial workers to redistribute land from the wealthy to the poor people Goal was to use the peasantry, not industrial workers to redistribute land from the wealthy to the poor people Advocated women’s equality; but leadership position belong to men Advocated women’s equality; but leadership position belong to men Civil war in China and communist victory Civil war in China and communist victory After Japanese surrender in 1945 the Guomindang and communist forces began a civil war that lasted until 1949 After Japanese surrender in 1945 the Guomindang and communist forces began a civil war that lasted until 1949 On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong announced the founding of the People’s republic of China and Chiang Kai-shek’s Guomindang forces were driven off the mainland to Taiwan On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong announced the founding of the People’s republic of China and Chiang Kai-shek’s Guomindang forces were driven off the mainland to Taiwan


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