句型 n 核心句 n He injured his neck n Dallas, Texas, had become the seventh largest city in the USA n We went to a movie n 附加語 n lately. ( 副詞 ) n by 1871. ( 副詞片語 ) n after we completed our work. ( 副詞子句 )
基本結構 n 限定子句 (Finitive Clause) 限定子句 n 非限定子句 (Non-finitive Clause) 非限定子句 n 省略句 (Omitted Clause) 省略句 n 介係詞片語 / 介係詞子句 (Pre. Phrase/Pre. Clause) 介係詞片語 / 介係詞子句
限定子句 (Finitive Clause) n When Congress passed the Yellowstone Act, the world first national park was created. n Since respiration is required for continual energy release, it is harmful to stop it for more than a short time
非限定子句 (Non-finitive Clause) n Endeavoring to form his own orchestra for many years, Glenn Miller achieved world fame in 1939 as a big band leader. n n (=After Glenn Miller endeavored to form his own orchestra for many years,...)
非限定子句 II (Non-finitive Clause) n Once threatened with extinction, the trumpet swan has made a strong comeback in the national parks of the U.S.A. n (=Although the trumpet swan was once threatened with extinction,...)
省略句 (Omitted Clause) n Keenly aware of the advantages of a college education, many young people study very hard to obtain it. n (=Because many young people are keenly… n Although poisonous, many alkaloids are valued as medicine. n (=Although many alkaloids are poisonous,....)
介係詞片語 / 介係詞子句 (Pre. Phrase/Pre. Clause) n Despite inflation, the standard of living in Taiwan has risen during the past decade. ( 介係詞片語 ) n With the coming of spring, his health is improved. n (=With spring coming, ….) n (=As spring comes,...) 介係詞子句
基本結構 Review n 連接詞 + 子句 (S1+V!), 主句 (S+V) n 分詞構句 (V-ing/V-en), 主句 n 形容詞 …, 主句 ( 省略句 ) n 介係詞 …, 主句
連接性副詞 n however, nevertheless (but) n therefore, thus (so) n besides, in addition, moreover, furthermore (and) n He is nice;however I don’t like him. n He is the only candidate.Therefore he was elected. n He dances well; furthermore she is good at singing.
1. The Smithsonian Institution preserves more than than sixty-five million items of scientific, historical, or artistic interest, _____ winning the popular title, "attic of the nation". (A) however (B) thus (C) and (D) however n 2. Ceyenne pepper comes from the seedpod of the pepper plant, which is dried, then ground.
副詞連接詞 n 時間副詞連接詞 時間副詞連接詞 n (when, while, as, since, until, ) n 地方副詞連接詞 地方副詞連接詞 n (where…, there, wherever) n 條件、讓步副詞 條件、讓步副詞 n (although/despite/in spite of; unless/ except n 因果關係副詞連接詞 因果關係副詞連接詞 n (because/ in that /since/on account of) n 目地的副詞連接詞 目地的副詞連接詞 n (to V…)
時間副詞連接詞 -I n When + 動態動詞 (dynamic V. ) n He left when I arrived. n A neutron forms when a star much more massive than the sun dies and explodes n While + 靜態動詞 (statistic V.) n.Strike while iron is hot. n While Hugo was a student at City College of New York, he organized the United Graffiti Artists
時間副詞連接詞 -II n Since ( 採現在完成式 ) n I have been there many times since the war ended. n As/just as ; 邊 … 邊... n As they walked along the street, they looked into the window n I like the job more just as I get used to it.
時間副詞連接詞 -III n not...until (before) n We didn’t see each other until (it was) recently. n hardly saw until he got married. n until (=up to) n Dried leaves continue to hang on the branches of some deciduous trees until the new leaves appear.
地方副詞連接詞 n wherever/ where...there n Wherever we went, we found poverty. n Where Jones works, there you will find the root of the problem. n Where there is a will, there is a way. n _______ there is no rain, farming is difficult or impossible
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 n although/though/even though 雖然、儘管 n Although she smoke 40 cigarettes a day, she is quite fit. n = She is quite fit even though she smokes… n Salmon spend most of their adult lives in salt water __________ they return to their freshwater birthplaces to spawn and die.
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 n in spite of/despite... n n In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday. n I didn't get the job ___________ I had all the necessary qualification. n I didn't get the job ______ my qualification.
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 unless\except (for) Bears will not usually attack a man unless it is provoked. n whether...or not n Whether he is right or wrong, he always comes off worst in argument
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 n No matter how +adj/adv + 主 + 動詞 n Although he is rich, she won’t marry him. n No matter how rich he is, … n However rich he is, …….. n Although he is a millionaire, she... n No matter what (person) he is, she..
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 n Although it is written in Latin, what is original will be read. n No matter how it is written, what is … n Although it is written in Latin, what is original will be read. n No matter what language it is written in, what is original will be read.
因果關係副詞連接詞 n because/since/as/for/in that; because of n Neon light is utilized in airport beacons because it can permeate fog. n Nevada has limited supply because of its light rainfall. n seeing (that)/now that 既然 n Seeing (that) he refused to help us, there is no reason why we should now help him
目地的副詞連接詞 n in order to/so as to n Nellie McClung struggled relentlessly in the early 20th century (in order) to win political and legal rights for Canadian women To win political and legal rights for Canadian women, Nellie McClung struggled relentlessly in the early 20th century