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A Self-repairing Peer-to-Peer Systems Resilient to Dynamic Adversarial Churn Fabian Kuhn, Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley Stefan Schmid, ETH Zurich Roger Wattenhofer, ETH Zurich Some slides taken from Stefan Schmid’s presentation of his Masters thesis

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Churn Unlike servers, peers are transient! –Machines are under the control of individual users –e.g., just connecting to download one file –Membership changes are called churn Successful P2P systems have to cope with churn (i.e., guarantee correctness, efficiency, etc.)! join leave

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Churn characteristics –Depends on application (Skype vs. eMule vs. …) –But: there may be dozens of membership changes per second! –Peers may crash without notice! How can peers collaborate in spite of churn?

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Churn threatens the advantages of P2P a lot of churn What can we guarantee in presence of churn? We have to actively maintain P2P systems!

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Goal of the paper Peer degree, network diameter, … Adversary continuously attacks the weakest part (The system is never fully repaired, but always fully functional ) This paper presents techniques to: - Provably maintain P2P systems with desirable properties… - in spite of ongoing worst-case membership changes. Only a small number of P2P systems have been analyzed under churn!

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How does Churn affect P2P systems? 1.Objects may be lost when the host crashes 2.Queries may not make it to the destination

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Think about this What is the big deal about churn? Does not every P2P system define Join and Leave protocols? Well, the system eventually recovers, but during recovery, services may be affected. And objects not replicated are lost. Observe the difference between non-masking and masking fault tolerance. What we need is some form of masking tolerance.

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Model for Dynamics We assume worst-case perspective: Adversary A(J,L) induces J joins and L leaves every round anywhere in the system. We assume a synchronous model: time divided into rounds. Further refinement: Adversary A(J, L, r) implies J joins, L leaves every r rounds The topology is assumed to be a hypercube that has O(log n) degree and O(log n) diameter.

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Topology Maintenance π1π1 π2π2 Challenges in maintaining the hypercube! –How does peer 1 know that it should replace peer 2? –How does it get there when there are concurrent joins and leaves? –…

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The Proposed Approach Simple idea: Simulate the topology! Several peers per node

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General Recipe for Robust Topologies 1.Take a graph with desirable properties -Low diameter, low peer degree, etc. 2.Replace vertices by a set of peers 3. Maintain it: a. Permanently run a peer distribution algorithm which ensures that all vertices have roughly the same amount of peers (“token distribution algorithm”). b. Estimate the total number of peers in the system and change “dimension of topology” accordingly (“information aggregation algorithm” and “scaling algorithm”). Resulting structure has similar properties as original graph (e.g., connectivity, degree, …), but is also maintainable under churn! There is always at least one peer per node (but not too many either).

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Dynamic Token Distribution U = 11010 V= 11011 W= 10010 a peers b peers After one step of recovery, both U and V will contain (a+b) /2 peers. Try this once for each dimension of the hypercube (dimension exchange method)

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Theorem Discrepancy is the maximum difference between the token count of a pair of nodes. The goal is to reduce the discrepancy to 0. The previous step reduces to 0 for fractional tokens, but for a d-dimensional hypercube, using integer tokens, = d in the worst case In presence of an A(J,K,1) adversary, the proposed algorithm maintains the invariance of ≤ 2J + 2K + d

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Information aggregation When the total number of peers N exceeds an upper bound, each node splits into two, and the dimension of the hypercube has to increase by 1. Similarly, when the total number of peers N falls below a lower bound, pairs of nodes in dimension (d-1) merge into one, and the dimension of the hypercube has to decrease by 1. Thus, the system needs a mechanism to keep track of N.

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Simulated hypercube Given an adversary A (d+1, d+1, 6) *, (1)the outdegree of every peer is bounded by (log 2 N), and (2)The diameter is bounded by (log N) * The adversary inserts and deletes at most (d+1) peers during any time interval of 6 rounds

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Topology Example topology for d=2. Peers in each core are connected to one another and to the peers of the core of the neighboring nodes Core periphery Only the core peers store data items. Despite churn, at least one node in each core has to survive Q. What does the periphery node do?

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6-round maintenance algorithm The authors implied six rounds for one dimension in each phase Round 1. Each node takes snapshot of active peers within itself. Round 2. Exchange snapshot Round 3. Preparation for peer migration Round 4. Core send ids of new peers to periphery. Reduce dimension if necessary. Round 5. Dimension growth & building new core (2d+3) Round 6. Exchange information about the new core.

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Further improvement: Pancake Graph (1) A robust system with degree and diameter O(log n / loglog n): the pancake graph ( most papers refer to Papadimitriou & Gates’ contribution here)! Pancake of dimension d: –d! nodes represented by unique permutation {l 1, …, l d } where l 1 {1,…,d} –Two nodes u and v are adjacent iff u is a prefix-inversion of v 4-dimensional pancake: 12344321 2134 3214

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The Pancake Graph (2) Properties –Node degree O(log n / log log n) –Diameter O(log n / log log n) –… where n is the total number of nodes –A factor log log n better than hypercube! –But: difficult graph (diameter unknown!) No other graph can have a smaller degree and a smaller diameter!

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Contributions Using peer distribution and information aggregation algorithms on the simulated pancake topology, he proposed: a DHT-based peer-to-peer system with –Peer degree and lookup / network diameter in O (log n / loglog n) –Robustness to ADV(O (log n / log log n), O (log n / log log n)) –No data is ever lost! Asymptotically optimal!

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The Pancake System

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Conclusion A nice model for understanding the effect of churn and dealing with it. But it is too simplistic

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