Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Figures of Speech. Literal and figurative Metaphor (Greek 'to transfer') /ˈmɛtəˌfɔr, -fər/ How to spot metaphor: textual and contextual signals Metaphor.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Figures of Speech. Literal and figurative Metaphor (Greek 'to transfer') /ˈmɛtəˌfɔr, -fər/ How to spot metaphor: textual and contextual signals Metaphor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Figures of Speech

2 Literal and figurative Metaphor (Greek 'to transfer') /ˈmɛtəˌfɔr, -fər/ How to spot metaphor: textual and contextual signals Metaphor and simile /ˈsɪməli/ in poetry: figurative language with a purpose The effects of metaphor: denotation /connotation denotation = what is referred to connotation = associations, connecting images, ideas, moods, etc. IPA transcriptions:

3 Simile and metaphor The analysis of metaphor: tenor (the concept, idea, new element) vehicle (the image to illuminate the tenor) grounds (the basis of comparison: their similarity) “O Rose, thou art sick.” (Blake) No sign of comparison: vehicle stands for tenor Simile:“0 my luve's like a red, red rose” (Burns) luve=tenor red, red rose=vehicle like=grammatical indicator of similarity

4 Metonymy /mɪˈtɒnəmi/ “Substitute naming” – an associated idea names the item: “The pen is mightier than the sword.” Synecdoche /sɪˈnɛkdəki/: a part stands for the whole or the whole for a part: “Listen, you've got to come take a look at my new set of wheels.” – One refers to a vehicle in terms of some of its parts, "wheels“

5 Figure of speech – another definition An expression extending language beyond its literal meaning, either pictorially through metaphor, simile, allusion, personification, and the like, or rhetorically through repetition, balance, antithesis and the like. A figure of speech is also called a trope. The Harper Handbook to Literature, ed. by Northrop Frye, Sheridan Baker, George Perkins New York: Harper & Row, 1984

6 The most common rhetorical figures simple repetition /ˌrɛpɪˈtɪʃən/ parallelism /ˈpærəlɛˌlɪzəm, -ləˌlɪz-/ antithesis /ænˈtɪθəsɪs/ climax /ˈklaɪmæks/ hyperbole /haɪˈpɜrbəli/ apostrophe /əˈpɒstrəfi/ Irony /ˈaɪrəni, ˈaɪər-/ Find examples for each in the quotation from Alexander Pope’s An Essay on Man ( ):

7 Cease then, nor Order imperfection name: Our proper bliss depends on what we blame Know thy own point: this kind, this due degree Of blindness, weakness, Heaven bestows on thee. Submit. - In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of one disposing Power, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see; All discord, harmony not understood; All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, W HATEVER IS, IS RIGHT.

8 Repetition All All All All All nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see; All discord, harmony not understood; All partial evil, universal good:

9 Parallelism A matter of grammar and rhetoric: the writer expresses in parallel grammatical form equivalent elements of content – framing words, sentences, and paragraphs to give parallel weight to parallel thoughts: “All nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see; All discord, harmony not understood; All partial evil, universal good”

10 Antithesis a direct contrast or opposition a rhetorical figure sharply contrasting ideas in balanced parallel structure Order imperfection “Cease then, nor Order imperfection name” the natalthe mortal “Safe in the hand of one disposing Power, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour.” (and lots more in the text)

11 Climax A point of high emotional intensity, a turning point or crisis. The high point of an argument, reached by arranging ideas in the order of least to most importance The point of greatest interest in any piece of writing Repeating the same sound or word Climax after all the repetition, parallelism, antitheses: One truth is clear, Whatever is, is right. “One truth is clear, Whatever is, is right.”

12 Hyperbole Overstatement, to make a point, either direct or ironical: “Our proper bliss depends on what we blame Know thy own point: this kind, this due degree Of blindness, weakness, Heaven bestows on thee. Submit. - In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of one disposing Power, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour.” (and the rest of the excerpt as well)

13 Apostrophe An address to an imaginary or absent person (or as if the person were absent), a thing or a personified abstraction: Cease name Know thy thee Submit to thee thou canst not see “Cease then, nor Order imperfection name” “Know thy own point: this kind, this due degree Of blindness, weakness, Heaven bestows on thee. Submit. - In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear” “All nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see”

14 Irony a trope, a non-literal use of language like metaphor, metonymy, etc, a type of tone, a particular way of speaking/writing, a matter of style, can be widespread in text (unlike metaphors which are usually discrete parts of text)

15 Cease then, nor Order imperfection name: Our proper bliss depends on what we blame Know thy own point: this kind, this due degree Of blindness, weakness, Heaven bestows on thee. Submit. - In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of one disposing Power, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see; All discord, harmony not understood; All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, W HATEVER IS, IS RIGHT.

16 Irony ironic meaning WE have to construct DIFFERENCE between apparent meaning and true meaning the text as a whole or a large part of it is unreliable if taken literally an implied (vs explicit) interpretation is true Example from class: difference between text and situation: “W HATEVER IS, IS RIGHT.” – when all sorts of things go wrong

17 Mechanisms and techniques of irony overemphasis of inverted meaning: Yes! I'd really like that! internal inconsistency - in narrative: narrator is shown not to have seen the truth - in style: unexpected change in register unexpected change of rhythm unexpected alliteration rhyme fails to appear

18 Effects of irony Irony which destabilizes: where the intended meaning is difficult to pinpoint internally inconsistent text literal meaning is insufficient no specific, authoritative or unified worldview a final, implied meaning remains elusive


Download ppt "Figures of Speech. Literal and figurative Metaphor (Greek 'to transfer') /ˈmɛtəˌfɔr, -fər/ How to spot metaphor: textual and contextual signals Metaphor."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google