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Spin-orbit coupling in graphene structures D. Kochan, M. Gmitra, J. Fabian Stará Lesná, 25.8.2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Spin-orbit coupling in graphene structures D. Kochan, M. Gmitra, J. Fabian Stará Lesná, 25.8.2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spin-orbit coupling in graphene structures D. Kochan, M. Gmitra, J. Fabian Stará Lesná,

2 Outline Предварительные сведения Bloch vs. Wannier Tight-binding approximation = LCAO Graphene Spin-orbit-interaction in Graphene What we are doing ….

3 Bloch vs. Wannier Periodic structure  Bloch Theorem  Brillouin zone k  set of good quantum numbers Direct lattice Dual lattice

4 Bloch vs. Wannier Bloch states: – delocalized & orthogonal – labeled by the momentum k Wannier states: – localized & orthogonal – labeled by the lattice vector R

5 Tight-binding approximation 1) Wannier states basis = local atomic orbitals 2) Bloch states basis = Bloch sum of local atomic orbitals

6 Tight-binding approximation 3) General solution: 4) Matrix(-secular) equation: How to compute ??-matrix elements?

7 Tight-binding approximation 5) The heart of TB approx: -nearest & next-nearest neighbors only few terms that are lowest in |R|

8 Tight-binding approximation only few terms that are lowest in |R| 5) The heart of TB approx: -nearest & next-nearest neighbors

9 Tight-binding approximation 6) Further simplification – point (local) group symmetries - elements – square lattice non-zero elementszero elements

10 Tight-binding approximation

11 7) Secular equation + fitting of TB parameters model parameters:

12 Direct lattice Dual lattice Graphene

13 Graphene – basic (orbital) energetics Konschuh, Gmitra, Fabian, PRB (2010) Gmitra, Konschuh, Ertler, Ambrosch-Draxl, Fabian, PRB (2009)

14 Graphene – basic (orbital) model Basic TB-model with p z - orbitals Direct lattice Dual lattice structural function of the hexagonal lattice: low energy Hamiltonian: expansion at

15 Graphene – basic (orbital) model “relativistic” Hamiltonian Direct lattice Dual lattice  - acts in pseudospin degrees of freedom – what is that? - seemingly 2D massless fermions - linear dispersion relation - BUT no-spin degrees of freedom, (when spin ) pseudospin up/down – amplitude to find e - on sublattice A/B

16 Spin-orbit coupling

17 Spintronics - tunable & strong/week SOC spin relaxation (quantum) spin Hall effect - TI magneto-anisotropy weak (anti-)localization SOC - quintessence of Spin-orbit coupling

18 Intra-atomic spin-orbit coupling Questions: How does SOC modify in periodically arrayed structures? Is (and by how much) SOC enhanced in carbon allotropes? How to further stimulate and control SOC?

19 Graphene - Intrinsic SOC Gmitra et al., PRB (2009) symmetry arguments: Kane, Mele, PRL (2005) McClure, Yafet, Proc. of 5 th Conf. on Carbon, Pergamon, Vol.1, pp 22-28, 1962 physics behind d-orbitals Ab-initioTheory next-nearest neighbor interaction

20 How to derive effective SOC? Direct lattice Dual lattice Group theory – invariance: - translations (obvious) - point group D 6h – symmetry group of hexagon - time-reversal: k  -k, ,  -  Graphene - Intrinsic SOC

21 How to compute matrix elements? - go to atomic (Wannier) orbitals Direct lattice Dual lattice Graphene - Intrinsic SOC - employing all D 6h elements + TR  one non-zero matr. elem.

22 Full spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian Direct lattice Dual lattice Graphene - Intrinsic SOC linearized SOC Hamiltonian at Gmitra et al., PRB (2009)

23 Intrinsic SOC – atomism: - multi-TB perturbation theory Direct lattice Dual lattice Graphene - Intrinsic SOC Konschuh, Gmitra, Fabian, PRB (2010)

24 What will happen if ….??? Direct lattice Dual lattice Graphene – as Topological Insulator Kane, Mele, PRL (2005)

25 Graphene - Extrinsic SOC Graphene – always grown on substrate – background el. field E [V/nm]

26 How to derive effective SOC? Direct lattice Dual lattice Group theory – invariance: - translations (obvious) - point group C 6v – symmetry group of hexagon without the space inversion - time-reversal Graphene - Extrinsic SOC

27 Full spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian Graphene - Extrinsic SOC linearized SOC Hamiltonian at

28 Extrinsic SOC – atomism: - multi-TB perturbation theory Direct lattice Dual lattice Graphene - Extrinsic SOC Konschuh, Gmitra, Fabian, PRB (2010)

29 C O N C L U S I O N Graphene: - intrinsic SOC dominated by d-orbitals - detailed ab-initio and multi-TB-studies Bilayer graphene: - symmetry derived SO Hamiltonian - detailed ab-initio and model studies - band structure & SO-splittings - SOC comparable with single-layered graphene Hydrogenized graphene structures: SH & SI - detailed ab-initio, symmetry and TB-model studies - substantial SO-splittings compared to single-layered graphene Gmitra et al., PRB (2009) Konschuh et al., PRB (2010) Konschuh et al., PRB (2012) Gmitra, Kochan, Fabian – work in progress


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