7 Freedom of Religion The Establishment Clause No laws shall be made respecting the establishment of religion.Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) – Aid to church related schools must (1) have a secular legislative purpose, (2) neither advance nor inhibit religion, and (3) not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion.
8 The Lemon Test The purpose of the aid must be nonreligious. The aid can neither advance nor inhibit religion.Aid must not excessively entangle the government with religion
9 Freedom of Religion The Establishment Clause (cont.) Engel v. Vitale (1962) ruled that prayer in public schools violates the Establishment Clause.
10 Freedom of Religion The Free Exercise Clause Prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion.Some religious practices may conflict with other rights, and then be denied or punished.Employment Division v. Smith (1988) upheld prosecution of persons using the drug peyote as part of their religious rituals.
11 Freedom of Expression Prior Restraint Prior restraint – A government preventing material from being published.Near v. Minnesota (1931) ruling that the 1st Amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint.May be permissible during wartime.One may be punished after something is published.
12 Freedom of Expression Obscenity “I’ll know it when I see it” Roth v. United States (1957) ruling that “obscenity is not constitutionally protected”Miller v. California (1973) – That community standards be used to determine obscenity in terms of appealing to a “prurient interest” and being “patently offensive” and lacking in value.
13 Freedom of Expression Libel and Slander Libel (printed) and slander (spoken) are false statements that damage one’s reputation.New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) ruled that statements about public figures are libelous only if made with reckless disregard for truth.
14 Freedom of Expression Symbolic Speech Nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband.Texas v. Johnson (1989) ruled that the burning of the American flag was symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
15 Freedom of Expression Commercial Speech Communication in the form of advertising.The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) decides what kinds of goods may be advertised on radio and television and regulates the content of such advertising.
16 Freedom of Assembly Right to Assemble Within reasonable limits, called time, place, and manner restrictions, freedom of assembly includes the rights to parade, picket, and protest.Usually, a group must apply to the local city government for a permit and post a bond of a few hundred dollars.
17 Freedom of Assembly Right to Associate Freedom to join groups or associations without government interference.NAACP v. Alabama (1958) ruled that the NAACP did not have to reveal its membership list and thus subject its members to harassment.
18 The Right to Bear ArmsProtected by the Second Amendment of the ConstitutionDistrict of Columbia v. Heller (2008)Right to possess a firearm for self- defense within the home.Requiring firearm in a home to be disassembled or bound by trigger lock is unconstitutional.McDonald v. Chicago (2010)Extended 2nd Amendment’s limits on restricting right to bear arms to state and local laws.
19 Defendants’ Rights Interpreting Defendants’ Rights Criminal Justice personnel are limited by the Bill of Rights and failure to follow constitutional protections may invalidate a conviction.Courts continually rule on what is constitutional and what is not.
20 Defendants’ Rights Searches and Seizures Probable Cause – When the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested.Unreasonable searches and seizures – Evidence is obtained in a haphazard or random manner, prohibited by 4th Amendment.Exclusionary rule – Evidence obtained unconstitutionally can not be introduced into a trial.
21 Defendants’ Rights Searches and Seizures (cont.) Mapp v. Ohio (1961) – Protection of 4th Amendment against unreasonable searches and seizures extended to the states.The War on Terrorism – Patriot Act (2001) allows wiretapping, surveillance, and investigation and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (2008) allows warrants to eavesdrop on groups.
22 Defendants’ Rights Self-Incrimination When an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. What Amendment is this associated with?Miranda v. Arizona (1966) ruled that set guidelines for police questioning of accused persons must be used to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel.
23 Defendants’ Rights The Right to Counsel Sixth Amendment – The right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) – Anyone accused of a felony where imprisonment may be imposed, however poor he or she might be, has a right to a lawyer.
24 Defendants’ Rights Trials Plea bargaining – A bargain between the prosecution and defense for a defendant to plead guilty to a lesser crime; 90 percent of cases end here and do not go to trialJuries generally consist of 12 people, but unanimity is not always needed to convict.
25 Defendants’ Rights Cruel and Unusual Punishment The Eighth Amendment forbids cruel and unusual punishment.Gregg v. Georgia (1976) - The death penalty is not cruel and unusual, but it is “an extreme sanction suitable to the most extreme crimes.”The death penalty’s use and application varies by state.
26 The Right to Privacy Is There a Right to Privacy? The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government.Controversy over AbortionRoe v. Wade (1973) – Ruling that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional.Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) – Ruling that permits considerably more regulation on abortions.
28 Understanding Civil Liberties Civil Liberties and DemocracyRights ensured in the Bill of Rights are essential to democracy.Courts typically protect civil liberties from excesses of majority rule.
29 Understanding Civil Liberties Civil Liberties and the Scope of GovernmentIn deciding between freedom and order, the United States generally chooses liberty.Civil liberties limit the scope of government, even though government efforts are needed to protect rights.
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