Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

du gveras a · b · c an pen can henna yv d Cornish Verse Forms Benjamin Bruch Department of Celtic Languages and Literatures Harvard University 13 May.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "du gveras a · b · c an pen can henna yv d Cornish Verse Forms Benjamin Bruch Department of Celtic Languages and Literatures Harvard University 13 May."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 du gveras a · b · c an pen can henna yv d Cornish Verse Forms Benjamin Bruch Department of Celtic Languages and Literatures Harvard University 13 May 2005 and the Evolution of Cornish Prosody c

3 Cornish Welsh Breton Irish Gaelic Manx Gaelic Scottish Gaelic Celtic Languages Brythonic Goidelic Insular Celtic Cornwall

4 Middle Cornish c – c Ÿ Language spoken throughout the western half of Cornwall Ÿ Most surviving Cornish literature dates from this period · Largely religious · Long texts (2000+ lines) · Stanzaic verse Cornish English Ÿ Highest population of Cornish speakers Ÿ Many Cornish monoglots º Devotional poem º Homilies º Mystery plays Ÿ Middle Cornish literature:

5 · More prose Late Cornish c – c Ÿ Language in rapid retreat during 17 th and 18 th centuries Ÿ Many writers not native speakers Ÿ Greater variety of literature: · Many secular works · Shorter texts Ÿ Last monolingual Cornish speaker died in 1676 Ÿ Last native speaker died in 1777 Ÿ Differences in orthography: tyr ‘land’ teere Ÿ Sound changes: pen ‘head’ pedn

6 Medieval Cornish Literature in Verse c. 1350–1400 Ÿ Charter Endorsement Ÿ Pascon Agan Arluth Ÿ Ordinalia c Ÿ Beunans Meriasek 1504 Ÿ Bewnans Ke c Ÿ Gwreans an Bys 1611 · Origo Mundi · Passio Christi · Resurrexio Domini Date Text 36 lines (actor’s part) 2074 lines (poem) 2894 lines 4572 lines 3306 lines (incomplete) 2553 lines Length 3316 lines 2714 lines

7 Ÿ Cornish meter is syllabic, not stress-based · Most lines are seven syllables long · Four-syllable lines are also common MeterCornish Prosody — 86% — 12% º Used singly, particularly at ‘hinge’ points in a stanza of otherwise heptasyllabic lines º In groups, as variants of stanza forms found elsewhere with all seven-syllable lines · Exceptions: º Proper names (native and foreign) º Latin lines, especially liturgical or Biblical material º Gwreans an Bys is less regular than the earlier texts º Charter Endorsement uses stress-based meter

8 Ÿ No rules govern the distribution of stressed syllables within each line, or within the stanza as a whole MeterCornish Prosody Ÿ Borlase (1758) described Cornish meter as “trochaic” · This idea accepted (in part) by Norris, Jenner, Nance · Does not reflect natural stress patterns of Cornish: En Tas a Nef ym gylwyr The Father of Heaven I am called Én Tas á Nef ým gylwýrEn Tás a Néf ym gýlwyr · At least 30 different accentual patterns for heptasyllabic lines · Comparable variation with four-syllable lines º Usually three stresses per line, less often four º Lines with two or five stresses are also found º ‘Iambic’ rhythm actually more common than trochaic

9 Ÿ In general, only the final syllable of a line is involved in rhyme Ÿ Rhyme between unstressed syllables is common: Ÿ Rhyme between stressed and unstressed syllables is permitted: RhymeCornish Prosody henna : da henna : bara thinking : sing thinking : doing Ÿ These rhyming rules are similar to those of Breton and Welsh · Cornish verse lacks internal rhyme, unlike Welsh and Breton: · However, rhymes between stressed and unstressed syllables are never required, as in some Welsh verse: Neud llon eos lle trosai, Neud llafar mân adar Mai. Na ve m ar dysp ar e-z c ar set

10 Ÿ Nearly all Middle Cornish verse is stanzaic Ÿ Over 200 different stanza forms are found in our texts Ÿ Type I and II stanzas widespread in medieval European poetry Verse FormsCornish Prosody · 60% of these forms only occur once or twice in the corpus · Most forms are a variant of one of three basic stanza types: Ÿ Cornish stanza forms do not closely resemble those of Irish and Welsh verse º Type II º Type III º Type IABABABAB AABCCB ABABcDDC alternate rhyme tail-rhyme hybrid · Six patterns account for 73% of all stanzas ABABcDDC

11 en tas a nef ym gylwyr formyer pup tra a vyt gvrys onan ha try on yn gvyr en tas han map han spyrys ha hethyv me a thesyr dre ov grath dalleth an beys y lauaraf nef ha tyr bethens formyys orth ov brys en tas a nef ym gylwyr formyer pup tra a vyt gvrys onan ha try on yn gvyr en tas han map han spyrys ha hethyv me a thesyr dre ov grath dalleth an beys y lauaraf nef ha tyr bethens formyys orth ov brys Type I Stanza Origo Mundi, lines 1-8 ABABABABABABABAB

12 Origo Mundi, lines 1-16 Type I Stanza

13 lemyn hanwaf goyth ha  ar a sensaf ethyn hep par the vygyens den war a n beys hos payon colom grvgyer swan bargos bryny ha ner moy drethof a vyth hynwys lemyn hanwaf goyth ha  ar a sensaf ethyn hep par the vygyens den war a n beys hos payon colom grvgyer swan bargos bryny ha ner moy drethof a vyth hynwys Type II Stanza Origo Mundi, lines AABCCBAABCCB

14 Type II Stanza Origo Mundi, lines

15 ythanwaf bugh ha tarow ha margh yw best hep parow the vap den rag ymweres gaver yweges karow daves war ver lavarow hy hanow da kemeres ythanwaf bugh ha tarow ha margh yw best hep parow the vap den rag ymweres gaver yweges karow daves war ver lavarow hy hanow da kemeres Type IIA Stanza Origo Mundi, lines AABAABAABAAB

16 a ih es u c ri st guyn ow bys clewas y vones seuys yn mes an beth rak me a wor fest yn ta y vos map the varia ha dev yn weth a ih es u c ri st guyn ow bys clewas y vones seuys yn mes an beth rak me a wor fest yn ta y vos map the varia ha dev yn weth Type IIb Stanza Resurrexio Domini, lines AAbCCbAAbCCb

17 me yw gylwys duk bryten ha seuys a goys ryel ha w a r an gwlasc ur chefte n nessa  en myterne vhell ky n g conany aye ly n nyeth pur wyr yth of gwarthevyas w a r gvyls ha dof dout is y n mysk arly  y me yw gylwys duk bryten ha seuys a goys ryel ha w a r an gwlasc ur chefte n nessa  en myterne vhell ky n g conany aye ly n nyeth pur wyr yth of gwarthevyas w a r gvyls ha dof dout is y n mysk arly  y ABABcDDCABABcDDC frons me yw gylwys duk bryten ha seuys a goys ryel ha w a r an gwlasc ur chefte n nessa  en myterne vhell ky n g conany aye ly n nyeth pur wyr yth of gwarthevyas w a r gvyls ha dof dout is y n mysk arly  y ABABcDDCABABcDDC cauda me yw gylwys duk bryten ha seuys a goys ryel ha w a r an gwlasc ur chefte n nessa  en myterne vhell ky n g conany aye ly n nyeth pur wyr yth of gwarthevyas w a r gvyls ha dof dout is y n mysk arly  y ABABcDDCABABcDDC me yw gylwys duk bryten ha seuys a goys ryel ha w a r an gwlasc ur chefte n nessa  en myterne vhell ky n g conany aye ly n nyeth pur wyr yth of gwarthevyas w a r gvyls ha dof dout is y n mysk arly  y ABABcDDCABABcDDC me yw gylwys duk bryten ha seuys a goys ryel ha w a r an gwlasc ur chefte n nessa  en myterne vhell ky n g conany aye ly n nyeth pur wyr yth of gwarthevyas w a r gvyls ha dof dout is y n mysk arly  y ABABcDDCABABcDDC Type III Stanza Beunans Meriasek, lines 1-8 bob

18 Type III Stanza : : Beunans Meriasek, lines 1-8 Type III Stanza

19 Beunans Meriasek, lines Type III Stanza, two-column format

20 Common Variants Ÿ Short B lines in Type II stanzas: AAbCCb, AAbCCB Ÿ Four-syllable lines for seven-syllable lines: abababab, aabccb, AABccb, AbAbcDDC, ABABcddC Ÿ Four-line Type I stanza: ABAB Ÿ Couplet reduced to a single line: AABAB, ABAAB Ÿ Couplet expanded to a triplet: AAABCCCB, AABCCCB, ABABcDDDC Ÿ Additional segment: ABABABABAB, AABCCBDDB, ABABABABcDDC Ÿ Extra pair of lines added ( BM only) : AABCCBCB, ABABcDDCDC Ÿ Couplet converted to quatrain: ababcdedec Ÿ Duplication of rhyme: AABAAB, AABAABcDDC, ABABcAAC Ÿ Type III stanza with tail-rhyme frons : AABCCBdEED

21 Glasney College and Cornish Verse Ÿ All four of our central texts follow the same basic rules of meter, rhyme, and stanza structure · Place-names in the Ordinalia center around Penryn (Bakere) Ÿ Several of these works have a link to Glasney College in Penryn: Ÿ Glasney as a Cornish literary center · Close ties between Camborne and Glasney at the time Beunans Meriasek was written · Glasney “owned the advowson of Kea church” (Padel) · Pascon Agan Arluth used as a source text for the Ordinalia · Padel suggests Glasney was founded to provide “spiritual and intellectual leadership in Cornish for the Cornish-speaking laity in west Cornwall” (2004) · Could these rules of versification be Glasney’s rules?

22 Exceptions Ÿ Charter Endorsement : · Often uses a rhyming rule more like that of English verse Ÿ Bewnans Ke : Ÿ Gwreans an Bys : · Author’s idiosyncrasy? · Probably written after the dissolution of Glasney in 1549 · Uses verse forms that resemble parts of Middle Cornish stanzas · Stress-based meter · Series of rhymed couplets English influence? º May be a secular work º No ties to Glasney College º Disyllabic rhymes º 4% - 8% in other Middle Cornish texts (3% in Gwreans an Bys ) · Incorporates material from Origo Mundi — 29% of all rhymes in Bewnans Ke

23 ABABABABABABABAB I AABCCBAABCCBC II ABABCDDCABABCDDC III ABABCABABC 3 ABABABAB 1 ABABABAB 1 AABAAB 2 AABAAB 2 AABAAB 2 The New Prosodic System

24 myns es in tyre hag in moer warnothans kymar gallus yn s er ten rag dry ascore ty a vew may fota loose myns es in tyre hag in moer warnothans kymar gallus yn s er ten rag dry ascore ty a vew may fota loose Type 1 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines ABABABAB

25 Type 1 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines

26 Origo Mundi, lines 1-16 Type I Stanza

27 Type 1 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines

28 yta voice mernans abell thethe vrodar prest ow kyllwall an doer warnas p ub tellar yta voice mernans abell thethe vrodar prest ow kyllwall an doer warnas p ub tellar Type 2 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines AABAAB

29 Type 2 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines

30 Type II Stanza Origo Mundi, lines

31 Type 2 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines

32 om m a avy than clowdes w ar face an dower in s er tan try p er son yn idn dewges ow kysraynya b is vickan yn mere honor ha v er tew om m a avy than clowdes w ar face an dower in s er tan try p er son yn idn dewges ow kysraynya b is vickan yn mere honor ha v er tew Type 3 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines 4-8 ABABCABABC

33 Type 3 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines

34 Type III Stanza Beunans Meriasek, lines Type III Stanza, two-column format

35 Type 3 Segment Gwreans an Bys, lines

36 ABAB : AABAB : A3 AA : B2 ABABABABABAB1 ABAB : CABAB : C3 ABAB : CABAB : C3 ABABABAB1 AAAA : B2 AA : B2 2: C: C+ ABAB : CABAB : C3: D: D+ 2: A: A+ The New Prosodic System Gwreans an Bys, f. 25 verso

37 The Sources of Cornish Prosody Ÿ Cornish verse shares a few features with other Celtic traditions · Syllabic meter · Rhyming rule like that of Welsh and Breton · Cornish verse lacks the ornamentation (alliteration, internal rhyme) common in Irish, Welsh, and Breton poetry · Cornish uses very different verse forms Ÿ However: Ÿ Alternate-rhyme and tail-rhyme stanzas were common in medieval European poetry: Ÿ As early as 1877, Henry Jenner noted similarities to English verse · This connection was overlooked or dismissed by later scholars · “Typologically, Cornish versification was closer to English and French than to Welsh, Breton or Irish” (Tristram) Latin, French, Provençal, English — compare Irish, Welsh, Breton

38 AABCCB Middle English Prosody Ÿ Rhymed couplets Ÿ Alternate-rhyme stanzas Ÿ Tail-rhyme stanzas Ÿ Hybrid forms — not common in Cornish ABABABAB — thirteener AAABCCCB · Often have shorter B lines— a common variant in Cornish º Type III forms with an eight-line frons are found in Cornish º Type III stanzas with a cDDDC cauda are also attested º These variants become rarer over time ABABABABcDDDC · Parallel structure to the Cornish Type III stanza Ÿ Stress-based meter— usually four or three stresses per line Ÿ Stress-based rhyming rule

39 I thank it god hark ye what I mene ffor euen or for od I haue mekyll tene as heuy as a sod I grete w i t h myn eene when I nap on my cod for care that has bene and sorow all my shepe ar gone I am not left oone the rott has theym slone now beg I and borow I thank it god hark ye what I mene ffor euen or for od I haue mekyll tene as heuy as a sod I grete w i t h myn eene when I nap on my cod for care that has bene and sorow all my shepe ar gone I am not left oone the rott has theym slone now beg I and borow ABABABABcDDDCABABABABcDDDC 2’ 1’ 2’ Wakefield Stanza 2’ 1’ 2’ First Shepherds’ Play, lines 27-39

40 : : : : Wakefield Stanza First Shepherds’ Play, lines 27-39

41 Extended Type III Stanza Passio Christi, lines

42 now syn þ o u hast be hetyn me so I wyl go w i t h þe & a say I ne lette for frende ner fo but w i t h þe werld I wyl go play cert is a lytyl þrowe in þis world is al my trust to lyuy n in lykyng & in lust haue he & I onys cust we schal not part I trowe ABABcDDDcABABcDDDc now syn þ o u hast be hetyn me so I wyl go w i t h þe & a say I ne lette for frende ner fo but w i t h þe werld I wyl go play cert is a lytyl þrowe in þis world is al my trust to lyuy n in lykyng & in lust haue he & I onys cust we schal not part I trowe 4’ 3’ 4’ 3’ Castle of Perseverance Nine-line Stanza Castle of Perseverance, lines ’ 3’ 4’ 3’

43 Castle of Perseverance, lines Castle of Perseverance Nine-line Stanza

44 Beunans Meriasek, lines Type III Stanza, two-column format

45 English and Cornish Prosody : Conclusions + tail-rhyme cauda Ÿ Medieval English and Cornish verse both use a hybrid stanza form: · Alternate-rhyme frons Ÿ Direction of transmission: · Short C line links the two sections English → Cornish · Bilingualism more likely in Cornwall than in England · Cornish forms attested later than equivalent English forms · Early varieties of the Cornish Type III stanza resemble the Middle English thirteener (ABABABABcDDDC) more closely than do later forms (ABABcDDC) Ÿ Cornish versification represents a hybrid tradition, combining indigenous notions of rhyme and meter with imported stanza forms Ÿ This verse form appears to be a British innovation

46 du gveras a · b · c an pen can henna yv d Cornish Verse Forms Benjamin Bruch Department of Celtic Languages and Literatures Harvard University 13 May 2005 and the Evolution of Cornish Prosody c


Download ppt "du gveras a · b · c an pen can henna yv d Cornish Verse Forms Benjamin Bruch Department of Celtic Languages and Literatures Harvard University 13 May."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google