Presentation on theme: "Worldviews and Achievements"— Presentation transcript:
1 Worldviews and Achievements Newton and LeibnizWorldviews and Achievements
2 Who discovered Calculus? Newton & Leibniz are attributed with the discovery of Calculus, instead of Archemides, Oresme, Fermat or Isaac Barrows, etc., becausethey were the 1st to accomplish these 4 tasks:1. Developed general concepts relating the 2 basic calculus problems, extrema & areaNewton called them fluxion and fluentLeibniz labeled them differential and integral
3 Who discovered Calculus? 2. Developed notation & algorithmsthus allowing easy use of these concepts3. Understood & applied inverse relationships of their two concepts4. Used the 2 concepts in the solution of many difficult & unsolved problemsYet neither established the Calculus with the rigor of classical Greek geometry. This awaited a precise definition of limits.
4 Sir Isaac Newton ( )Wrote three laws of motion (inertia wasn’t his but from Philoponus)Solved problems such as the velocity of a projectile to escape earth’s gravity.Credited with amazing problem-solving ability and mental staminaIn 1669 & 1671 he wrote, but didn’t publishDe analysi per aequantiones numero terminorum infinitas (On Analysis by Equations with Infinitely Many Terms) andTractatus de methodis serierum et fluxionum (A treatise on the method of series & fluxions)Yet they circulated to some extent in manuscript form among mathematicians of England.
5 Sir Isaac Newton ( )These manuscripts were the result of two years of self-study in the mid 1660s. He consolidated and generalized all the material on tangents and areas ever developed into the magnificent problem-solving tool exhibited in the 1000-page calculus textbooks of our own day. (See Katz pg 505)His magnum opus, Principia (1687, 2nd & 3rd editions in 1713 & 1726) , was the most important text of the Scientific Revolution.As opposed to the common belief that Newton developed calculus to explain physics, the evidence shows that in fact the calculus was developed well before the physics. But what he did do was use the ideas and methodology of the calculus to derive many physical results.
6 Newton’s TheologyMember of the Royal Society of London, a scientific club founded by English PuritansHad some trouble reconciling how Jesus was fully God and fully manWrote several books of Biblical chronology and observationsBased all his scientific motivations on God as first cause of all mechanical processes
7 Gottfried Leibniz ( )Constructed a calculating machine that multiplied and dividedWorked in history, politics, law, theology, and economicsDeveloped calculus method as far as Newton and in the same time periodPublished first, but about 10 years after Newton’s manuscripts, so Newton is given the most credit. To clear up the matter, in 1714 he wroteHistoria et origo calculi differentialis (History & Origin of the Differential Calculus)
8 Leibniz’s TheologyBelieved in “preestablished harmony between thought and reality”Gave himself to science to see the wonders of God more clearlyLived in Germany, the heart of the Protestant Reformation movementBelieved in the Creator God as also the sustainer of all things
9 Four Puritan Factors in Science Absolute authority of Scripture (reason and science are tools of dominion).God is Creator and Lawgiver (ability to study).Vocation and calling (application of Biblical principles to secular activities).Optimistic eschatology (positive outlook concerning progress of society).
10 Christianity and Modern Science Scientific thought was hindered by the Roman Catholic view of God as a mystical embodiment of divinity.The Reformation brought about a view of God from His work.Those who used the understanding of God as a motivation to study included but were not limited to Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, Leibniz, Pascal, and Maxwell.
11 What We GatherIt is quite obvious that the concept and understanding of God presented both Newton and Leibniz with an unsurpassed motivation to mathematically model the world around them.The idea of God as the Law-Giver helped give weight to the theory that nature was created with a set of its own laws.This has shown to be true in all understood cases and may be applied to unknown territory in scientific study in order to better understand such subjects.
12 Sir Isaac Newton Gottfried Leibniz England - islandGottfried LeibnizGermany - continentIt is most important to remember that in either case, these great mathematicians would admit that the driving force behind their work was their Christian belief in God. Without this force, it cannot be said that each man’s greatest innovations would have been achieved.
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