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The Rise of Nationalism Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face?

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Nationalism Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Nationalism Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face?

2 Wilson’s 14 Points & Paris Peace Conference Colonies around the world encouraged by Wilson’s 14 points and “self-determination” of nations Great Britain & France obtained right to rule as mandates of the League of Nations –former German Territories in Africa –Former Ottoman Turkish lands in the Middle East

3 De-colonization Post WWI Liberation Movement begin to rise throughout the world post WWI. Agitate for : Political, social, and economic change to improve circumstances for working people –Addresses poverty created by colonization –Challenges absolute governments & authority(tzar, sultan, etc)

4 Intellectual Challenges to Western Cultural Imperialism Sociologist, Lester Frank Ward –Dynamic Sociology (1883) Criticized social Darwinism Argued the conservative social scientists responsible for Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer & William Graham Sumner wrongly applied evolutionary theory to human affairs Confused organic evolution with social evolution

5 Intellectual Challenges Edward Wilmot Blyden Black Spokesman –1832 – 1912 –West Indian Born, Liberian Statesman & ideologue His life’s work to dispel superiority and inferiority myths To include Africa in Geopolitics –Black Nationalism & pan-Africanism –The African Personality –Place of Islam and Arabic in Africa Pan-Africanism

6 Nationalism Political force at the turn of the century 19 th C –A learned emotional loyalty – perceive common bonds Provides members a sense of membership & belonging Nurtured by common bonds: language, religion, social & institutional traditions, territory, history

7 Factors in the Rise of Modern nationalism New urban middle class of westernized intellectuals (Merchants, clerk, students, professionals educated in western schools) –Resented foreigners and their arrogant contempt for colonial peoples –Dismayed between the ideals of western society and the reality. Disparity between ideal and reality, theory and practice Equality in economic opportunity non-existent –Segregated societies hat privileged Europeans over the colonial peoples

8 Anti-colonialism Educated natives organized political parties –Sought reforms –Sought an end of foreign rule –Sought a restoration of independence Middle class indigenous urban elite source of anti-colonial sentiment

9 p696 Gandhi & Indian Nationalism High caste, English trained Hindu Hoped to speak for all Indians

10 Young Hindu lawyer returned from south Africa to become active in the INC, 1915 Transformed the movement and galvanized the struggle for independence and identity –Accepted need for reforms to end traditional abuses like child marriage and sati –Called for an Indian share in the governing process more spending on economic development and less on military campaigns Gandhi

11 p699 British Indian Between the wars

12 The New Party British responded with a few concessions Disillusioned members split off and formed the New Party –called for use of terrorism and violence to achieve national independence The INC also had a hard time reconciling religious differences –Reflected Hindu concerns A separate Muslim League was created to represent the interests of the millions of Muslims in Indian society

13 p700 Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah confer before the partition of India into Hindu and Muslim states.

14 Satyagraha “ Hold fast to” the truth” –A policy of Non violent resistance Sought to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India Goal to convert the British to his views Goal to strengthen the unity and self respect of his compatriots Concerned about the untouchables, who he called the harijans or “children of god” –Use of civil disobedience against British suppression of dissent

15 Civil Disobedience Ghandi “mahatma” or “great soul” organized mass protests to achieve his aims –1919 the British violently responded to the protests –Killed 100s of unarmed protesters in the square in the city of Amristar in NW India Ghandi imprisoned for several years

16 Government of Indian Act British passed the Government of India Act, 1921: Transformed the advisory legislative council into a bicameral parliament, 2/3 rd s of whose members would be elected –5 million Indians were enfranchised (no longer enough for many INC members who wanted full independence) –British also increased the salt tax, prohibited Indian people from manufacturing or harvesting their own salt

17 March to the Sea, 1930 Ghandi led a nonviolent movement for Indian independence from British Rule with 78 followers. –Destination: Dandi,240 miles away.

18 March to the Sea, 1930 –“civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizen. He dare not give it up without ceasing to be a man.” –1000’s joined, each picked up a pinch of salt as an act of disobedience in protest of the British monopoly on salt.

19 Women’s Rights –Indian women active in the movement First 2 organizations to promote women’s rights had been established in the early years of the century –Became involved to bring about reforms Women accounted for about 20,0000, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar period

20 Women’s Rights Promoted women’s education, introduction of birth control, abolition of child marriage, universal suffrage 1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14

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22 Jawaharlal Nehru Educated in the law in Great Britian, Brahmin by birth He personified the new anglo-indian politician: secular, rational, upper class intellectual Movement embarked on a second path from Ghandi’s movement –Religious and secular/Native and western strengthened the movement, united 2 primary impulses behind the desire for independence –Elite nationalism and the primal force of Indian traditionalism

23 Pakistan 1940, the Muslim League called for the creation of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma insturmental (“land of the pure”) 1947

24 Partition aftermath Violent process –12.5 million displaced or homeless 14.5 million moved to Pakistan 7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved to india 7 million others moved to other regions 1 million dead 83,000 women abducted during riots and killings Legacy of religious division and intolerance

25 Ottoman Empire & Turkish Nationalism Multi-cultural make-up of the Ottoman empire. All subjected to massacres ordered by the “Red Sultan” in response to protests against his tyranny –Young Turks led the protests, promised reform and peace for all

26 First Waves of Liberation Young Turks (1908 – 1918) –Nationalist Reform Party –Begun by intelligentsia and military cadets Advocated Pan-Turkism & disliked multi- culturalism

27 Armenian Genocide Allied with Germany during WWI against Britain –Ethnic cleansing –1.5 Million Armenians tortured, killed

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29 Allied Triumph over the Ottoman British declared an official protectorate over Egypt 1916 local governor of Mecca, encouraged by British, declared Arabia independent from Ottoman rule British troops seized Palestine –0ct 1918 with 300,000 casualties from the war, negotiated an armistice with the allied powers

30 p702 Mustafa Kemal, president of the new republic, Ataturk ‘‘Father Turk’’

31 Mustafa Kemal and the Modernization of Turkey Kemal convoked a National congress Called for an elected government Goal to preserve remainder of territories of old Empire to create the Republic of Turkey Republic established in 1923

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33 Republic of Turkey Trappings of a democratic system were put into place –suppressed critics of his rule Turkish nationalism emphasized Popular education was emphasized Old aristocratic titles abolished –He attempted to break the power of Islamic clerics –Transform turkey into a secular state –Caliphate was abolished in 1924 –The Shari’a was replaced with the Swiss law code revised

34 Modernized the Economy established light industrial sector Institute a 5 year plan on the soviet model to provide for state direction over the economy Modernization of agricultural sector: training institutions and model farms State was a from of state capitalism,

35 Women’s Reforms in Turkey women discouraged from wearing the veil right to vote legally guaranteed equal rights with en in all aspects of marriage and inheritance in 1934 Education and the professions open to both sexes Women entered politics Freedom of religion and conversion

36 Persia – Qajar Dynasty ( ) Growing western influence – Russia & Great Britain –Discovery of oil reserves in 1908 –Division of spheres of influence Internal divisions Led to growth of indigenous Persian Nationalist Movement –By 1906 Shah forced to grant a constitution based on a western model

37 Pahlavi Dynasty, 1925 Established by Reza Khan – new Shah Attempted to establish a Republic Reforms: –Strengthened central government –Modernized the civilian & military bureaucracy –Modern economic infrastructure –Western educational model –Forbade veiling in public Name of nation changed to Iran, 1935 Occupied by Soviet & British troops during WWII

38 p702 Division of Iran by Soviet Union and Britain during WWII and occupation

39 Iraq Established after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire –Kurdish, Sunni and Shi’ite population Occupied by British in WWI to protect oil reserved from German Expansion –Placed under British mandate in 1920 –Ruled through minority Shi’ite population –Repressed anti-western resistance by 1921 –More Oil discovered in Kirkuk in 1927 –Britain supported Syrian rule of King Faisal & maintained heavy influence

40 Saudi Arabia 1920s, Ibn Saud of the Wahhabi Movement united Arab tribes to drive out Ottoman Rule Established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1932 Traditionally poor, Standard Oil struck oil in 1938 at Dhahran on the Gulf. –Arabian-American oil or ARAMCO established

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42 Palestine British Mandate following WWI Zionist Movement, Theodor Herzl est Jewish immigration accepted in Palestine prior to and during WWI –85,000 or 10% of the population were Jewish by the War –Majority Muslim Arabs –Balfour Declaration of 1917 declared Palestine a national home for Jews

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44 p705 European Jewish Refugees continued to emigrate after World War I

45 Division of Palestine & Creation of Jordan Post WWI Britain created a separate state or Emirate of Trans-Jordan out of the eastern portion of Palestine WWII, became the independent kingdom of Jordan –Arab-Palestine conflict today & the Apartheid state that exists is a product of these British interventions

46 p705

47 Revolution in Egypt Britain faced a fully developed nationalist movement Egyptians led by Saad Zaglhlul formed a delegation or Wafd –Asked for independence after the war –Egyptian demands were thwarted by British Determination to control the Suez Canal 1919 Full scale revolution erupted

48 Wafd Party Leaders exiled Wafd party became chief political & nationalist organization Revolts persisted/power struggle –Conflict between British King Fu’ad & his successor King Faruk The Wafd

49 Egyptian “Independence” Britain wanted to maintain presence & to undercut the nationalist movement Unilaterally proclaimed Egyptian independence under the constitutional monarchy of King Fu’ad 1922 –British continued to hold the Canal –Based soldiers in Egyptian territory –Exercised widespread influence over Egyptian political life

50 Egypt Nationalist demands for complete independence failed Monarchy & Wafd became corrupt Lost support from Egyptian population –Result was that the people turned to more radical groups from the “left” and the “right” finally the army to realize their nationalist aspirations

51 West African African colonies had given their loyal support to Britain in the war effort 1,000’s had died Efforts not recognized or rewarded socially, politically or economically Disgruntled solders joined nationalist efforts

52 Colonial Division’s Colonial state often tried to manipulate people through their feelings of ethnic identity –Language, religion, race, class, territory, economic or political advantage French used language to divide –Fearing Arabic unity gave special privilege to Berber traditional law over Muslim Sharia –Backfired and rallied Muslims to anti-colonial movement British/Afrikaner South Africa –Since 1948 Afrikaners attempted to create Homelands or later Bantustans to reinforce ethnic feelings of Xhosa or Zulu and reduce unity of Africans

53 Interwar Resistance in Africa Sources of Solidarity –Desire for indepence Self –governmnet End of economic exploitation by foriegners –Common Religion Islam (Egypt, Algeria, French Sudan) Christianity (Nyasaland (today’s Malawi) –Gender 1925 – 1930 Aba Women’s War in S.E. Nigeria –Economic interest Consumers united against high prices and low quality Trade unions organized for better wages

54 Kenya British settlement of Highlands –Land & privilege Indian immigration encouraged –Merchant class Kikuyu –Dispossession & Taxes

55 Kenya Prime Example of the contradictions and failures of British Imperial policies Racial & class divisions among the diverse population led to ongoing conflict –Indians from the subcontinent had been encouraged by the British to settle in large numbers in Uganda & Kenya –Became dominant merchants –Provided superior social & economic status within the British Imperial system

56 Kenya 1920’s African Nationalists responded –Formed several groups Kikuyu Central Association (1924) –British Repression –1928 repression created more support Leader Jomo Kenyatta Returned to lead Mau Mau Rebellion, (1953) –emerged to enforce unity, secrecy and discipline –Kikuyu feelings of ethnicity created by the colonial experience reinforced by new intercommunication in the Urban setting

57 Revolts in North Africa Nationalist Political movements –Morocco Rif Rebellion led by Krim Brothers Brutally crushed by French and Spanish forces –Algeria –Libya Italians bombed rebellion –Tunisia French crushed movements in early 1900s

58 National Congress of West Africa British Held Ghana (God Coast) –Casely Hayford led other educated Africans from 4 British colonies in demand for greater autonomy –Met in West Africa, Accra, capital of Gold Coast, 1920 Discussed implementation of reforms that would lead to independence Would meet over the next decade to agitate for independence

59 Nigeria Largest of British colonies –Women merchants led demonstrations & riots –1919, 1928 in opposition to British Domination –Leadership of Herbert Macaulay, Lagos, the capital –Center of well-organized & effective nationalist opposition

60 Nigerian National Democratic Party 1923 Mcaulay organized the NNDP –Agitated for Nigerian participation within the British political system

61 Senegal Blaise Diagne, customs official First African to be elected to the French Chamber of Deputies Pushed for National causes in French held Senegal

62 Belgian Congo Nationalist Movement –Belgians established a local school system Few graduates went on to western universities –Continued to pursue a very paternalistic policy in the Congo –Repressive tactics by Belgians increased the number of nationalist sympathizers Authoritarian system repressed nationalistic drive

63 British East Africa Uganda –British authorities worked through local leaders who exercised local government duties –Nationalist demonstrations were rare

64 East Africa Portuguese colonies –Angola –Mozambique Prazos – feudal Estates Held by small white majority Dominated agricultural and Business activities Major force behind authoritarian Portuguese politics

65 Racial Caste & Apartheid Mozambique Angola Rhodesia –British held economic and political power –Black majority in subordinate position –Deprived of political participation –Poverty & economic independence prevented them from forming effective nationalist organizations

66 South African: Nationalist Versus White Settler Rule British won war with Boers during WWI Government incorporated Boer territory and granted them dominion status with the commonwealth –Position implied an equal partnership with the mother country –Program of economic rehabilitation & assimilation of the Boers –Afrikaner culture emerged South African of Dutch Origin Nationalism

67 Afrikaners Formed political parties –Heroes of Boer War –Moved to maintain their superior political & economic status through the United Party (1934) Formed by Generals Jan Christian Smuts James Hertzog –By 1934 segregationist policies that formed the foundation for Apartheid had become apparent

68 South Africa Rich agricultural land Minerals Water – Union of South Africa –Dominated by Boers –Prospered –Bantu Peoples 80% of the population Tenant farmers, manual laborers, workers in mines & factories disenfranchised

69 South African Native National Congress Educated black South Africans –Formed the SANNC in 1912 –Opposed to removal of native farmers from their ancestral lands –Sought to redress grievances –Leadership was conservative & wanted to negotiate with white minority

70 Africa National Congress of SA 1923 changed its name & became a major nationalist organization for black participation and self determination –Boers continued a policy of divide and rule –Encouraged intertribal differences

71 Pan-Africanism African leaders, alienated by European economic, political and cultural domination called for unity of all Africans Henry Sylvester-Williams called the first Pan-African Conference in London 1900 Later held in Latin America & United States

72 Post War Era British & French Refusals to grant autonomy fueled nationalist upheavals in Africa & middle east Imperial governments determined to control middle eastern oil fields, strategic Suez Canal & the Persian Gulf

73 Rise of Radicalism When Political parties & nationalist parties failed to make gains Many turned to military solution to achieve national liberation


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