Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Nationalism"— Presentation transcript:
1The Rise of Nationalism Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face?Understand Legal Consequences of Post war division of colonial territoriesIdentify the intellectual currents that both justified and resisted international policy determined by the League of NationsUnderstand sources of both solidarity and division within colonized nations
2Wilson’s 14 Points & Paris Peace Conference Colonies around the world encouraged by Wilson’s 14 points and “self-determination” of nationsGreat Britain & France obtained right to rule as mandates of the League of Nationsformer German Territories in AfricaFormer Ottoman Turkish lands in the Middle East
3De-colonization Post WWI Liberation Movement begin to rise throughout the world post WWI.Agitate for : Political, social, and economic change to improve circumstances for working peopleAddresses poverty created by colonizationChallenges absolute governments & authority(tzar, sultan, etc)
4Intellectual Challenges to Western Cultural Imperialism Sociologist, Lester Frank WardDynamic Sociology (1883)Criticized social DarwinismArgued the conservative social scientists responsible for Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer & William Graham Sumner wrongly applied evolutionary theory to human affairsConfused organic evolution with social evolution
5Intellectual Challenges Edward Wilmot Blyden Black Spokesman1832 – 1912West Indian Born, Liberian Statesman & ideologueHis life’s work to dispel superiority and inferiority mythsTo include Africa in GeopoliticsBlack Nationalism & pan-AfricanismThe African PersonalityPlace of Islam and Arabic in AfricaPan-AfricanismDominated by educated Africans & African AmericansAdvocated appreciation of African CulturesBetter education and equality Henry Sylvester-Williams called the first Pan-African Conference in London 1900Later held in Latin America & United StatesE.W. BlydenLiberian Diplomat born in TrinidadW.E.B. DuboisAfrican AmericanActive in NAACP, popularized movement in the westMarcus GarveyBorn in JamaicaAmerican Back to Africa Movement2 million followersAfrican Personality: the anti thesis of the European and was to counteract the worst aspects of the latterharsh, individualistic, competitive, combative, materialistic, science and technology replaced godcheerful, sympathetic, willing to serve, they would make a spiritual contribution to the world
6Nationalism Political force at the turn of the century 19th C A learned emotional loyaltyperceive common bondsProvides members a sense of membership & belongingNurtured by common bonds: language, religion, social & institutional traditions, territory, historyHistory might be glorified or even a new one constructed and imagined to perpetuate nationalism and unity
7Factors in the Rise of Modern nationalism New urban middle class of westernized intellectuals (Merchants, clerk, students, professionals educated in western schools)Resented foreigners and their arrogant contempt for colonial peoplesDismayed between the ideals of western society and the reality . Disparity between ideal and reality, theory and practiceEquality in economic opportunity non-existentSegregated societies hat privileged Europeans over the colonial peoples
8Anti-colonialism Educated natives organized political parties Sought reformsSought an end of foreign ruleSought a restoration of independenceMiddle class indigenous urban elite source of anti-colonial sentimentIndian consciousness had focused primarily on the question of religious identity. After all, the subcontinent had not been ruled by a dynasty of purely indigenous origins since the Guptas in the middle of the first millennium C.E. But in the latter half of the nineteenth century, a stronger sense of national consciousness began to emerge, provoked by the conservative policies and racial arrogance of the British colonial authorities.The first Indian nationalists were upper class and educated. Many of them were from urban areas such as Bombay (now Mumbai), Madras (now Chennai), and Calcutta (now Kolkata). Some were trained in law and were members of the civil service. At first, many tended to prefer reform to revolution and believed that India needed modernization before it could handle independence. An exponent of this view was Gopal Gokhale (goh-PAHL GOH-kuh-lay) (1866–1915), a moderate nationalist who hoped that he could convince the British to bring about needed reforms in Indian society. Gokhale and other like-minded reformists did have some effect. In the 1880s, the government introduced a measure of self-government for the first time. All too often, however, such efforts were sabotaged by local British officials.The slow pace of reform convinced many Indian nationalists that relying on British benevolence was futile. In 1885, a small group of Indians, with some British participation, met in Bombay to form the Indian National Congress (INC). They hoped to speak for all India, but most were high-caste English-trained Hindus. Like their reformist predecessors, members of the INC did not demand immediate independence and accepted the need for reforms to end traditional abuses like child marriage and sati. At the same time, they called for an Indian share in the governing process and more spending on economic development and less on military campaigns along the frontier. The British responded with a few concessions, but change was glacially slow. As impatient members of the INC became disillusioned, the radicals split off and formed the New Party, which called for the use of terrorism and violence to achieve national independence.
9Gandhi & Indian Nationalism High caste, English trained HinduHoped to speak for all IndiansMohandas ‘‘Mahatma’’ Gandhi, the ‘‘Soul of India’’p696
10GandhiYoung Hindu lawyer returned from south Africa to become active in the INC, 1915Transformed the movement and galvanized the struggle for independence and identityAccepted need for reforms to end traditional abuses like child marriage and satiCalled for an Indian share in the governing process more spending on economic development and less on military campaignsIndia:Prior to the Sepoy Rebellion Indian consciousness focused on the question of religious identityDue to the conservative policies and racial arrogance, a stronger sense of national consciousness began to arise in the late 19th CFirst Indian nationalistsupper class and educateUrban centersTrained in lawCivil serviceBelieved reform was necessaryIndia needed modernization before it could handle independenceGopal Gokhale wanted to convince the british to bring about reforms1880s the government introduced a measure of self government for the first timeSlow pace of reformConvinced nationalists that relying on british benevolence was futileGhandi, born in 1869In 1915, a young Hindu lawyer returned from South Africa to become active in the INC. He transformed the movement and galvanized India's struggle for independence and identity. Mohandas Gandhi (moh-HAHN-dus GAHN-dee) (1869–1948) was born in Gujarat (goo-juh-RAHT), in western India, the son of a government minister. In the late nineteenth century, he studied in London and became a lawyer. In 1893, he went to South Africa to work in a law firm serving Indian émigrés working as laborers there. He soon became aware of the racial prejudice and exploitation experienced by Indians living in the territory and tried to organize them to protect their interests.
11British IndianBetweenthe warsBritish India Between the Warsp699
12The New Party British responded with a few concessions Disillusioned members split off and formed the New Partycalled for use of terrorism and violence to achieve national independenceThe INC also had a hard time reconciling religious differencesReflected Hindu concernsA separate Muslim League was created to represent the interests of the millions of Muslims in Indian societyThe INC also had difficulty reconciling religious differences within its ranks. The stated goal of the INC was to seek self-determination for all Indians regardless of class or religious affiliation, but many of its leaders were Hindu and inevitably reflected Hindu concerns. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the separate Muslim League was created to represent the interests of the millions of Muslims in Indian society.
13Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi , and Muhammad Ali Jinnah confer before the partition of India into Hindu and Muslim states.Jawaharlal Nehru (Roshan Seth), Mahatma Gandhi (Ben Kingsley), and Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Alyque Padamsee) confer before the partition of India into Hindu and Muslim states.p700
14Satyagraha “ Hold fast to” the truth” A policy of Non violent resistanceSought to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to IndiaGoal to convert the British to his viewsGoal to strengthen the unity and self respect of his compatriotsConcerned about the untouchables, who he called the harijans or “children of god”Use of civil disobedience against British suppression of dissentWhen the british attempted to suppress dissent, he called on people to disobey the british regulationsBegan to manufacture his own clothes – dhoti –adopted the spinning wheel as a symbol of resistance to textiles
15Civil DisobedienceGhandi “mahatma” or “great soul” organized mass protests to achieve his aims1919 the British violently responded to the protestsKilled 100s of unarmed protesters in the square in the city of Amristar in NW IndiaGhandi imprisoned for several yearsGhandi arrested for his role in the protests, spent several years in prisonHe combined his anticolonial activities with an appeal to the spritiual instincts of allindiansBorn and raised hindu, he took a universalist approach to the idea of god which transcended individual religion
16Government of Indian Act British passed the Government of India Act, 1921: Transformed the advisory legislative council into a bicameral parliament, 2/3rds of whose members would be elected5 million Indians were enfranchised(no longer enough for many INC members who wanted full independence)British also increased the salt tax,prohibited Indian people from manufacturing or harvesting their own salt
17March to the Sea, 1930Ghandi led a nonviolent movement for Indian independence from British Rule with 78 followers.Destination: Dandi,240 miles away.
18March to the Sea, 1930“civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizen. He dare not give it up without ceasing to be a man.”1000’s joined, each picked up a pinch of salt as an act of disobedience in protest of the British monopoly on salt.Ghandi, released from prison, returned to his earlier policy of civil disobedienceHe preached his message in each town he passed through that “civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizn. He dare not give it up without ceasing to be a man.” 24 days later he reached Dandi with a following of thousands. He picked up a pinch of salt, all followers did like wise, openly breaking british laws that prohibited Indians from making their own salt. (british monopoly on salt). One of many acts of civil disobedience in the interwar period.Indian women were acive in the movementFirst 2 organizations to promote womens rights had been established in the early years of the centuryBecame involved to bring about reformsWomen accounted for about 20 thousand, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar periodPromoted womens education, introduction of birth control, abolition of child marriage, universal suffrage1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14
19Women’s Rights Indian women active in the movement First 2 organizations to promote women’s rights had been established in the early years of the centuryBecame involved to bring about reformsWomen accounted for about 20,0000, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar periodIndian women were acive in the movementFirst 2 organizations to promote womens rights had been established in the early years of the centuryBecame involved to bring about reformsWomen accounted for about 20 thousand, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar periodPromoted womens education, introduction of birth control, abolition of child marriage, universal suffrage1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14
20Women’s Rights Promoted women’s education, introduction of birth control,abolition of child marriage,universal suffrage1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14
21COMPARATIVE ILLUSTRATION Masters and Disciples. When the founders of nationalist movements passed leadership over to their successors, the result was often a change in the strategy and tactics of the organizations. When Jawaharlal Nehru (left photo, on the left) replaced Mahatma Gandhi (wearing a simple Indian dhoti rather than the Western dress favored by his colleagues) as leader of the Indian National Congress, the movement adopted a more secular posture.p710
22Jawaharlal NehruEducated in the law in Great Britian, Brahmin by birthHe personified the new anglo-indian politician: secular, rational, upper class intellectualMovement embarked on a second path from Ghandi’s movementReligious and secular/Native and westernstrengthened the movement , united 2 primary impulses behind the desire for independenceElite nationalism and the primal force of Indian traditionalismIn the 1930s, a new figure entered the movement in the person of Jawaharlal Nehru (juh-WAH-hur-lahl NAY-roo) (1889–1964), son of an earlier INC leader. Educated in the law in Great Britain and a brahmin by birth, Nehru personified the new Anglo-Indian politician: secular, rational, upper class, and intellectual. In fact, he appeared to be evon two paths, religious and secular, Indian and Western, traditional and modern. The dual character of the INC leadership may well have strengthened the movement by bringing together the two primary impulses behind the desire for independence: elite nationalism and the primal force of Indian traditionalism. But it portended trouble for the nation's new leadership in defining India's future path in the contemporary world. In the meantime, Muslim discontent with Hindu dominance over the INC was increasing.
23Pakistan1940, the Muslim League called for the creation of a separate Muslim state of PakistanBritish Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma insturmental(“land of the pure”)1947In 1940, the Muslim League called for the creation of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan (“land of the pure”) in the northwest (see the box on p. 703). As communal strife between Hindus and Muslims increased, many Indians came to realize with sorrow (and some British colonialists with satisfaction) that British rule was all that stood between peace and civil war.erything that Gandhi was not. With Nehru's emergence, the independence movement embarked
24Partition aftermath Violent process 12.5 million displaced or homeless14.5 million moved to Pakistan7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved to india7 million others moved to other regions1 million dead83,000 women abducted during riots and killingsLegacy of religious division and intolerance
25Ottoman Empire & Turkish Nationalism Multi-cultural make-up of the Ottoman empire.All subjected to massacres ordered by the “Red Sultan” in response to protests against his tyrannyYoung Turks led the protests, promised reform and peace for allIn the Middle East, as in Europe, World War I hastened the collapse of old empires. The Ottoman Empire, which had dominated the eastern Mediterranean since the seizure of Constantinople in 1453, had been growing weaker since the end of the eighteenth century, troubled by rising governmental corruption, a decline in the effectiveness of the sultans, and the loss of considerable territory in the Balkans and southwestern Russia. In North Africa, Ottoman authority, tenuous at best, had disintegrated in the nineteenth century, enabling the French to seize Algeria and Tunisia and the British to establish a protectorate over the Nile River valley. Nationalist Revolt in the Middle East:wwI hastened the collapse of old empiresThe Ottoman Empire (had dominated the Mediterranean since the seizure of constantinoplein 1453By the 19th C: weakenedNorth Africa: French took over Algeria ad TunisiaThe british established a protectorate over th Nile River ValleyDecline of Ottoman EmpireGreece declard its independenceRising sense of nationality among serbs, Armenians and other minority peoples threatened the cohesion of the empire1870s new generation of reformers seized power in Istanbul and pushed through aconstituion aimed at forming a legislative assembling that would represent ALL peoplesThe sultan they placed on the throne suspended the new charter and attempted to rule by traditional authoritarian meansEnd of 19th C: the defunct 1876 constitution became a symbol of change for reformist elements:New reformists: The Young TurksForced the sultan to restore the constitution in 1907He was removed from power in 1908The young turks had appeared at a moment of exreme fragility for the empire,Internal rebellionsAustrian annexations of ottoman territories to the BalkansUndermined support for the new government and provoked the army to step inMost minorities from the old empire, now removed from istanbuls authorityAmany ethnic turks began to embrace a new concept of Turkish state based on Turkish nationality
26First Waves of Liberation Young Turks (1908 – 1918)Nationalist Reform PartyBegun by intelligentsia and military cadetsAdvocated Pan-Turkism & disliked multi-culturalismFinal blow to the empire: WWIThe ottoman government allied with Germany in the hope of driving the British from Egypt and restoring ottoman rule over the Nile valley
27Armenian Genocide Allied with Germany during WWI against Britain Ethnic cleansing1.5 Million Armenians tortured, killed
29Allied Triumph over the Ottoman British declared an official protectorate over Egypt1916 local governor of Mecca, encouraged by British, declared Arabia independent from Ottoman ruleBritish troops seized Palestine0ct 1918 with 300,000 casualties from the war, negotiated an armistice with the allied powersIn response the british declared an official protectorate over Egypt and was helped by adventurer TE Lawrence, or Lawrence of Arabia who had sought to undermine Ottoman rule in the Arabian Peninsula by encouraging arab nationalists there1916 local governor of Mexxa, encouraged by British, declared Arabia independent from Ottoman rule\British troops seized Palestine0ct 1918 with 300,000 casualties from the war, negotiated an armistice with the allied powers
30president of the new republic, Mustafa Kemal,president of the new republic,Ataturk‘‘Father Turk’’Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The war hero Mustafa Kemal took the initiative in creating the republic of Turkey. As president of the new republic, Ataturk (‘‘Father Turk’’), as he came to be called, worked hard to transform Turkey into a modern secular state by restructuring the economy, adopting Western dress, and breaking the powerful hold of Islamic traditions. He is now reviled by Muslim fundamentalists for his opposition to an Islamic state. In this photograph, Atatuｬ rk, at the left in civilian clothes, hosts the shah of Persia during the latter’s visit to Turkey in July 1934.p702
31Mustafa Kemal and the Modernization of Turkey Kemal convoked a National congressCalled for an elected governmentGoal to preserve remainder of territories of old Empire to create the Republic of TurkeyRepublic established in 1923Mustafa Kemal and the Modernization of TurkeyThe empire began to fall apart as the British and the French made plans to divide the ottoman territories in the middle wast and the Greeks won allied approval to seize the western parts of the Anatolian peninsula for their dream of re creating the substance of the old byzantine empireKemal convoked a national congress that called for an elected government and the preservation of the remaining territories of the old empire in a new republic of trkeyNew capital of AnkaraHe drove the Greeks from the Anatolian peninsula and persuaded the british to afree to a new treaty1923 the last of the ottoman sultan fled the country which was now declared a Turkish republicThe ottoman empire had come to an endAtaturk “father turk”Attempted to transform turkey into a modern secular republicTrappings of a democratic system were pu into placeThe president was intolerant of opposition, and harshly suppressed critics of his ruleTurkish nationalism was emphasized , Turkish language was shorn of many of its Arabic elementsPopular education was emphasizedOld aristocratic titles like Pasha and bey were abolishedTurkish citizens were given family names in the European styleAtaturk also too steps to modernize the economy oveseing the establisement of a light industrial sector: textiles, glas, paper, cementInstitute a 5 year plan on the soviet model to provide for state direction over the economyModernization of agricultural sector: training institutions and model farms: little effect on conservative peasantsNo admirer of soviet communismState was a from of state capitalism,He attempted to break the power of Islamic clericsTransform turkey into a secular stateCaliphate was abolished in 1924The Shari’a was replaced with the swiss law code revisedThe Fez was abolished and women discouraged from wearing the veilWomen received the right to vote and were legally guaranteed equal rights with en in all aspects of marriage and inheritance in 1934Education and the professions open to both sexesWomen entered politicsFreedeom of religion and conversionTried to break the power of religious orders of islam – abolished all monasteries and brotherhoods
33Republic of TurkeyTrappings of a democratic system were put into placesuppressed critics of his ruleTurkish nationalism emphasizedPopular education was emphasizedOld aristocratic titles abolishedHe attempted to break the power of Islamic clericsTransform turkey into a secular stateCaliphate was abolished in 1924The Shari’a was replaced with the Swiss law code revised, TurkTurkish citizens were given family names in the European styleish language was shorn of many of its Arabic elements
34Modernized the Economy established light industrial sectorInstitute a 5 year plan on the soviet model to provide for state direction over the economyModernization of agricultural sector: training institutions and model farmsState was a from of state capitalism,: textiles, glas, paper, cement
35Women’s Reforms in Turkey women discouraged from wearing the veilright to votelegally guaranteed equal rights with en in all aspects of marriage and inheritance in 1934Education and the professions open to both sexesWomen entered politicsFreedom of religion and conversionTried to break the power of religious orders of islam – abolished all monasteries and brotherhood
36Persia – Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925) Growing western influence – Russia & Great BritainDiscovery of oil reserves in 1908Division of spheres of influenceInternal divisionsLed to growth of indigenous Persian Nationalist MovementBy 1906 Shah forced to grant a constitution based on a western model In the meantime, a similar process was under way in Persia. Under the Qajar (kuh-JAHR) dynasty (1794–1925), the country had not been very successful in resisting Russian advances in the Caucasus or resolving its domestic problems. To secure themselves from foreign influence, the Qajars moved the capital from Tabriz to Tehran (teh-RAHN), in a mountainous area just south of the Caspian Sea. During the mid-nineteenth century, one modernizing shah attempted to introduce political and economic reforms but faced resistance from tribal and religious—predominantly Shi'ite—forces. To buttress its rule, the dynasty turned increasingly to Russia and Great Britain to protect itself from its own people.Eventually, the growing foreign presence led to the rise of an indigenous Persian nationalist movement. Its efforts were largely directed against Russian advances in the northwest and the growing European influence in the small modern industrial sector, the profits from which left the country or disappeared into the hands of the dynasty's ruling elite. Supported actively by Shi'ite religious leaders, opposition to the regime rose steadily among both peasants and merchants in the cities, and in 1906, popular pressures forced the reigning shah to grant a constitution on the Western model. It was an eerie foretaste of the revolution of 1979 (see Chapter 29).As in the Ottoman Empire and Manchu China, however, the modernizers had moved too soon, before their power base was secure. With the support of the Russians and the British, the shah was able to retain control, while the two foreign powers began to divide the country into separate spheres of influence. One reason for the growing foreign presence in Persia was the discovery of oil reserves in the southern part of the country in Within a few years, oil exports increased rapidly, with the bulk of the profits going into the pockets of British investors.
37Pahlavi Dynasty, 1925 Established by Reza Khan – new Shah Attempted to establish a RepublicReforms:Strengthened central governmentModernized the civilian & military bureaucracyModern economic infrastructureWestern educational modelForbade veiling in publicName of nation changed to Iran, 1935Occupied by Soviet & British troops during WWIIIn 1921, an officer in the Persian army by the name of Reza Khan (ree-ZAH KAHN) (1878–1944) led a mutiny that seized power in Tehran. The new ruler had originally intended to establish a republic, but resistance from traditional forces impeded his efforts, and in 1925 the new Pahlavi (PAH-luh-vee) dynasty, with Reza Khan as shah, replaced the now defunct Qajar dynasty. During the next few years, Reza Khan attempted to follow the example of Atatürk in Turkey, introducing a number of reforms to strengthen the central government, modernize the civilian and military bureaucracy, and establish a modern economic infrastructure. In 1935, he officially changed the name of the nation to Iran.Unlike Atatürk, Reza Khan did not attempt to destroy the power of Islamic beliefs, but he did encourage the establishment of a Western-style educational system and forbade women to wear the veil in public. Women continued to be exploited, however. Like the textile industry in Meiji Japan (see Chapter 22), the Iranian carpet industry was based on the intensive labor of women; the carpets they produced were a valuable export—second only to oil—in the interwar period. To strengthen the sense of Iranian nationalism and reduce the power of Islam, Reza Khan attempted to popularize the symbols and beliefs of pre-Islamic times. Like his Qajar predecessors, however, he was hindered by strong foreign influence. When the Soviet Union and Great Britain decided to send troops into the country during World War II, he resigned in protest and died three years later.
38Division of Iran by Soviet Union and Britain Iran Under the Pahlavi DynastyDivision of Iran by Soviet Union and Britainduring WWII and occupationp702
39Iraq Established after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire Kurdish, Sunni and Shi’ite populationOccupied by British in WWI to protect oil reserved from German ExpansionPlaced under British mandate in 1920Ruled through minority Shi’ite populationRepressed anti-western resistance by 1921More Oil discovered in Kirkuk in 1927Britain supported Syrian rule of King Faisal & maintained heavy influenceIraq: One other consequence of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was the emergence of a new political entity along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, once the heartland of ancient empires. Lacking defensible bordersand sharply divided along ethnic and religious lines—a Shi'ite majority in rural areas was balanced by a vocal Sunni minority in the cities and a largely Kurdish population in the northern mountains—the area had been under Ottoman rule since the seventeenth century. With the advent of World War I, the lowland area from Baghdad southward to the Persian Gulf was occupied by British forces, who hoped to protect oil-producing regions in neighboring Persia from a German takeover.Although the British claimed to have arrived as liberators, in 1920 the country now known as Iraq was placed under British control as a mandate of the League of Nations. Civil unrest and growing anti-Western sentiment rapidly dispelled any immediate plans for the emergence of an independent government, and in 1921, after the suppression of resistance forces, the country was placed under the titular authority of King Faisal (FY-suhl) of Syria, a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. Faisal relied for support primarily on the politically more sophisticated urban Sunni population, although they represented less than a quarter of the population. The discovery of oil near Kirkuk (kir-KOOK) in 1927 increased the value of the area to the British, who granted formal independence to the country in 1932, although British advisers retained a strong influence over the fragile government.
40Saudi Arabia1920s, Ibn Saud of the Wahhabi Movement united Arab tribes to drive out Ottoman RuleEstablished the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1932Traditionally poor, Standard Oil struck oil in 1938 at Dhahran on the Gulf.Arabian-American oil or ARAMCO establishedAs we have seen, the Arab uprising during World War I helped bring about the demise of the Ottoman Empire. There had been resistance against Ottoman rule in the Arabian peninsula since the eighteenth century, when the devoutly Muslim Wahhabi (wuh-HAH-bee) sect revolted in an attempt to drive out outside influences and cleanse Islam of corrupt practices that had developed in past centuries. The revolt was eventually suppressed, but Wahhabi influence persisted.World War I offered an opportunity for the Arabs to throw off the shackles of Ottoman rule—but what would replace them? The Arabs were not a nation but an idea, a loose collection of peoples who often did not see eye to eye on matters that affected their community. Disagreement over what constitutes an Arab has plagued generations of political leaders who have sought unsuccessfully to knit together the disparate peoples of the region into a single Arab nation.When the Arab leaders in Mecca declared their independence from Ottoman rule in 1916, they had hoped for British support, but—despite the efforts of T. E. Lawrence—they were to be sorely disappointed. At the close of the war, the British and French agreed to create a number of mandates in the area under the general supervision of the League of Nations (see Chapter 23). Iraq was assigned to the British; Syria and Lebanon (the two areas were separated so that Christian peoples in Lebanon could be placed under Christian administration) were given to the French.In the early 1920s, a leader of the Wahhabi movement, Ibn Saud (IB-un sah-OOD) (1880–1953), united Arab tribes in the northern part of the Arabian peninsula and drove out the remnants of Ottoman rule. Ibn Saud was a descendant of the family that had led the Wahhabi revolt in the eighteenth century. Devout and gifted, he won broad support among Arab tribal peoples and established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia throughout much of the peninsula in 1932.At first, his new kingdom, consisting essentially of the vast desert wastes of central Arabia, was desperately poor. Its financial resources were limited to the income from Muslim pilgrims visiting the holy sites in Mecca and Medina. But during the 1930s, American companies began to explore for oil, and in 1938, Standard Oil made a successful strike at Dhahran (dah-RAHN), on the Persian Gulf. Soon an Arabian-American oil conglomerate, popularly called Aramco, was established, and the isolated kingdom was suddenly inundated by Western oilmen and untold wealth.
42Palestine British Mandate following WWI Zionist Movement, Theodor Herzl est. 1897Jewish immigration accepted in Palestine prior to and during WWI85,000 or 10% of the population were Jewish by the WarMajority Muslim ArabsBalfour Declaration of 1917 declared Palestine a national home for Jews The land of Palestine—once the home of the Jews but now inhabited primarily by Muslim Arabs—became a separate mandate and immediately became a thorny problem for the British. In 1897, the Austrian-born journalist Theodor Herzl (1860–1904) (see Chapter 20) had convened an international conference in Basel, Switzerland, which led to the creation of a World Zionist Organization (WZO). The aim of the organization was to create a homeland in Palestine for the Jewish people, who had long been dispersed widely throughout Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.Over the next decade, Jewish immigration into Palestine, then under Ottoman rule, increased with WZO support. By the outbreak of World War I, about 85,000 Jews lived in Palestine, representing about 15 percent of the total population. In 1917, responding to appeals from the British chemist Chaim Weizmann (KY-im VYTS-mahn), British Foreign Secretary Lord Arthur Balfour (BAL-foor) issued a declaration saying Palestine was to be a national home for the Jews. The Balfour Declaration, which was later confirmed by the League of Nations, was ambiguous on the legal status of the territory and promised that the decision would not undermine the rights of the non-Jewish peoples currently living in the area. But Arab nationalists were incensed. How could a national home for the Jewish people be established in a territory where the majority of the population was Muslim?
44European Jewish Refugees continued to emigrate after World War I European Jewish Refugees. After the 1917 Balfour Declaration promised a Jewish homeland in Palestine, increasing numbers of European Jews emigrated there. Their goal was to build a new life in a Jewish land. Like the refugees aboard this ship, they celebrated as they reached their new homeland. The sign reads ‘‘Keep the gates open, we are not the last’’—a reference to British efforts to slow the pace of Jewish immigration in response to protests by Muslim residents of Palestine.European Jewish Refugees continuedto emigrate after World War Ip705
45Division of Palestine & Creation of Jordan Post WWI Britain created a separate state or Emirate of Trans-Jordan out of the eastern portion of PalestineWWII, became the independent kingdom of JordanArab-Palestine conflict today & the Apartheid state that exists is a product of these British interventionsAfter World War I, more Jewish settlers began to arrive in Palestine in response to the promises made in the Balfour Declaration. As tensions between the new arrivals and existing Muslim residents began to escalate, the British tried to restrict Jewish immigration into the territory while Arab voices rejected the concept of a separate state. In a bid to relieve Arab sensitivities, Great Britain created the separateemirate of Trans-Jordan out of the eastern portion of Palestine. After World War II, it would become the independent kingdom of Jordan. The stage was set for the conflicts that would take place in the region after World War II.
47Revolution in EgyptBritain faced a fully developed nationalist movementEgyptians led by Saad Zaglhlul formed a delegation or WafdAsked for independence after the warEgyptian demands were thwarted by British Determination to control the Suez Canal 1919Full scale revolution eruptedGreat Britain had maintained a loose protectorate over Egypt since the middle of the nineteenth century, although the area remained nominally under Ottoman rule. London formalized its protectorate in 1914 to protect the Suez Canal and the Nile River valley from possible seizure by the Central Powers. After the war, however, nationalist elements became restive and formed the Wafd (WAHFT) Party, a secular organization dedicated to the creation of an independent Egypt based on the principles of representative government. The Wafd received the support of many middle-class Egyptians who, like Kemal Atatürk in Turkey, hoped to meld Islamic practices with the secular tradition of the modern West. This modernist form of Islam did not have broad appeal outside the cosmopolitan centers, however, and in 1928 the Muslim cleric Hasan al-Bana (hah-SAHN al-BAN-ah) organized the Muslim Brotherhood, which demanded strict adherence to the traditional teachings of the Prophet, as set forth in the Qur'an. The Brotherhood rejected Western ways and sought to create a new Egypt based firmly on the precepts of the Shari'a. By the 1930s, the organization had as many as a million members.Nationalism and RevolutionBefore the Russian Revolution, to most intellectuals in Asia and Africa, “westernization” referred to the capitalist democratic civilization of western Europe and the United States, not the doctrine of social revolution developed by Karl Marx. Until 1917, Marxism was regarded as a utopian idea rather than a concrete system of government. Moreover, to many intellectuals, Marxism appeared to have little relevance to conditions in Asia and Africa. Marxist doctrine, after all, declared that a communist society would arise only from the ashes of an advanced capitalism that had already passed through the Industrial Revolution. From the perspective of Marxist historical analysis, most societies in Asia and Africa were still at the feudal stage of development; they lacked the economic conditions and political awareness to achieve a socialist revolution that would bring the working class to power. Finally, the Marxist view of nationalism and religion had little appeal to many patriotic intellectuals in the non-Western world. Marx believed that nationhood and religion were essentially false ideas that diverted the attention of the oppressed masses from the critical issues of class struggle and, in his phrase, the exploitation of one person by another. Instead, Marx stressed an “internationalist” outlook based on class consciousness and the eventual creation of a classless society with no artificial divisions based on culture, nation, or religion. For these reasons, many patriotic non-Western intellectuals initially deemed Marxism both irrelevant and unappealing. That situation began to change after the Russian Revolution in The rise to power of Lenin's Bolsheviks demonstrated that a revolutionary party espousing Marxist principles could overturn a corrupt, outdated system and launch a new experiment dedicated to ending human inequality and achieving a paradise on earth. In 1920, Lenin proposed a new revolutionary strategy designed to relate Marxist doctrine and practice to non-Western societies. His reasons were not entirely altruistic. Soviet Russia, surrounded by capitalist powers, desperately needed allies in its struggle to survive in a hostile wor
48Wafd Party Leaders exiled Wafd party became chief political & nationalist organizationRevolts persisted/power struggleConflict betweenBritishKing Fu’ad & his successor King FarukThe Wafd
49Egyptian “Independence” Britain wanted to maintain presence& to undercut the nationalist movementUnilaterally proclaimed Egyptian independence under the constitutional monarchy of King Fu’ad 1922British continued to hold the CanalBased soldiers in Egyptian territoryExercised widespread influence over Egyptian political life
50Egypt Nationalist demands for complete independence failed Monarchy & Wafd became corruptLost support from Egyptian populationResult was that the people turned to more radical groups from the “left” and the “right” finally the army to realize their nationalist aspirations
51West AfricanAfrican colonies had given their loyal support to Britain in the war effort1,000’s had diedEfforts not recognized or rewarded socially, politically or economicallyDisgruntled solders joined nationalist efforts
52Colonial Division’sColonial state often tried to manipulate people through their feelings of ethnic identityLanguage, religion, race, class, territory, economic or political advantageFrench used language to divideFearing Arabic unity gave special privilege to Berber traditional law over Muslim ShariaBackfired and rallied Muslims to anti-colonial movementBritish/Afrikaner South AfricaSince 1948 Afrikaners attempted to create Homelands or later Bantustans to reinforce ethnic feelings of Xhosa or Zulu and reduce unity of AfricansSimilar to what soviet central Asia did when they created soviet territories like Kasakhstan and Uzbekistan
53Interwar Resistance in Africa Sources of SolidarityDesire for indepenceSelf –governmnetEnd of economic exploitation by foriegnersCommon ReligionIslam (Egypt, Algeria, French Sudan)Christianity (Nyasaland (today’s Malawi)Gender1925 – 1930 Aba Women’s War in S.E. NigeriaEconomic interestConsumers united against high prices and low qualityTrade unions organized for better wagesSources of SolidarityCommon ReligionIslam (Egypt, Algeria, French Sudan)Christianity (Nyasaland (today’s Malawi)Eilliot Kamwana organized the Watch tower movementPreached the return of ChristDeparture of EuropeansEnd of taxationReturn of Self -governmentGender1925 – 1930 Aba Women’s War in S.E. NigeriaRejected men who accepted colonial officeDanced & sung informationReturn to old waysRejected western dress and colonial currency,000 women destroyed Native Courts & looted British run stores50 women killed when troops opened fireEconomic interestConsumers united against high prices and low qualityTrade unions organized for better wages“Tribalism” and the Press:Ibo “Tribalism” & Cultural ChauvinismReligious conflict in Northern IrelandSerbian nationalismLanguage conflict in Quebecanti Semitism in RussiaMyth: sense of ethnic identity has been there since time immemorialethnic difference are immutable and must necessarily intervene in political life.
54Kenya British settlement of Highlands Indian immigration encouraged Land & privilegeIndian immigration encouragedMerchant classKikuyuDispossession & TaxesKenya & KikuyuPrior to British colonizationBefore colonial rule Kikuyu of Central Kenya had no deep consciousness of a common identityseparate mountain rangeslocal historical traditionspractice of oath taking to enforce the agreement of unity of actionFurthered white settlement of rich agricultural land in the HighlandsKikuyu, the largest tribe in the Highlands were alienated by this policyResented loss of traditional holdingsAngered by British taxesIndians from the subcontinent had been encouraged by the British to settle in large numbers in Uganda & KenyaBecame dominant merchantsProvided superior social & economic status within the British Imperial system
55KenyaPrime Example of the contradictions and failures of British Imperial policiesRacial & class divisions among the diverse population led to ongoing conflictIndians from the subcontinent had been encouraged by the British to settle in large numbers in Uganda & KenyaBecame dominant merchantsProvided superior social & economic status within the British Imperial systemBritish PolicyFurthered white settlement of rich agricultural land in the HighlandsKikuyu, the largest tribe in the Highlands were alienated by this policyResented loss of traditional holdingsAngered by British taxesBritish Policies had created a racial and class hierarchyWhite settlers on topIndiansAfricans1920’s African Nationalists respondedFormed several groupsKikuyu Central Association (1924)
56Kenya 1920’s African Nationalists responded Leader Jomo Kenyatta Formed several groupsKikuyu Central Association (1924)British Repression1928 repression created more supportLeader Jomo KenyattaReturned to lead Mau Mau Rebellion, (1953)emerged to enforce unity, secrecy and disciplineKikuyu feelings of ethnicity created by the colonial experience reinforced by new intercommunication in the Urban settingHe presented grievances in LondonPresentation of grievance unsuccessfulJailedHe remained in Europe until 1946Returned to lead Kenyan Nationalist Movement
57Revolts in North Africa Nationalist Political movementsMoroccoRif Rebellion led by Krim BrothersBrutally crushed by French and Spanish forcesAlgeriaLibyaItalians bombed rebellionTunisiaFrench crushed movements in early 1900s
58National Congress of West Africa British Held Ghana (God Coast)Casely Hayford led other educated Africans from 4 British colonies in demand for greater autonomyMet in West Africa, Accra, capital of Gold Coast, 1920Discussed implementation of reforms that would lead to independenceWould meet over the next decade to agitate for independence
59Nigeria Largest of British colonies Women merchants led demonstrations & riots1919, in opposition to British DominationLeadership of Herbert Macaulay, Lagos, the capitalCenter of well-organized & effective nationalist opposition
60Nigerian National Democratic Party 1923 Mcaulay organized the NNDPAgitated for Nigerian participation within the British political system
61Senegal Blaise Diagne, customs official First African to be elected to the French Chamber of DeputiesPushed for National causes in French held Senegal
62Belgian Congo Nationalist Movement Belgians established a local school systemFew graduates went on to western universitiesContinued to pursue a very paternalistic policy in the CongoRepressive tactics by Belgians increased the number of nationalist sympathizersAuthoritarian system repressed nationalistic drive
63British East Africa Uganda British authorities worked through local leaders who exercised local government dutiesNationalist demonstrations were rare
64East Africa Portuguese colonies Angola Mozambique Prazos – feudal EstatesHeld by small white majorityDominated agricultural and Business activitiesMajor force behind authoritarian Portuguese politics
65Racial Caste & Apartheid MozambiqueAngolaRhodesiaBritish held economic and political powerBlack majority in subordinate positionDeprived of political participationPoverty & economic independence prevented them from forming effective nationalist organizations
66South African: Nationalist Versus White Settler Rule British won war with Boers during WWIGovernment incorporated Boer territory and granted them dominion status with the commonwealthPosition implied an equal partnership with the mother countryProgram of economic rehabilitation & assimilation of the BoersAfrikaner culture emergedSouth African of Dutch Origin Nationalism
67Afrikaners Formed political parties Heroes of Boer War Moved to maintain their superior political & economic status through the United Party (1934)Formed by Generals Jan Christian SmutsJames HertzogBy 1934 segregationist policies that formed the foundation for Apartheid had become apparent
68South Africa Rich agricultural land Minerals Water Union of South AfricaDominated by BoersProsperedBantu Peoples80% of the populationTenant farmers, manual laborers, workers in mines & factoriesdisenfranchised
69South African Native National Congress Educated black South AfricansFormed the SANNC in 1912Opposed to removal of native farmers from their ancestral landsSought to redress grievancesLeadership was conservative & wanted to negotiate with white minority
70Africa National Congress of SA 1923 changed its name & became a major nationalist organization for black participation and self determinationBoers continued a policy of divide and ruleEncouraged intertribal differences
71Pan-AfricanismAfrican leaders, alienated by European economic, political and cultural domination called for unity of all AfricansHenry Sylvester-Williams called the first Pan-African Conference in London 1900Later held in Latin America & United StatesPan African LeadersE.W. BlydenLiberian Diplomat born in TrinidadW.E.B. DuboisAfrican AmericanActive in NAACP, popularized movement in the westMarcus GarveyBorn in JamaicaAmerican Back to Africa Movement2 million followers
72Post War EraBritish & French Refusals to grant autonomy fueled nationalist upheavals in Africa & middle eastImperial governments determined to control middle eastern oil fields, strategic Suez Canal & the Persian Gulf
73Rise of RadicalismWhen Political parties & nationalist parties failed to make gainsMany turned to military solution to achieve national liberation