Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Rise of Nationalism

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Nationalism"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Nationalism
Q What were the various stages in the rise of nationalist movements in Asia and the Middle East, and what challenges did they face? Understand Legal Consequences of Post war division of colonial territories Identify the intellectual currents that both justified and resisted international policy determined by the League of Nations Understand sources of both solidarity and division within colonized nations

2 Wilson’s 14 Points & Paris Peace Conference
Colonies around the world encouraged by Wilson’s 14 points and “self-determination” of nations Great Britain & France obtained right to rule as mandates of the League of Nations former German Territories in Africa Former Ottoman Turkish lands in the Middle East

3 De-colonization Post WWI
Liberation Movement begin to rise throughout the world post WWI. Agitate for : Political, social, and economic change to improve circumstances for working people Addresses poverty created by colonization Challenges absolute governments & authority(tzar, sultan, etc)

4 Intellectual Challenges to Western Cultural Imperialism
Sociologist, Lester Frank Ward Dynamic Sociology (1883) Criticized social Darwinism Argued the conservative social scientists responsible for Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer & William Graham Sumner wrongly applied evolutionary theory to human affairs Confused organic evolution with social evolution

5 Intellectual Challenges
Edward Wilmot Blyden Black Spokesman 1832 – 1912 West Indian Born, Liberian Statesman & ideologue His life’s work to dispel superiority and inferiority myths To include Africa in Geopolitics Black Nationalism & pan-Africanism The African Personality Place of Islam and Arabic in Africa Pan-Africanism Dominated by educated Africans & African Americans Advocated appreciation of African Cultures Better education and equality Henry Sylvester-Williams called the first Pan-African Conference in London 1900 Later held in Latin America & United States E.W. Blyden Liberian Diplomat born in Trinidad W.E.B. Dubois African American Active in NAACP, popularized movement in the west Marcus Garvey Born in Jamaica American Back to Africa Movement 2 million followers African Personality: the anti thesis of the European and was to counteract the worst aspects of the latter harsh, individualistic, competitive, combative, materialistic, science and technology replaced god cheerful, sympathetic, willing to serve, they would make a spiritual contribution to the world

6 Nationalism Political force at the turn of the century 19th C
A learned emotional loyalty perceive common bonds Provides members a sense of membership & belonging Nurtured by common bonds: language, religion, social & institutional traditions, territory, history History might be glorified or even a new one constructed and imagined to perpetuate nationalism and unity

7 Factors in the Rise of Modern nationalism
New urban middle class of westernized intellectuals (Merchants, clerk, students, professionals educated in western schools) Resented foreigners and their arrogant contempt for colonial peoples Dismayed between the ideals of western society and the reality . Disparity between ideal and reality, theory and practice Equality in economic opportunity non-existent Segregated societies hat privileged Europeans over the colonial peoples

8 Anti-colonialism Educated natives organized political parties
Sought reforms Sought an end of foreign rule Sought a restoration of independence Middle class indigenous urban elite source of anti-colonial sentiment Indian consciousness had focused primarily on the question of religious identity. After all, the subcontinent had not been ruled by a dynasty of purely indigenous origins since the Guptas in the middle of the first millennium C.E. But in the latter half of the nineteenth century, a stronger sense of national consciousness began to emerge, provoked by the conservative policies and racial arrogance of the British colonial authorities. The first Indian nationalists were upper class and educated. Many of them were from urban areas such as Bombay (now Mumbai), Madras (now Chennai), and Calcutta (now Kolkata). Some were trained in law and were members of the civil service. At first, many tended to prefer reform to revolution and believed that India needed modernization before it could handle independence. An exponent of this view was Gopal Gokhale (goh-PAHL GOH-kuh-lay) (1866–1915), a moderate nationalist who hoped that he could convince the British to bring about needed reforms in Indian society. Gokhale and other like-minded reformists did have some effect. In the 1880s, the government introduced a measure of self-government for the first time. All too often, however, such efforts were sabotaged by local British officials. The slow pace of reform convinced many Indian nationalists that relying on British benevolence was futile. In 1885, a small group of Indians, with some British participation, met in Bombay to form the Indian National Congress (INC). They hoped to speak for all India, but most were high-caste English-trained Hindus. Like their reformist predecessors, members of the INC did not demand immediate independence and accepted the need for reforms to end traditional abuses like child marriage and sati. At the same time, they called for an Indian share in the governing process and more spending on economic development and less on military campaigns along the frontier. The British responded with a few concessions, but change was glacially slow. As impatient members of the INC became disillusioned, the radicals split off and formed the New Party, which called for the use of terrorism and violence to achieve national independence.

9 Gandhi & Indian Nationalism
High caste, English trained Hindu Hoped to speak for all Indians Mohandas ‘‘Mahatma’’ Gandhi, the ‘‘Soul of India’’ p696

10 Gandhi Young Hindu lawyer returned from south Africa to become active in the INC, 1915 Transformed the movement and galvanized the struggle for independence and identity Accepted need for reforms to end traditional abuses like child marriage and sati Called for an Indian share in the governing process more spending on economic development and less on military campaigns India: Prior to the Sepoy Rebellion Indian consciousness focused on the question of religious identity Due to the conservative policies and racial arrogance, a stronger sense of national consciousness began to arise in the late 19th C First Indian nationalists upper class and educate Urban centers Trained in law Civil service Believed reform was necessary India needed modernization before it could handle independence Gopal Gokhale wanted to convince the british to bring about reforms 1880s the government introduced a measure of self government for the first time Slow pace of reform Convinced nationalists that relying on british benevolence was futile Ghandi, born in 1869 In 1915, a young Hindu lawyer returned from South Africa to become active in the INC. He transformed the movement and galvanized India's struggle for independence and identity. Mohandas Gandhi (moh-HAHN-dus GAHN-dee) (1869–1948) was born in Gujarat (goo-juh-RAHT), in western India, the son of a government minister. In the late nineteenth century, he studied in London and became a lawyer. In 1893, he went to South Africa to work in a law firm serving Indian émigrés working as laborers there. He soon became aware of the racial prejudice and exploitation experienced by Indians living in the territory and tried to organize them to protect their interests.

11 British Indian Between the wars British India Between the Wars p699

12 The New Party British responded with a few concessions
Disillusioned members split off and formed the New Party called for use of terrorism and violence to achieve national independence The INC also had a hard time reconciling religious differences Reflected Hindu concerns A separate Muslim League was created to represent the interests of the millions of Muslims in Indian society The INC also had difficulty reconciling religious differences within its ranks. The stated goal of the INC was to seek self-determination for all Indians regardless of class or religious affiliation, but many of its leaders were Hindu and inevitably reflected Hindu concerns. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the separate Muslim League was created to represent the interests of the millions of Muslims in Indian society.

13 Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi , and Muhammad Ali Jinnah confer before the partition of India into Hindu and Muslim states. Jawaharlal Nehru (Roshan Seth), Mahatma Gandhi (Ben Kingsley), and Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Alyque Padamsee) confer before the partition of India into Hindu and Muslim states. p700

14 Satyagraha “ Hold fast to” the truth”
A policy of Non violent resistance Sought to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India Goal to convert the British to his views Goal to strengthen the unity and self respect of his compatriots Concerned about the untouchables, who he called the harijans or “children of god” Use of civil disobedience against British suppression of dissent When the british attempted to suppress dissent, he called on people to disobey the british regulations Began to manufacture his own clothes – dhoti –adopted the spinning wheel as a symbol of resistance to textiles

15 Civil Disobedience Ghandi “mahatma” or “great soul” organized mass protests to achieve his aims 1919 the British violently responded to the protests Killed 100s of unarmed protesters in the square in the city of Amristar in NW India Ghandi imprisoned for several years Ghandi arrested for his role in the protests, spent several years in prison He combined his anticolonial activities with an appeal to the spritiual instincts of allindians Born and raised hindu, he took a universalist approach to the idea of god which transcended individual religion

16 Government of Indian Act
British passed the Government of India Act, 1921: Transformed the advisory legislative council into a bicameral parliament, 2/3rds of whose members would be elected 5 million Indians were enfranchised (no longer enough for many INC members who wanted full independence) British also increased the salt tax, prohibited Indian people from manufacturing or harvesting their own salt

17 March to the Sea, 1930 Ghandi led a nonviolent movement for Indian independence from British Rule with 78 followers. Destination: Dandi,240 miles away.

18 March to the Sea, 1930 “civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizen. He dare not give it up without ceasing to be a man.” 1000’s joined, each picked up a pinch of salt as an act of disobedience in protest of the British monopoly on salt. Ghandi, released from prison, returned to his earlier policy of civil disobedience He preached his message in each town he passed through that “civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizn. He dare not give it up without ceasing to be a man.” 24 days later he reached Dandi with a following of thousands. He picked up a pinch of salt, all followers did like wise, openly breaking british laws that prohibited Indians from making their own salt. (british monopoly on salt). One of many acts of civil disobedience in the interwar period. Indian women were acive in the movement First 2 organizations to promote womens rights had been established in the early years of the century Became involved to bring about reforms Women accounted for about 20 thousand, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar period Promoted womens education, introduction of birth control, abolition of child marriage, universal suffrage 1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14

19 Women’s Rights Indian women active in the movement
First 2 organizations to promote women’s rights had been established in the early years of the century Became involved to bring about reforms Women accounted for about 20,0000, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar period Indian women were acive in the movement First 2 organizations to promote womens rights had been established in the early years of the century Became involved to bring about reforms Women accounted for about 20 thousand, or 10% of the people arrested and jailed for demonstrating during the interwar period Promoted womens education, introduction of birth control, abolition of child marriage, universal suffrage 1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14

20 Women’s Rights Promoted women’s education,
introduction of birth control, abolition of child marriage, universal suffrage 1929 the Sarda Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 14

21 COMPARATIVE ILLUSTRATION
Masters and Disciples. When the founders of nationalist movements passed leadership over to their successors, the result was often a change in the strategy and tactics of the organizations. When Jawaharlal Nehru (left photo, on the left) replaced Mahatma Gandhi (wearing a simple Indian dhoti rather than the Western dress favored by his colleagues) as leader of the Indian National Congress, the movement adopted a more secular posture. p710

22 Jawaharlal Nehru Educated in the law in Great Britian, Brahmin by birth He personified the new anglo-indian politician: secular, rational, upper class intellectual Movement embarked on a second path from Ghandi’s movement Religious and secular/Native and western strengthened the movement , united 2 primary impulses behind the desire for independence Elite nationalism and the primal force of Indian traditionalism In the 1930s, a new figure entered the movement in the person of Jawaharlal Nehru (juh-WAH-hur-lahl NAY-roo) (1889–1964), son of an earlier INC leader. Educated in the law in Great Britain and a brahmin by birth, Nehru personified the new Anglo-Indian politician: secular, rational, upper class, and intellectual. In fact, he appeared to be evon two paths, religious and secular, Indian and Western, traditional and modern. The dual character of the INC leadership may well have strengthened the movement by bringing together the two primary impulses behind the desire for independence: elite nationalism and the primal force of Indian traditionalism. But it portended trouble for the nation's new leadership in defining India's future path in the contemporary world. In the meantime, Muslim discontent with Hindu dominance over the INC was increasing.

23 Pakistan 1940, the Muslim League called for the creation of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma insturmental (“land of the pure”) 1947 In 1940, the Muslim League called for the creation of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan (“land of the pure”) in the northwest (see the box on p. 703). As communal strife between Hindus and Muslims increased, many Indians came to realize with sorrow (and some British colonialists with satisfaction) that British rule was all that stood between peace and civil war. erything that Gandhi was not. With Nehru's emergence, the independence movement embarked

24 Partition aftermath Violent process
12.5 million displaced or homeless 14.5 million moved to Pakistan 7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved to india 7 million others moved to other regions 1 million dead 83,000 women abducted during riots and killings Legacy of religious division and intolerance

25 Ottoman Empire & Turkish Nationalism
Multi-cultural make-up of the Ottoman empire. All subjected to massacres ordered by the “Red Sultan” in response to protests against his tyranny Young Turks led the protests, promised reform and peace for all In the Middle East, as in Europe, World War I hastened the collapse of old empires. The Ottoman Empire, which had dominated the eastern Mediterranean since the seizure of Constantinople in 1453, had been growing weaker since the end of the eighteenth century, troubled by rising governmental corruption, a decline in the effectiveness of the sultans, and the loss of considerable territory in the Balkans and southwestern Russia. In North Africa, Ottoman authority, tenuous at best, had disintegrated in the nineteenth century, enabling the French to seize Algeria and Tunisia and the British to establish a protectorate over the Nile River valley.  Nationalist Revolt in the Middle East: wwI hastened the collapse of old empires The Ottoman Empire (had dominated the Mediterranean since the seizure of constantinoplein 1453 By the 19th C: weakened North Africa: French took over Algeria ad Tunisia The british established a protectorate over th Nile River Valley Decline of Ottoman Empire Greece declard its independence Rising sense of nationality among serbs, Armenians and other minority peoples threatened the cohesion of the empire 1870s new generation of reformers seized power in Istanbul and pushed through aconstituion aimed at forming a legislative assembling that would represent ALL peoples The sultan they placed on the throne suspended the new charter and attempted to rule by traditional authoritarian means End of 19th C: the defunct 1876 constitution became a symbol of change for reformist elements: New reformists: The Young Turks Forced the sultan to restore the constitution in 1907 He was removed from power in 1908 The young turks had appeared at a moment of exreme fragility for the empire, Internal rebellions Austrian annexations of ottoman territories to the Balkans Undermined support for the new government and provoked the army to step in Most minorities from the old empire, now removed from istanbuls authority Amany ethnic turks began to embrace a new concept of Turkish state based on Turkish nationality

26 First Waves of Liberation
Young Turks (1908 – 1918) Nationalist Reform Party Begun by intelligentsia and military cadets Advocated Pan-Turkism & disliked multi-culturalism Final blow to the empire: WWI The ottoman government allied with Germany in the hope of driving the British from Egypt and restoring ottoman rule over the Nile valley

27 Armenian Genocide Allied with Germany during WWI against Britain
Ethnic cleansing 1.5 Million Armenians tortured, killed

28

29 Allied Triumph over the Ottoman
British declared an official protectorate over Egypt 1916 local governor of Mecca, encouraged by British, declared Arabia independent from Ottoman rule British troops seized Palestine 0ct 1918 with 300,000 casualties from the war, negotiated an armistice with the allied powers In response the british declared an official protectorate over Egypt and was helped by adventurer TE Lawrence, or Lawrence of Arabia who had sought to undermine Ottoman rule in the Arabian Peninsula by encouraging arab nationalists there 1916 local governor of Mexxa, encouraged by British, declared Arabia independent from Ottoman rule\ British troops seized Palestine 0ct 1918 with 300,000 casualties from the war, negotiated an armistice with the allied powers

30 president of the new republic,
Mustafa Kemal, president of the new republic, Ataturk ‘‘Father Turk’’ Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The war hero Mustafa Kemal took the initiative in creating the republic of Turkey. As president of the new republic, Ataturk (‘‘Father Turk’’), as he came to be called, worked hard to transform Turkey into a modern secular state by restructuring the economy, adopting Western dress, and breaking the powerful hold of Islamic traditions. He is now reviled by Muslim fundamentalists for his opposition to an Islamic state. In this photograph, Atatuャ rk, at the left in civilian clothes, hosts the shah of Persia during the latter’s visit to Turkey in July 1934. p702

31 Mustafa Kemal and the Modernization of Turkey
Kemal convoked a National congress Called for an elected government Goal to preserve remainder of territories of old Empire to create the Republic of Turkey Republic established in 1923 Mustafa Kemal and the Modernization of Turkey The empire began to fall apart as the British and the French made plans to divide the ottoman territories in the middle wast and the Greeks won allied approval to seize the western parts of the Anatolian peninsula for their dream of re creating the substance of the old byzantine empire Kemal convoked a national congress that called for an elected government and the preservation of the remaining territories of the old empire in a new republic of trkey New capital of Ankara He drove the Greeks from the Anatolian peninsula and persuaded the british to afree to a new treaty 1923 the last of the ottoman sultan fled the country which was now declared a Turkish republic The ottoman empire had come to an end Ataturk “father turk” Attempted to transform turkey into a modern secular republic Trappings of a democratic system were pu into place The president was intolerant of opposition, and harshly suppressed critics of his rule Turkish nationalism was emphasized , Turkish language was shorn of many of its Arabic elements Popular education was emphasized Old aristocratic titles like Pasha and bey were abolished Turkish citizens were given family names in the European style Ataturk also too steps to modernize the economy oveseing the establisement of a light industrial sector: textiles, glas, paper, cement Institute a 5 year plan on the soviet model to provide for state direction over the economy Modernization of agricultural sector: training institutions and model farms: little effect on conservative peasants No admirer of soviet communism State was a from of state capitalism, He attempted to break the power of Islamic clerics Transform turkey into a secular state Caliphate was abolished in 1924 The Shari’a was replaced with the swiss law code revised The Fez was abolished and women discouraged from wearing the veil Women received the right to vote and were legally guaranteed equal rights with en in all aspects of marriage and inheritance in 1934 Education and the professions open to both sexes Women entered politics Freedeom of religion and conversion Tried to break the power of religious orders of islam – abolished all monasteries and brotherhoods

32

33 Republic of Turkey Trappings of a democratic system were put into place suppressed critics of his rule Turkish nationalism emphasized Popular education was emphasized Old aristocratic titles abolished He attempted to break the power of Islamic clerics Transform turkey into a secular state Caliphate was abolished in 1924 The Shari’a was replaced with the Swiss law code revised , TurkTurkish citizens were given family names in the European style ish language was shorn of many of its Arabic elements

34 Modernized the Economy
established light industrial sector Institute a 5 year plan on the soviet model to provide for state direction over the economy Modernization of agricultural sector: training institutions and model farms State was a from of state capitalism, : textiles, glas, paper, cement

35 Women’s Reforms in Turkey
women discouraged from wearing the veil right to vote legally guaranteed equal rights with en in all aspects of marriage and inheritance in 1934 Education and the professions open to both sexes Women entered politics Freedom of religion and conversion Tried to break the power of religious orders of islam – abolished all monasteries and brotherhood

36 Persia – Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925)
Growing western influence – Russia & Great Britain Discovery of oil reserves in 1908 Division of spheres of influence Internal divisions Led to growth of indigenous Persian Nationalist Movement By 1906 Shah forced to grant a constitution based on a western model    In the meantime, a similar process was under way in Persia. Under the Qajar (kuh-JAHR) dynasty (1794–1925), the country had not been very successful in resisting Russian advances in the Caucasus or resolving its domestic problems. To secure themselves from foreign influence, the Qajars moved the capital from Tabriz to Tehran (teh-RAHN), in a mountainous area just south of the Caspian Sea. During the mid-nineteenth century, one modernizing shah attempted to introduce political and economic reforms but faced resistance from tribal and religious—predominantly Shi'ite—forces. To buttress its rule, the dynasty turned increasingly to Russia and Great Britain to protect itself from its own people. Eventually, the growing foreign presence led to the rise of an indigenous Persian nationalist movement. Its efforts were largely directed against Russian advances in the northwest and the growing European influence in the small modern industrial sector, the profits from which left the country or disappeared into the hands of the dynasty's ruling elite. Supported actively by Shi'ite religious leaders, opposition to the regime rose steadily among both peasants and merchants in the cities, and in 1906, popular pressures forced the reigning shah to grant a constitution on the Western model. It was an eerie foretaste of the revolution of 1979 (see Chapter 29). As in the Ottoman Empire and Manchu China, however, the modernizers had moved too soon, before their power base was secure. With the support of the Russians and the British, the shah was able to retain control, while the two foreign powers began to divide the country into separate spheres of influence. One reason for the growing foreign presence in Persia was the discovery of oil reserves in the southern part of the country in Within a few years, oil exports increased rapidly, with the bulk of the profits going into the pockets of British investors.

37 Pahlavi Dynasty, 1925 Established by Reza Khan – new Shah
Attempted to establish a Republic Reforms: Strengthened central government Modernized the civilian & military bureaucracy Modern economic infrastructure Western educational model Forbade veiling in public Name of nation changed to Iran, 1935 Occupied by Soviet & British troops during WWII In 1921, an officer in the Persian army by the name of Reza Khan (ree-ZAH KAHN) (1878–1944) led a mutiny that seized power in Tehran. The new ruler had originally intended to establish a republic, but resistance from traditional forces impeded his efforts, and in 1925 the new Pahlavi (PAH-luh-vee) dynasty, with Reza Khan as shah, replaced the now defunct Qajar dynasty. During the next few years, Reza Khan attempted to follow the example of Atatürk in Turkey, introducing a number of reforms to strengthen the central government, modernize the civilian and military bureaucracy, and establish a modern economic infrastructure. In 1935, he officially changed the name of the nation to Iran. Unlike Atatürk, Reza Khan did not attempt to destroy the power of Islamic beliefs, but he did encourage the establishment of a Western-style educational system and forbade women to wear the veil in public. Women continued to be exploited, however. Like the textile industry in Meiji Japan (see Chapter 22), the Iranian carpet industry was based on the intensive labor of women; the carpets they produced were a valuable export—second only to oil—in the interwar period. To strengthen the sense of Iranian nationalism and reduce the power of Islam, Reza Khan attempted to popularize the symbols and beliefs of pre-Islamic times. Like his Qajar predecessors, however, he was hindered by strong foreign influence. When the Soviet Union and Great Britain decided to send troops into the country during World War II, he resigned in protest and died three years later.

38 Division of Iran by Soviet Union and Britain
Iran Under the Pahlavi Dynasty Division of Iran by Soviet Union and Britain during WWII and occupation p702

39 Iraq Established after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Kurdish, Sunni and Shi’ite population Occupied by British in WWI to protect oil reserved from German Expansion Placed under British mandate in 1920 Ruled through minority Shi’ite population Repressed anti-western resistance by 1921 More Oil discovered in Kirkuk in 1927 Britain supported Syrian rule of King Faisal & maintained heavy influence Iraq: One other consequence of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was the emergence of a new political entity along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, once the heartland of ancient empires. Lacking defensible bordersand sharply divided along ethnic and religious lines—a Shi'ite majority in rural areas was balanced by a vocal Sunni minority in the cities and a largely Kurdish population in the northern mountains—the area had been under Ottoman rule since the seventeenth century. With the advent of World War I, the lowland area from Baghdad southward to the Persian Gulf was occupied by British forces, who hoped to protect oil-producing regions in neighboring Persia from a German takeover. Although the British claimed to have arrived as liberators, in 1920 the country now known as Iraq was placed under British control as a mandate of the League of Nations. Civil unrest and growing anti-Western sentiment rapidly dispelled any immediate plans for the emergence of an independent government, and in 1921, after the suppression of resistance forces, the country was placed under the titular authority of King Faisal (FY-suhl) of Syria, a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. Faisal relied for support primarily on the politically more sophisticated urban Sunni population, although they represented less than a quarter of the population. The discovery of oil near Kirkuk (kir-KOOK) in 1927 increased the value of the area to the British, who granted formal independence to the country in 1932, although British advisers retained a strong influence over the fragile government.

40 Saudi Arabia 1920s, Ibn Saud of the Wahhabi Movement united Arab tribes to drive out Ottoman Rule Established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1932 Traditionally poor, Standard Oil struck oil in 1938 at Dhahran on the Gulf. Arabian-American oil or ARAMCO established As we have seen, the Arab uprising during World War I helped bring about the demise of the Ottoman Empire. There had been resistance against Ottoman rule in the Arabian peninsula since the eighteenth century, when the devoutly Muslim Wahhabi (wuh-HAH-bee) sect revolted in an attempt to drive out outside influences and cleanse Islam of corrupt practices that had developed in past centuries. The revolt was eventually suppressed, but Wahhabi influence persisted. World War I offered an opportunity for the Arabs to throw off the shackles of Ottoman rule—but what would replace them? The Arabs were not a nation but an idea, a loose collection of peoples who often did not see eye to eye on matters that affected their community. Disagreement over what constitutes an Arab has plagued generations of political leaders who have sought unsuccessfully to knit together the disparate peoples of the region into a single Arab nation. When the Arab leaders in Mecca declared their independence from Ottoman rule in 1916, they had hoped for British support, but—despite the efforts of T. E. Lawrence—they were to be sorely disappointed. At the close of the war, the British and French agreed to create a number of mandates in the area under the general supervision of the League of Nations (see Chapter 23). Iraq was assigned to the British; Syria and Lebanon (the two areas were separated so that Christian peoples in Lebanon could be placed under Christian administration) were given to the French. In the early 1920s, a leader of the Wahhabi movement, Ibn Saud (IB-un sah-OOD) (1880–1953), united Arab tribes in the northern part of the Arabian peninsula and drove out the remnants of Ottoman rule. Ibn Saud was a descendant of the family that had led the Wahhabi revolt in the eighteenth century. Devout and gifted, he won broad support among Arab tribal peoples and established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia throughout much of the peninsula in 1932. At first, his new kingdom, consisting essentially of the vast desert wastes of central Arabia, was desperately poor. Its financial resources were limited to the income from Muslim pilgrims visiting the holy sites in Mecca and Medina. But during the 1930s, American companies began to explore for oil, and in 1938, Standard Oil made a successful strike at Dhahran (dah-RAHN), on the Persian Gulf. Soon an Arabian-American oil conglomerate, popularly called Aramco, was established, and the isolated kingdom was suddenly inundated by Western oilmen and untold wealth.

41 p704

42 Palestine British Mandate following WWI
Zionist Movement, Theodor Herzl est. 1897 Jewish immigration accepted in Palestine prior to and during WWI 85,000 or 10% of the population were Jewish by the War Majority Muslim Arabs Balfour Declaration of 1917 declared Palestine a national home for Jews    The land of Palestine—once the home of the Jews but now inhabited primarily by Muslim Arabs—became a separate mandate and immediately became a thorny problem for the British. In 1897, the Austrian-born journalist Theodor Herzl (1860–1904) (see Chapter 20) had convened an international conference in Basel, Switzerland, which led to the creation of a World Zionist Organization (WZO). The aim of the organization was to create a homeland in Palestine for the Jewish people, who had long been dispersed widely throughout Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. Over the next decade, Jewish immigration into Palestine, then under Ottoman rule, increased with WZO support. By the outbreak of World War I, about 85,000 Jews lived in Palestine, representing about 15 percent of the total population. In 1917, responding to appeals from the British chemist Chaim Weizmann (KY-im VYTS-mahn), British Foreign Secretary Lord Arthur Balfour (BAL-foor) issued a declaration saying Palestine was to be a national home for the Jews. The Balfour Declaration, which was later confirmed by the League of Nations, was ambiguous on the legal status of the territory and promised that the decision would not undermine the rights of the non-Jewish peoples currently living in the area. But Arab nationalists were incensed. How could a national home for the Jewish people be established in a territory where the majority of the population was Muslim?

43

44 European Jewish Refugees continued to emigrate after World War I
European Jewish Refugees. After the 1917 Balfour Declaration promised a Jewish homeland in Palestine, increasing numbers of European Jews emigrated there. Their goal was to build a new life in a Jewish land. Like the refugees aboard this ship, they celebrated as they reached their new homeland. The sign reads ‘‘Keep the gates open, we are not the last’’—a reference to British efforts to slow the pace of Jewish immigration in response to protests by Muslim residents of Palestine. European Jewish Refugees continued to emigrate after World War I p705

45 Division of Palestine & Creation of Jordan
Post WWI Britain created a separate state or Emirate of Trans-Jordan out of the eastern portion of Palestine WWII, became the independent kingdom of Jordan Arab-Palestine conflict today & the Apartheid state that exists is a product of these British interventions After World War I, more Jewish settlers began to arrive in Palestine in response to the promises made in the Balfour Declaration. As tensions between the new arrivals and existing Muslim residents began to escalate, the British tried to restrict Jewish immigration into the territory while Arab voices rejected the concept of a separate state. In a bid to relieve Arab sensitivities, Great Britain created the separate emirate of Trans-Jordan out of the eastern portion of Palestine. After World War II, it would become the independent kingdom of Jordan. The stage was set for the conflicts that would take place in the region after World War II.

46 The Middle East After World War I
p705

47 Revolution in Egypt Britain faced a fully developed nationalist movement Egyptians led by Saad Zaglhlul formed a delegation or Wafd Asked for independence after the war Egyptian demands were thwarted by British Determination to control the Suez Canal 1919 Full scale revolution erupted Great Britain had maintained a loose protectorate over Egypt since the middle of the nineteenth century, although the area remained nominally under Ottoman rule. London formalized its protectorate in 1914 to protect the Suez Canal and the Nile River valley from possible seizure by the Central Powers. After the war, however, nationalist elements became restive and formed the Wafd (WAHFT) Party, a secular organization dedicated to the creation of an independent Egypt based on the principles of representative government. The Wafd received the support of many middle-class Egyptians who, like Kemal Atatürk in Turkey, hoped to meld Islamic practices with the secular tradition of the modern West. This modernist form of Islam did not have broad appeal outside the cosmopolitan centers, however, and in 1928 the Muslim cleric Hasan al-Bana (hah-SAHN al-BAN-ah) organized the Muslim Brotherhood, which demanded strict adherence to the traditional teachings of the Prophet, as set forth in the Qur'an. The Brotherhood rejected Western ways and sought to create a new Egypt based firmly on the precepts of the Shari'a. By the 1930s, the organization had as many as a million members. Nationalism and Revolution Before the Russian Revolution, to most intellectuals in Asia and Africa, “westernization” referred to the capitalist democratic civilization of western Europe and the United States, not the doctrine of social revolution developed by Karl Marx. Until 1917, Marxism was regarded as a utopian idea rather than a concrete system of government. Moreover, to many intellectuals, Marxism appeared to have little relevance to conditions in Asia and Africa. Marxist doctrine, after all, declared that a communist society would arise only from the ashes of an advanced capitalism that had already passed through the Industrial Revolution. From the perspective of Marxist historical analysis, most societies in Asia and Africa were still at the feudal stage of development; they lacked the economic conditions and political awareness to achieve a socialist revolution that would bring the working class to power. Finally, the Marxist view of nationalism and religion had little appeal to many patriotic intellectuals in the non-Western world. Marx believed that nationhood and religion were essentially false ideas that diverted the attention of the oppressed masses from the critical issues of class struggle and, in his phrase, the exploitation of one person by another. Instead, Marx stressed an “internationalist” outlook based on class consciousness and the eventual creation of a classless society with no artificial divisions based on culture, nation, or religion. For these reasons, many patriotic non-Western intellectuals initially deemed Marxism both irrelevant and unappealing. That situation began to change after the Russian Revolution in The rise to power of Lenin's Bolsheviks demonstrated that a revolutionary party espousing Marxist principles could overturn a corrupt, outdated system and launch a new experiment dedicated to ending human inequality and achieving a paradise on earth. In 1920, Lenin proposed a new revolutionary strategy designed to relate Marxist doctrine and practice to non-Western societies. His reasons were not entirely altruistic. Soviet Russia, surrounded by capitalist powers, desperately needed allies in its struggle to survive in a hostile wor

48 Wafd Party Leaders exiled
Wafd party became chief political & nationalist organization Revolts persisted/power struggle Conflict between British King Fu’ad & his successor King Faruk The Wafd

49 Egyptian “Independence”
Britain wanted to maintain presence & to undercut the nationalist movement Unilaterally proclaimed Egyptian independence under the constitutional monarchy of King Fu’ad 1922 British continued to hold the Canal Based soldiers in Egyptian territory Exercised widespread influence over Egyptian political life

50 Egypt Nationalist demands for complete independence failed
Monarchy & Wafd became corrupt Lost support from Egyptian population Result was that the people turned to more radical groups from the “left” and the “right” finally the army to realize their nationalist aspirations

51 West African African colonies had given their loyal support to Britain in the war effort 1,000’s had died Efforts not recognized or rewarded socially, politically or economically Disgruntled solders joined nationalist efforts

52 Colonial Division’s Colonial state often tried to manipulate people through their feelings of ethnic identity Language, religion, race, class, territory, economic or political advantage French used language to divide Fearing Arabic unity gave special privilege to Berber traditional law over Muslim Sharia Backfired and rallied Muslims to anti-colonial movement British/Afrikaner South Africa Since 1948 Afrikaners attempted to create Homelands or later Bantustans to reinforce ethnic feelings of Xhosa or Zulu and reduce unity of Africans Similar to what soviet central Asia did when they created soviet territories like Kasakhstan and Uzbekistan

53 Interwar Resistance in Africa
Sources of Solidarity Desire for indepence Self –governmnet End of economic exploitation by foriegners Common Religion Islam (Egypt, Algeria, French Sudan) Christianity (Nyasaland (today’s Malawi) Gender 1925 – 1930 Aba Women’s War in S.E. Nigeria Economic interest Consumers united against high prices and low quality Trade unions organized for better wages Sources of Solidarity Common Religion Islam (Egypt, Algeria, French Sudan) Christianity (Nyasaland (today’s Malawi) Eilliot Kamwana organized the Watch tower movement Preached the return of Christ Departure of Europeans End of taxation Return of Self -government Gender 1925 – 1930 Aba Women’s War in S.E. Nigeria Rejected men who accepted colonial office Danced & sung information Return to old ways Rejected western dress and colonial currency ,000 women destroyed Native Courts & looted British run stores 50 women killed when troops opened fire Economic interest Consumers united against high prices and low quality Trade unions organized for better wages “Tribalism” and the Press: Ibo “Tribalism” & Cultural Chauvinism Religious conflict in Northern Ireland Serbian nationalism Language conflict in Quebec anti Semitism in Russia Myth: sense of ethnic identity has been there since time immemorial ethnic difference are immutable and must necessarily intervene in political life.

54 Kenya British settlement of Highlands Indian immigration encouraged
Land & privilege Indian immigration encouraged Merchant class Kikuyu Dispossession & Taxes Kenya & Kikuyu Prior to British colonization Before colonial rule Kikuyu of Central Kenya had no deep consciousness of a common identity separate mountain ranges local historical traditions practice of oath taking to enforce the agreement of unity of action Furthered white settlement of rich agricultural land in the Highlands Kikuyu, the largest tribe in the Highlands were alienated by this policy Resented loss of traditional holdings Angered by British taxes Indians from the subcontinent had been encouraged by the British to settle in large numbers in Uganda & Kenya Became dominant merchants Provided superior social & economic status within the British Imperial system

55 Kenya Prime Example of the contradictions and failures of British Imperial policies Racial & class divisions among the diverse population led to ongoing conflict Indians from the subcontinent had been encouraged by the British to settle in large numbers in Uganda & Kenya Became dominant merchants Provided superior social & economic status within the British Imperial system British Policy Furthered white settlement of rich agricultural land in the Highlands Kikuyu, the largest tribe in the Highlands were alienated by this policy Resented loss of traditional holdings Angered by British taxes British Policies had created a racial and class hierarchy White settlers on top Indians Africans 1920’s African Nationalists responded Formed several groups Kikuyu Central Association (1924)

56 Kenya 1920’s African Nationalists responded Leader Jomo Kenyatta
Formed several groups Kikuyu Central Association (1924) British Repression 1928 repression created more support Leader Jomo Kenyatta Returned to lead Mau Mau Rebellion, (1953) emerged to enforce unity, secrecy and discipline Kikuyu feelings of ethnicity created by the colonial experience reinforced by new intercommunication in the Urban setting He presented grievances in London Presentation of grievance unsuccessful Jailed He remained in Europe until 1946 Returned to lead Kenyan Nationalist Movement

57 Revolts in North Africa
Nationalist Political movements Morocco Rif Rebellion led by Krim Brothers Brutally crushed by French and Spanish forces Algeria Libya Italians bombed rebellion Tunisia French crushed movements in early 1900s

58 National Congress of West Africa
British Held Ghana (God Coast) Casely Hayford led other educated Africans from 4 British colonies in demand for greater autonomy Met in West Africa, Accra, capital of Gold Coast, 1920 Discussed implementation of reforms that would lead to independence Would meet over the next decade to agitate for independence

59 Nigeria Largest of British colonies
Women merchants led demonstrations & riots 1919, in opposition to British Domination Leadership of Herbert Macaulay, Lagos, the capital Center of well-organized & effective nationalist opposition

60 Nigerian National Democratic Party
1923 Mcaulay organized the NNDP Agitated for Nigerian participation within the British political system

61 Senegal Blaise Diagne, customs official
First African to be elected to the French Chamber of Deputies Pushed for National causes in French held Senegal

62 Belgian Congo Nationalist Movement
Belgians established a local school system Few graduates went on to western universities Continued to pursue a very paternalistic policy in the Congo Repressive tactics by Belgians increased the number of nationalist sympathizers Authoritarian system repressed nationalistic drive

63 British East Africa Uganda
British authorities worked through local leaders who exercised local government duties Nationalist demonstrations were rare

64 East Africa Portuguese colonies Angola Mozambique
Prazos – feudal Estates Held by small white majority Dominated agricultural and Business activities Major force behind authoritarian Portuguese politics

65 Racial Caste & Apartheid
Mozambique Angola Rhodesia British held economic and political power Black majority in subordinate position Deprived of political participation Poverty & economic independence prevented them from forming effective nationalist organizations

66 South African: Nationalist Versus White Settler Rule
British won war with Boers during WWI Government incorporated Boer territory and granted them dominion status with the commonwealth Position implied an equal partnership with the mother country Program of economic rehabilitation & assimilation of the Boers Afrikaner culture emerged South African of Dutch Origin Nationalism

67 Afrikaners Formed political parties Heroes of Boer War
Moved to maintain their superior political & economic status through the United Party (1934) Formed by Generals Jan Christian Smuts James Hertzog By 1934 segregationist policies that formed the foundation for Apartheid had become apparent

68 South Africa Rich agricultural land Minerals Water
Union of South Africa Dominated by Boers Prospered Bantu Peoples 80% of the population Tenant farmers, manual laborers, workers in mines & factories disenfranchised

69 South African Native National Congress
Educated black South Africans Formed the SANNC in 1912 Opposed to removal of native farmers from their ancestral lands Sought to redress grievances Leadership was conservative & wanted to negotiate with white minority

70 Africa National Congress of SA
1923 changed its name & became a major nationalist organization for black participation and self determination Boers continued a policy of divide and rule Encouraged intertribal differences

71 Pan-Africanism African leaders, alienated by European economic, political and cultural domination called for unity of all Africans Henry Sylvester-Williams called the first Pan-African Conference in London 1900 Later held in Latin America & United States Pan African Leaders E.W. Blyden Liberian Diplomat born in Trinidad W.E.B. Dubois African American Active in NAACP, popularized movement in the west Marcus Garvey Born in Jamaica American Back to Africa Movement 2 million followers

72 Post War Era British & French Refusals to grant autonomy fueled nationalist upheavals in Africa & middle east Imperial governments determined to control middle eastern oil fields, strategic Suez Canal & the Persian Gulf

73 Rise of Radicalism When Political parties & nationalist parties failed to make gains Many turned to military solution to achieve national liberation


Download ppt "The Rise of Nationalism"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google