Economic Recovery Hanseatic League Manufacturing grows: woolens, printing, mining Florence: banking Medici Family
The Nobility One of three estates in society 2- 3% of population Political and military power Concerned with social status
Courtly Society In Italy Nobles & Aristocrats Ideals based upon The Courtier Perfect Courtier: based upon character, military achievement, education, & skills Serve Prince
The 3 rd Estate of Peasants & Townspeople 85-90% of population Decline in manorial system Growth of towns Patricians: wealthy due to trade, industry, banking Petty burghers: artisans, guild members Propertyless workers
Slavery Due to effects of Black Death Skilled & household workers From E. Med & Black Sea region Declines by end 15 th century
The Family Strong family bonds Arranged marriages: dowry Great difference in age of husbands/wives Father controlled wealth Children had to be emancipated Wife: tend household and have children
Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor Charles V kept three books at his bedside. Charles V kept three books at his bedside. What were they?
The Courtier Ideal Man Well educated Charming, witty, polite Dance, write poetry, sing Physically graceful and strong Ideal Woman Well-educated Inspire the arts No political role
Divine Comedy: Dante
Political Ideas of the Renaissance Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince Machiavelli believed: “One can make this generalization about men: they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit” Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for the acquisition and maintenance of power by absolute rule. He felt that a ruler should be willing to do anything to maintain control without worrying about conscience.
Better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved Ruler should be quick and decisive in decision making Ruler keeps power by any means necessary The end justifies the means Be good when possible, and evil when necessary
The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature. Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular. Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation Renaissance art and literature focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity.
Renaissance Artists embraced some of the ideals of Greece and Rome in their art They wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion New Techniques also emerged Frescos: Painting done on wet plaster became popular because it gave depth to the paintings Sculpture emphasized realism and the human form Architecture reached new heights of design
Born in 1475 in a small town near Florence, is considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived
David Michelangelo created his masterpiece David in 1504.
Sistine Chapel About a year after creating David, Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on his most famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Creation of Eve Creation of Adam Separation of Light and Darkness The Last Judgment
La Pieta 1499 Marble Sculpture
Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engineer Genius!
The Last Supper
The School of Athens – Raphael, Raphael Da Vinci Michelangelo
Aristotle: looks to this earth [the here and now]. Plato: looks to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm]. The School of Athens – Raphael, details
Averroes Hypatia Pythagoras
Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid
Renaissance Art in Northern Europe Different from the Italian Renaissance. However, Italian influence was strong. –In the North artists painted in OIL on Wood or did wood carving. –In Italy artists painted on frescos or did sculpture in stone (marble, granite, etc) The differences between the two cultures: –Italy change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity. –No. Europe change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church. In the North, more princes & kings were patrons of artists.
Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art Continued the medieval attention to detail. Tendency toward realism & naturalism, less emphasis on the “classics & the perfect form” Painted landscapes. Emphasis on middle-class and peasant life. Details of domestic interiors. Great skill in portraiture.
Jan van Eyck (1395 – 1441) More courtly and aristocratic work. –Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good. The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin, 1435.
Jan Van Eyck Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (1434) Northern Renaissance
Van Eyck Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (detail)
Van Eyck: The Crucifixion & The Last Judgment Brings together Christian and pagan stories/traditions.
Rogier van der Weyden ( ) The Deposition 1435
van der Weyden’s Deposition
Albrecht Dürer ( ) The greatest of German artists. Scholar & artist Hired by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Also a scientist –Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions. Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits. Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.
Dürer – Self-Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe, 1500
Dürer The Last Supper woodcut, 1510
Durer – The Triumphal Arch,
Hans Holbein, the Younger ( ) One of the great German artists, did most of his work in England. Befriended Erasmus. –Erasmus Writing, 1523 Great portraitist noted for: –Objectivity & detachment. –Doesn’t conceal the weaknesses of his subjects.
Artist to the Tudors Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI (above), 1543.
Holbein’s, The Ambassadors, 1533 A Skull
Hieronymus Bosch ( ) A pessimistic view of human nature. Had a wild and lurid imagination. Untouched by the values of the Italian Renaissance like perspective. –Figures are flat. –Perspective is ignored. More a landscape painter than a portraitist.
Hieronymus Bosch The Garden of Earthy Delights 1500
Hieronymus Bosch The Garden of Earthy Delights (details) 1500
Hieronymus Bosch The Temptation of St. Anthony
Pieter Bruegel the Elder ( ) One of the greatest artistic geniuses of his age. Worked in Antwerp and then moved to Brussels. Deeply concerned with human vice and follies. Master of landscapes; not a portraitist. –People in his works often have round, blank, heavy faces. –They are expressionless, mindless, and sometimes malicious. –They are types, rather than individuals. –Their purpose is to convey a message.
Bruegel’s, Tower of Babel, 1563
Bruegel’s, Mad Meg, 1562
Bruegel’s, Hunters in the Snow, 1565
Bruegel’s, The Harvesters, 1565
Petrarch Sonnets, humanist scholarship Francesco Petrarch Assembled Greek and Roman writings. Wrote Sonnets to Laura, love poems in the Vernacular
Northern Renaissance Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported Renaissance ideas. Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity. The movable type printing press and the production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas. Northern Renaissance writers Erasmus—The Praise of Folly (1511) Sir Thomas More—Utopia (1516) Northern Renaissance artists portrayed religious and secular subjects.
Literature flourished during the Renaissance This can be greatly attributed to Johannes Gutenberg In 1455 Gutenberg printed the first book produced by using moveable type. The Bible
Erasmus Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus Pushed for a Vernacular form of the Bible “I disagree very much with those who are unwilling that Holy Scripture, translated into the vernacular, be read by the uneducated... As if the strength of the Christian religion consisted in the ignorance of it” The Praise of Folly Used humor to show the immoral and ignorant behavior of people, including the clergy. He felt people would be open minded and be kind to others.
Sir Thomas More English Humanist Wrote: Utopia A book about a perfect society Believed men and women live in harmony. No private property, no one is lazy, all people are educated and the justice system is used to end crime instead of executing criminals.
Bibliography Images from: Corbis.com Web Gallary of Art