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1300 - 1600. How did the Renaissance differ from the Middle Ages?

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Presentation on theme: "1300 - 1600. How did the Renaissance differ from the Middle Ages?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 How did the Renaissance differ from the Middle Ages?

3 What was the Renaissance? RebirthRebirth Link to crusadesLink to crusades SecularSecular ClassicalClassical

4 A form of education and culture based upon the study of the classics. Revolves around the liberal arts Petrarch DaVinci

5 Why Northern Italy? EconomicEconomic SocialSocial PoliticalPolitical

6 RENAISSANCE SOCIETY

7 Economic Recovery Hanseatic League Manufacturing grows: woolens, printing, mining Florence: banking Medici Family

8 The Nobility One of three estates in society 2- 3% of population Political and military power Concerned with social status

9 Courtly Society In Italy Nobles & Aristocrats Ideals based upon The Courtier Perfect Courtier: based upon character, military achievement, education, & skills Serve Prince

10 The 3 rd Estate of Peasants & Townspeople 85-90% of population Decline in manorial system Growth of towns Patricians: wealthy due to trade, industry, banking Petty burghers: artisans, guild members Propertyless workers

11 Slavery Due to effects of Black Death Skilled & household workers From E. Med & Black Sea region Declines by end 15 th century

12 The Family Strong family bonds Arranged marriages: dowry Great difference in age of husbands/wives Father controlled wealth Children had to be emancipated Wife: tend household and have children

13 Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor Charles V kept three books at his bedside. Charles V kept three books at his bedside. What were they?

14 The Courtier Ideal Man Well educated Charming, witty, polite Dance, write poetry, sing Physically graceful and strong Ideal Woman Well-educated Inspire the arts No political role

15 Divine Comedy: Dante

16 Political Ideas of the Renaissance Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince Machiavelli believed: “One can make this generalization about men: they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit” Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his day and produced guidelines for the acquisition and maintenance of power by absolute rule. He felt that a ruler should be willing to do anything to maintain control without worrying about conscience.

17 Better for a ruler to be feared than to be loved Ruler should be quick and decisive in decision making Ruler keeps power by any means necessary The end justifies the means Be good when possible, and evil when necessary

18 The Renaissance produced new ideas that were reflected in the arts, philosophy, and literature. Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade, sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular. Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation Renaissance art and literature focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity.

19 Renaissance Artists embraced some of the ideals of Greece and Rome in their art They wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion New Techniques also emerged Frescos: Painting done on wet plaster became popular because it gave depth to the paintings Sculpture emphasized realism and the human form Architecture reached new heights of design

20 Born in 1475 in a small town near Florence, is considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived

21 David Michelangelo created his masterpiece David in 1504.

22 Sistine Chapel About a year after creating David, Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on his most famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

23 Creation of Eve Creation of Adam Separation of Light and Darkness The Last Judgment

24 La Pieta 1499 Marble Sculpture

25 Moses

26 Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engineer Genius!

27 Mona Lisa

28 The Last Supper

29 Notebooks

30 Raphael Painter

31 The School of Athens – Raphael, Raphael Da Vinci Michelangelo

32 Aristotle: looks to this earth [the here and now]. Plato: looks to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm]. The School of Athens – Raphael, details

33 Averroes Hypatia Pythagoras

34 Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid

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36 Renaissance Art in Northern Europe Different from the Italian Renaissance. However, Italian influence was strong. –In the North artists painted in OIL on Wood or did wood carving. –In Italy artists painted on frescos or did sculpture in stone (marble, granite, etc) The differences between the two cultures: –Italy  change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity. –No. Europe  change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church. In the North, more princes & kings were patrons of artists.

37 Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art Continued the medieval attention to detail. Tendency toward realism & naturalism, less emphasis on the “classics & the perfect form” Painted landscapes. Emphasis on middle-class and peasant life. Details of domestic interiors. Great skill in portraiture.

38 Jan van Eyck (1395 – 1441) More courtly and aristocratic work. –Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good.  The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin, 1435.

39 Jan Van Eyck Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (1434) Northern Renaissance

40 Van Eyck Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (detail)

41 Van Eyck:  The Crucifixion & The Last Judgment  Brings together Christian and pagan stories/traditions.

42 Rogier van der Weyden ( ) The Deposition 1435

43 van der Weyden’s Deposition

44 Albrecht Dürer ( ) The greatest of German artists. Scholar & artist Hired by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Also a scientist –Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions. Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits.  Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.

45 Dürer – Self-Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe, 1500

46 Dürer The Last Supper woodcut, 1510

47 Durer – The Triumphal Arch,

48 Hans Holbein, the Younger ( ) One of the great German artists, did most of his work in England. Befriended Erasmus. –Erasmus Writing, 1523  Great portraitist noted for: –Objectivity & detachment. –Doesn’t conceal the weaknesses of his subjects.

49 Artist to the Tudors Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI (above), 1543.

50 Holbein’s, The Ambassadors, 1533 A Skull

51 Multiple Perspectives

52 Hieronymus Bosch ( ) A pessimistic view of human nature. Had a wild and lurid imagination. Untouched by the values of the Italian Renaissance like perspective. –Figures are flat. –Perspective is ignored. More a landscape painter than a portraitist.

53 Hieronymus Bosch The Garden of Earthy Delights 1500

54 Hieronymus Bosch The Garden of Earthy Delights (details) 1500

55 Hieronymus Bosch The Temptation of St. Anthony

56 Pieter Bruegel the Elder ( ) One of the greatest artistic geniuses of his age. Worked in Antwerp and then moved to Brussels. Deeply concerned with human vice and follies. Master of landscapes; not a portraitist. –People in his works often have round, blank, heavy faces. –They are expressionless, mindless, and sometimes malicious. –They are types, rather than individuals. –Their purpose is to convey a message.

57 Bruegel’s, Tower of Babel, 1563

58 Bruegel’s, Mad Meg, 1562

59 Bruegel’s, Hunters in the Snow, 1565

60 Bruegel’s, The Harvesters, 1565

61 Petrarch Sonnets, humanist scholarship Francesco Petrarch Assembled Greek and Roman writings. Wrote Sonnets to Laura, love poems in the Vernacular

62 Northern Renaissance Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported Renaissance ideas. Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity. The movable type printing press and the production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas. Northern Renaissance writers Erasmus—The Praise of Folly (1511) Sir Thomas More—Utopia (1516) Northern Renaissance artists portrayed religious and secular subjects.

63 Literature flourished during the Renaissance This can be greatly attributed to Johannes Gutenberg In 1455 Gutenberg printed the first book produced by using moveable type. The Bible

64 Erasmus Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus Pushed for a Vernacular form of the Bible “I disagree very much with those who are unwilling that Holy Scripture, translated into the vernacular, be read by the uneducated... As if the strength of the Christian religion consisted in the ignorance of it” The Praise of Folly Used humor to show the immoral and ignorant behavior of people, including the clergy. He felt people would be open minded and be kind to others.

65 Sir Thomas More English Humanist Wrote: Utopia A book about a perfect society Believed men and women live in harmony. No private property, no one is lazy, all people are educated and the justice system is used to end crime instead of executing criminals.

66 Bibliography Images from: Corbis.com Web Gallary of Art


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