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Physical Development and Biological Aging  Body Growth and Change  The Brain  Sleep  Longevity.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Development and Biological Aging  Body Growth and Change  The Brain  Sleep  Longevity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Development and Biological Aging  Body Growth and Change  The Brain  Sleep  Longevity

2 Patterns of Growth Cephalocaudal pattern: Growth occurs first at the top—the head—and gradually proceeds from top to bottom. Proximodistal pattern: Growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities Body Growth and Change

3 Height and Weight in Infancy and Childhood Body Growth and Change Slower, consistent growth Muscle mass and strength increase Boys stronger, body proportions change Middle and Late Childhood Growth slows, patterns vary individually Girls slightly smaller and lighter Girls gain fat, boys gain muscle Early Childhood Average 20 inches, 7 ½ lbs at birth Triple weight by 1 year ½ adult height, 20% adult weight by age 2 Infancy

4 Changes in Proportions of the Human Body During Growth Body Growth and Change

5 Puberty Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place in early adolescence Two phases: Adrenarche-changes in adrenal glands Gonardarche Menarche Spermarche Body Growth and Change

6 Hormone Levels by Sex and Pubertal Stage for Testosterone and Estadiol Body Growth and Change

7 Pubertal Growth Spurt Body Growth and Change

8 Normal Range and Average Development of Sexual Characteristics in Males and Females

9 Secular Trends in Puberty Body Growth and Change Onset of puberty beginning earlier: Norway — menarche at 17 in 1840s, now 13 U.S. — menarche at 15 in 1840s, now 12½ White girls at average age of 10 African American girls at average age 8 to 9

10 Body Image in Puberty Adolescents become preoccupied by bodies: Overall, girls less satisfied, boys more satisfied Throughout puberty: Girls’ dissatisfaction increases- body fat increases Boys’ satisfaction increases- muscle mass increases Body Growth and Change

11 Body Image in Puberty Early and Late Maturation: Early boys more positive, better peer relations. Late boys less positive but have more positive identity by 30s than early boys. Body Growth and Change

12 Body Image in Puberty Early and Late Maturation: Early girls more at risk for problems Smoking and drinking. Depression and eating disorders. Lower education and occupational attainment. Early dating and sexual experiences. Mental disorders and behavior problems. Body Growth and Change

13 Middle Adulthood Physical: Lose height, gain weight. More skin wrinkling, sagging in 40s and 50s. Youth-oriented culture motivates life style changes. Strength, bone density, flexibility decrease: 1 to 2 percent loss each year after age 50. Sarcopenia: age-related loss of muscle mass. Body Growth and Change

14 Middle Adulthood Cardiovascular system and lungs: HDL and LDL cholesterol, clogged arteries. Hypertension: blood pressure increases. Decreased lung capacity after age 55. Sexuality changes: Climacteric: Fertility declines. Menopause: Menstrual periods cease. Body Growth and Change

15 Lung Capacity, Smoking and Age

16 Late Adulthood Variability in physical declines: Socioeconomic status is a big factor. Physical appearance: Wrinkles, age spots, height and weight loss Weightlifting can slow process. Circulatory system: Increased blood pressure; linked to chronic conditions and longevity. Body Growth and Change

17 The Brain In Infancy Changing neurons: Rapid growth of myelin sheath, dendrite and synapse connections. Blooming and pruning of connections in brain. Peak synaptic overproduction influenced by heredity and environment. The Brain

18 Dendritic Spreading The Brain

19 The Brain In Infancy At birth, greater activity in left hemisphere specializes as infants listen to speech. Motor control begins about 2 months. Brain areas do not mature uniformly. Extensive brain development in utero: Born with about 100 billion neurons. Enriched early experiences can enhance brain growth and functioning. The Brain

20 The Brain In Infancy Shaken Baby Syndrome The Brain

21 Synaptic Density in Human Brain from Infancy to Adulthood

22 The Brain in Childhood During early childhood, the brain and head grow more rapidly than any other part of the body. Greatest anatomical brain increases from ages 3 to 15 years. The Brain

23 Growth Curves for Head and Brain and for Height and Weight The Brain

24 The Brain in Adolescence Growth still occurs in adolescence: Corpus Callosum thickens. Prefrontal cortex grows: reasoning, self-control, and decision making. Amygdala matures early: emotions and anger. Adolescent emotions: Slow development of prefrontal cortex. Poor self-control; seek rewards and pleasure. Seek novelty; increased risk-taking. Lack of practical experiences; immature judgment. The Brain

25 Adulthood and Aging The Shrinking-Slowing Brain: Brain loss: 5-10% of weight in ages 20 to 90 Dendrites decrease. Death of brain cells Shrinkage of prefrontal cortex. General slowing of function in brain and spinal cord begins in middle adulthood and accelerates in late adulthood. Reductions in neurotransmitters. The Brain

26 The Adapting Brain Grows new brain cells throughout life depending on environment. Dendrite growth continues in adults. Brain rewires to compensate for losses. Less lateralization with age. Findings from Nun Study: The Brain

27 Sleep in Infancy Newborns average hours a day. Varied sleeping patterns- Longest sleep period: 11 pm to 7 am. May change from longer to shorter sleep periods. Most close to adult patterns by 4 months. More REM sleep than any other time of life. Shared sleeping with parents is controversial. Sleep

28 Sleep Across the Human Life Span

29 SIDS Sleep Having siblings who died of SIDS. African American and Eskimo infants. Lower SES groups. Passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Infants ages 4 to 6 wks Sleeping on stomachs, use of soft bedding Low birth weight; diagnosed with sleep apnea Sleeping with pacifier Infant stops breathing, usually during night, and suddenly dies without apparent cause.

30 Sleep in Early Childhood Most young children sleep through the night and have one daytime nap. Nightmares: Frightening dreams are more common. Night Terrors: Sudden arousal from sleep. Sleep

31 Sleep in Adolescence Many adolescents are not getting enough sleep: Average 9½ hours when available Like to stay up late, sleep late in mornings Biological clocks have hormonal shift Melatonin production — about an hour later each day delays sleepiness at night. Sleep

32 Sleep in Adolescence Sleep deprivation and school performance: Grogginess and inattentiveness Poor test performance Discipline problems Reports of illness and depression Low self-esteem Ineffective stress management, exercise, diet Sleep

33 Adulthood and Aging Many adults don’t get enough sleep. Middle age may bring sleep problems. Wakeful periods at night, less deep sleep. Many older adults go to bed earlier at night and wake up earlier in the morning. Afternoon naps. Insomnia increases in late adulthood. Sleep

34 Life Expectancy and Life Span Life span: Upper boundary of life, maximum number of years an individual can live. 120 years of age. Life expectancy: Number of years that an average person born in a particular year will probably live. Longevity

35 Life Expectancy Females average 80 years, 74 years for males. Gender differences influenced by biological factors – extra X for females. Life expectancy varies across countries. U.S. men more likely to die from leading causes of death. Associated with lifestyle and workplace stress. Longevity

36 Centenarians Numbers increasing: Genes, heredity, and family history Women who have never married Ability to cope successfully with stress Education, health, and lifestyle Individual personality Highest ratio in Okinawa. Longevity

37 Biological Theories of Aging Cellular Clock Theory Free-Radical Theory Mitochondrial Theory Maximum times that human cells can divide is about 75 to 80 People age because their cells’ metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules (free radicals) Aging caused by decay of mitochondria; oxidative damage Hormonal Stress Theory Aging in body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase likelihood of disease Longevity

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