Presentation on theme: "Warm Up Question What is skepticism? (define) What is an event or idea that you are skeptical about? Define Reformation."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up Question What is skepticism? (define) What is an event or idea that you are skeptical about? Define Reformation.
The Protestant Reformation Background to the Reformation The Church and the Revolt Reformers Objective: Define the Reformation, place it in historical context, and explain how it emerged as a result of the spread of humanism into Northern Europe.
What is the Reformation? Religious upheaval that sought to reform the Church and eventually formed a new branch of Christianity – 1600
The Church before… The Popes compete for Political Power – Fought wars, purchase art and architecture for prestige (St. Peter’s Basilica, etc), get caught up in political intrigue….. To pay for the art, wars, and lavish lifestyles the church increase fees, and begin selling Indulgences Corruption of the Clergy- leaders within the Church – Regularly go to brothels – Many have mistresses and illegitimate children – Give up on education Some Priest can not even read
Popes of the Renaissance Examples of Corruption Pope Alexander VI – had several mistresses and fathered 7 children. Sixtus IV – imposed a license on brothels and a special tax on any priest who had a mistress. Innocent VIII – “sold” a cardinal's seat to the Medici family, Giovanni de Medici (later Pope Leo X) who was 13 yrs old at the time.
Indulgence – a piece of paper that the church sold to lessen the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory (a place you atoned for your sins before going to heaven) Situation: – Both you and your friend get in trouble and are sent to the principles office. The principal gives you two options 1. spend a week in detention 2. give a $100 “donation” to the new school building project OR
Nepotism - is favoritism granted to relatives or friends, with no regard to merit Situation - You and your friend have both applied for a job at your local restaurant but there is only one position available…. – Your friend is related to the chief but you have experience as a waiter (waitress). How do you get the job? 1. Write a great resume and get a recommendation from your last restaurant job. 2. Call your aunt who is related to the owner and ask her to help you get hired (maybe include a bribe)
How did the Reformers seek to change the Church? Reform led by Martin Luther (German monk and Professor) & other low level Catholic Clergy Complained mainly about the secularism that had crept into Catholicism – Indulgences – Not living with vows – Not focusing on education Objective: Identify Martin Luther, his central complaint against the Catholic Church, and his actions to reform the Catholic Church.
Martin Luther Started publishing pamphlets asking for reform – 95 Theses – Martin Luther’s major work against indulgences (1517) – The Institutes of the Christian Religion Continued by suggesting the formation of new churches outside of Catholicism – A new branch was called Protestantism (for their protests)
Martin Luther Religious Implications – Pope did not speak for God – Church and priesthood not necessary for salvation – God’s grace given to all who seek it Political Consequences – Peasant war – Northern Europe became Protestant
Martin Luther Suppression by the Pope Diet of Worms (a meeting at Worms, Germany) – Charles V ordered Luther to recant – Luther goes into hiding Refusal to submit – Excommunication
“Unless I am proved wrong by scripture or by evident reason, then I am a prisoner in conscience to the word of God. I cannot retract and I will not retract. To go against the conscience is neither safe nor right. God help me. Amen.” Martin Luther
Warm Up - Reformation Terms: – Try to define the following terms in your own words without looking at your notes… – Define what an Indulgence is. – Define what Nepotism is. – Define Protestantism. Questions: 1.How many different types of Protestantism do you know of? 2.Why do you think there are so many types of Protestantism? 3.Why would Protestantism spread so quickly in Europe? (Remember how the Renaissance spread)
Protestant and Catholics differed on some main points….. ProtestantCatholic Faith lead to heaven (sola fide) Faith and good deeds lead to heaven Anyone can read and interpret the BibleOnly the Catholic Church can interpret the Bible Get to the basics: only the Bible matters (sola scriptura) The Bible and church rituals matter Head of Church = Elected CouncilHead of Church = Pope Sacraments – accept some but reject others…. Only God can erase sin. Sin can not be erased through ritual (no confession) 7 sacraments: Baptism, confirmation, marriage, ordination, communion, anointing the sick and confession.
Leaders of the Reformation & Counter Reformation Erasmus Sir Thomas More John CalvinHenry VIII Ignatius Loyola Martin Luther
Man & his Sect Location(s) Major work & Year of Pub. Unique beliefs or traditions Main opposition reason for disagreement Desiderius Erasumus (no sect) Martin Luther __________ John Calvin __________ Henry VIII __________ Ignatius Loyola __________
The man and his _sect_ Location(s) Major work & year pub. Unique beliefs or traditions Main opposition & reason for disagreeing Erasmus (no sect) Netherlands The Praise of Folly 1509 Get back to the roots: the Bible Too many people in society were secular and had forgotten religion Clergy & monks: cared more about appearance than religion Merchants: were corrupt and charged unfair rates Theologians: lost knowledge of Bible Luther Lutheranism Holy Roman Empire “The 95 Theses” 1517 Indulgences needed to be reformed Priests could no longer read Priests were too secular and were breaking their vows Catholic Church: brought Luther to trial at Worms and excommunicated him Holy Roman Emperor: was pope’s close friend and supporter
Calvin Calvinism France and Switzerland The Institutes of the Christian Religion 1536 Predestination: everyone’s soul was already destined for heaven or hell Original sin: people are born with sin in their soles and will be bad unless they follow rules of Christianity Genevans (Switzerland): Calvin forced strict religious laws on them, so they kicked him out once French king: king was Catholic, Calvin was Protestant Henry VIII Anglicanism England “Act of Supremacy” 1534 Pope has no authority in England King is the leader of the Church of England & demands religious loyalty King confiscates lands of the Catholic Church Pope: did not want to grant Henry’s divorce, was upset since Henry used to be a major supporter King of Spain: Henry was married to his relative and he was trying to divorce Loyola Jesuits (Catholic) Spain, Italy, the Holy Land Spiritual Exercises 1524 Indulgences are one of many acts that, together, get people to heaven Protestant ideas are creations and are not true Do not question authority, like the Pope Protestants: Loyola was trying to convince them to go back to Catholicism Islamic peoples: Loyola was trying to convert them to Christianity
England The English Reformation Henry VIII – Henry needs an heir…. Needs a annulment from 1 st wife (can’t have anymore children) but the Pope will not consent – Dissent over divorce – breaks with Catholic Church – Passed Act of Supremacy – making Henry the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church founded)
Complicated Relationships At the time of the divorce, Henry VIII only had one surviving child, Mary Tudor. Breaks with the church, has an Archbishop annul the marriage, and marries Anne Boleyn. Anne Boleyn gives birth to a girl, Elizabeth. Boleyn is beheaded for treason and Henry marries Jane Seymour, who bears Edward VI. Elizabeth Anne Boleyn Mary Tudor What can be said about the attire of each of the women in these paintings?
Turmoil in England Henry’s Children Edward VI Very strict Protestant Mary I of England “Bloody Mary” Very strict Catholic Elizabeth Protestant (middle ground)
Calvin Minister who was inspired by Luther but disagrees on a few points…. – Beliefs: – 1. Humans are so corrupt/ evil that no good deeds can get you into heaven – Only God can decide who goes to heaven, (Predestination)… nothing you do matters (other names for Calvinists = Puritans)
Impact of the Reformation The split of Christianity Diagram the new branch of Christianity that started as a result of the Protestant Reformation. Summarize the major differences between the two branches. CatholicismLutheranism/ Protestantism Calvinism Salvation through FaithGod alone predetermines who will be saved Head of Church: Elected council Head of Church: Council of Elders (appointed) Bible alone source of truth dislike the Catholic structure
Counter Reformation/ Catholic Reformation Reform movement within the Catholic Church Steps the Church takes to reform: – Council of Trent 1545: meeting to end corruption, increase education, and reaffirm Catholic beliefs. – Inquisition: Persecuted non-Catholics (Protestants, Jews, etc.) – Founded the Jesuits (“Soldiers of God”): new catholic group to spread and defend Catholicism End Result – bring Some people back to Catholicism but Europe still split over religion…..
Europe after the Reformation
Warm-Up How are the Protestant and Catholic faiths different from one another? – Use at least 3 specific examples (reference the chart in your notes if you need to) How did the Protestant Reformation change Europe?
Study Guide Questions
4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church? Explain the secular interests and practices of the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500s. - Indulgences, corruption, less education… What were Indulgences? What were their purpose? – Pieces of paper that the Catholic church sold to lesson a souls time in purgatory for sins they had committed
4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church? What were the 95 Theses? How did they spread throughout Europe? – 95 arguments by Luther on why indulgences are bad. – Spread by printing press What were Luther’s 3 major ideals concerning the Christian religion? – Salvation through faith alone – Bible source of all religious truth – Anyone can interpret the bible (don’t need Catholic Church)
4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church? What was the Diet of Worms? What was the result? – Meeting where Luther is ordered by the Pope to recant (take back) his 95 Theses….. Luther refuses and is thrown out of the church
5. Compare and contrast the religious views of the Roman Catholics, Martin Luther and John Calvin. What were the major tenets of Christianity that all three believed and taught? – All Christen, believe in the bible, Jesus, etc. How did their views differ on attaining eternal salvation? (reaching Heaven) – Catholics – need good works, and faith – Luther – need JUST faith – Calvin – Predestination (only god can determine who goes to heaven)
How did they view the role and interpretation of the Bible? – Catholics – Bible interpreted by the Church – Luther and Calvin – Bible interpreted by ANYONE What differences existed in terms of the leadership and organization of their churches? – Catholics – One leader = Pope – Luther and Calvin – elected council
6a. Explain the reasons behind the decision of Henry VIII of England to start the Church of England. Henry VIII’s personal issues: – His wife can no longer have any children and he needs a male heir Secular and political issues: – Without a male heir England could fall into civil war – Catholic church wont let him get divorced because Henry’s wife is related to the Holy Roman Empire and Pope needs his political support
6b. How did Henry VIII’s children handle religious issues during their reigns? How did Henry’s reforms continue during the short reign of Edward VI? – Edward VERY protestant Suppress all catholic teaching/ beliefs What happened to Protestantism during the rule of Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)? – Mary VERY Catholic Brings back Catholicism
6b. How did Henry VIII’s children handle religious issues during their reigns? What decisions did Elizabeth I make concerning the religion of England? – Elizabeth Protestant but chooses a middle road and allows some Catholic rituals to remain in Protestant country
7a. What was the Catholic Reformation? What were the purpose and goals of the Catholic Reformation in the mid-1500s? – Religious upheaval that sought to reform the church
7b. In what ways did it respond to Protestant ideas? What was the role of the Council of Trent? – To help direct the way people should take the reform; To make and start the reformation. Who were the Jesuits? What were their responsiblities? – The Jesuits were missionary soldiers – The spread the catholic faith and protected it.
7b. In what ways did it respond to Protestant ideas? What was the Inquisition? What was the Index of Forbidden Books? – The Inquisition was a church council – This court used torture, secret testimony and execution to rid of heresy – The Index of Forbidden Books was a list of works that was against the catholic faith.