Presentation on theme: "Warm Up Question What is skepticism? (define)"— Presentation transcript:
1Warm Up Question What is skepticism? (define) What is an event or idea that you are skeptical about?Define Reformation.
2The Protestant Reformation Background to the ReformationThe Church and the RevoltReformersObjective:Define the Reformation, place it in historical context, and explain how it emerged as a result of the spread of humanism into Northern Europe.
3What is the Reformation? Religious upheaval that sought to reform the Church and eventually formed a new branch of Christianity.1500 – 1600
4Branches of Christianity? LutheranAnglicanCatholicWhy are thereso many differentBranches of Christianity?CalvinistChristianity
5The Church before… The Popes compete for Political Power Fought wars, purchase art and architecture for prestige (St. Peter’s Basilica, etc), get caught up in political intrigue…..To pay for the art, wars, and lavish lifestyles the church increase fees, and begin selling IndulgencesCorruption of the Clergy- leaders within the ChurchRegularly go to brothelsMany have mistresses and illegitimate childrenGive up on educationSome Priest can not even read
6Popes of the Renaissance Examples of Corruption Pope Alexander VI – had several mistresses and fathered 7 children.Sixtus IV – imposed a license on brothels and a special tax on any priest who had a mistress.Innocent VIII – “sold” a cardinal's seat to the Medici family, Giovanni de Medici (later Pope Leo X) who was 13 yrs old at the time.
7Indulgence – a piece of paper that the church sold to lessen the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory (a place you atoned for your sins before going to heaven)Situation:Both you and your friend get in trouble and are sent to the principles office. The principal gives you two options1. spend a week in detention2. give a $100 “donation” to the new school building projectOR
8Nepotism - is favoritism granted to relatives or friends, with no regard to merit Situation -You and your friend have both applied for a job at your local restaurant but there is only one position available….Your friend is related to the chief but you have experience as a waiter (waitress). How do you get the job?1. Write a great resume and get a recommendation from your last restaurant job.2. Call your aunt who is related to the owner and ask her to help you get hired (maybe include a bribe)
9How did the Reformers seek to change the Church? Objective:Identify Martin Luther, his central complaint against the Catholic Church, and his actions to reform the Catholic Church.How did the Reformers seek to change the Church?Reform led by Martin Luther (German monk and Professor) & other low level Catholic ClergyComplained mainly about the secularism that had crept into CatholicismIndulgencesNot living with vowsNot focusing on education
10Martin Luther Started publishing pamphlets asking for reform 95 Theses – Martin Luther’s major work against indulgences (1517)The Institutes of the Christian ReligionContinued by suggesting the formation of new churches outside of CatholicismA new branch was called Protestantism (for their protests)
11Martin Luther Religious Implications Political Consequences Pope did not speak for GodChurch and priesthood not necessary for salvationGod’s grace given to all who seek itPolitical ConsequencesPeasant warNorthern Europe became Protestant
12Martin Luther Suppression by the Pope Diet of Worms (a meeting at Worms, Germany)Charles V orderedLuther to recantLuther goes intohidingRefusal to submitExcommunication
13“Unless I am proved wrong by scripture or by evident reason, then I am a prisoner in conscience to the word of God. I cannot retract and I will not retract. To go against the conscience is neither safe nor right. God help me. Amen.”Martin Luther
14Warm Up - Reformation Terms: Questions: Try to define the following terms in your own words without looking at your notes…Define what an Indulgence is.Define what Nepotism is.Define Protestantism.Questions:How many different types of Protestantism do you know of?Why do you think there are so many types of Protestantism?Why would Protestantism spread so quickly in Europe? (Remember how the Renaissance spread)
16Protestant and Catholics differed on some main points….. Faith lead to heaven(sola fide)Faith and good deeds lead to heavenAnyone can read and interpret the BibleOnly the Catholic Church can interpret the BibleGet to the basics: only the Bible matters(sola scriptura)The Bible and church rituals matterHead of Church = Elected CouncilHead of Church = PopeSacraments – accept some but reject others…. Only God can erase sin. Sin can not be erased through ritual (no confession)7 sacraments:Baptism, confirmation, marriage, ordination, communion, anointing the sick and confession.
18Leaders of the Reformation & Counter Reformation ErasmusJohn CalvinHenry VIIIMartin LutherIgnatius LoyolaSir Thomas More
19Unique beliefs or traditions Main opposition reason for disagreement Man & his SectLocation(s)Major work & Year of Pub.Unique beliefs or traditionsMain opposition reason for disagreementDesiderius Erasumus(no sect)Martin Luther__________John CalvinHenry VIIIIgnatius Loyola
21Unique beliefs or traditions Main opposition & reason for disagreeing The man and his _sect_Location(s)Major work & year pub.Unique beliefs or traditionsMain opposition & reason for disagreeingErasmus(no sect)NetherlandsThe Praise of Folly1509Get back to the roots: the BibleToo many people in society were secular and had forgotten religionClergy & monks: cared more about appearance than religionMerchants: were corrupt and charged unfair ratesTheologians: lost knowledge of BibleLutherLutheranismHoly Roman Empire“The 95 Theses”1517Indulgences needed to be reformedPriests could no longer readPriests were too secular and were breaking their vowsCatholic Church: brought Luther to trial at Worms and excommunicated himHoly Roman Emperor: was pope’s close friend and supporter
22CalvinCalvinismFrance and SwitzerlandThe Institutes of the Christian Religion1536Predestination: everyone’s soul was already destined for heaven or hellOriginal sin: people are born with sin in their soles and will be bad unless they follow rules of ChristianityGenevans (Switzerland): Calvin forced strict religious laws on them, so they kicked him out onceFrench king: king was Catholic, Calvin was ProtestantHenry VIIIAnglicanismEngland“Act of Supremacy”1534Pope has no authority in EnglandKing is the leader of the Church of England & demands religious loyaltyKing confiscates lands of the Catholic ChurchPope: did not want to grant Henry’s divorce, was upset since Henry used to be a major supporterKing of Spain: Henry was married to his relative and he was trying to divorceLoyolaJesuits(Catholic)Spain, Italy, the Holy LandSpiritual Exercises1524Indulgences are one of many acts that, together, get people to heavenProtestant ideas are creations and are not trueDo not question authority, like the PopeProtestants: Loyola was trying to convince them to go back to CatholicismIslamic peoples: Loyola was trying to convert them to Christianity
23Branches of Christianity? LutheranAnglicanCatholicWhy are thereso many differentBranches of Christianity?CalvinistChristianity
24England The English Reformation Henry VIIIHenry needs an heir…. Needs a annulment from 1st wife (can’t have anymore children) but the Pope will not consentDissent over divorce – breaks with Catholic ChurchPassed Act of Supremacy – making Henry the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church founded)
25Complicated Relationships At the time of the divorce, Henry VIII only had one surviving child, Mary Tudor.Breaks with the church, has an Archbishop annul the marriage, and marries Anne Boleyn.Anne Boleyn gives birth to a girl, Elizabeth.Boleyn is beheaded for treason and Henry marries Jane Seymour, who bears Edward VI.What can be said about the attire of each of the women in these paintings?Mary TudorAnne BoleynElizabeth
26Turmoil in England Henry’s Children Edward VIVery strict ProtestantMary I of England “Bloody Mary”Very strict CatholicElizabethProtestant (middle ground)
27CalvinMinister who was inspired by Luther but disagrees on a few points….Beliefs:1. Humans are so corrupt/ evil that no good deeds can get you into heavenOnly God can decide who goes to heaven, (Predestination)… nothing you do matters(other names for Calvinists = Puritans)
28Impact of the Reformation Diagram the new branch of Christianity that started as a result of the Protestant Reformation. Summarize the major differences between the two branches.Impact of the ReformationThe split of ChristianityCatholicismLutheranism/ProtestantismCalvinismSalvation through FaithGod alone predetermines who will be savedHead of Church: Elected councilHead of Church: Council of Elders (appointed)Bible alone source of truthdislike the Catholic structure
30Counter Reformation/ Catholic Reformation Reform movement within the Catholic ChurchSteps the Church takes to reform:Council of Trent 1545: meeting to end corruption, increase education, and reaffirm Catholic beliefs.Inquisition: Persecuted non-Catholics (Protestants, Jews, etc.)Founded the Jesuits (“Soldiers of God”): new catholic group to spread and defend CatholicismEnd Result – bring Some people back to Catholicism but Europe still split over religion…..
33Warm-UpHow are the Protestant and Catholic faiths different from one another?Use at least 3 specific examples (reference the chart in your notes if you need to)How did the Protestant Reformation change Europe?
35- Indulgences, corruption, less education… 4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church?Explain the secular interests and practices of the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500s.- Indulgences, corruption, less education…What were Indulgences? What were their purpose?Pieces of paper that the Catholic church sold to lesson a souls time in purgatory for sins they had committed
36What were the 95 Theses? How did they spread throughout Europe? 4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church?What were the 95 Theses? How did they spread throughout Europe?95 arguments by Luther on why indulgences are bad.Spread by printing pressWhat were Luther’s 3 major ideals concerning the Christian religion?Salvation through faith aloneBible source of all religious truthAnyone can interpret the bible (don’t need Catholic Church)
37What was the Diet of Worms? What was the result? 4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church?What was the Diet of Worms? What was the result?Meeting where Luther is ordered by the Pope to recant (take back) his 95 Theses….. Luther refuses and is thrown out of the church
385. Compare and contrast the religious views of the Roman Catholics, Martin Luther and John Calvin. What were the major tenets of Christianity that all three believed and taught?All Christen, believe in the bible, Jesus, etc.How did their views differ on attaining eternal salvation? (reaching Heaven)Catholics – need good works, and faithLuther – need JUST faithCalvin – Predestination (only god can determine who goes to heaven)
39How did they view the role and interpretation of the Bible? Catholics – Bible interpreted by the ChurchLuther and Calvin – Bible interpreted by ANYONEWhat differences existed in terms of the leadership and organization of their churches?Catholics – One leader = PopeLuther and Calvin – elected council
40Henry VIII’s personal issues: 6a. Explain the reasons behind the decision of Henry VIII of England to start the Church of England.Henry VIII’s personal issues:His wife can no longer have any children and he needs a male heirSecular and political issues:Without a male heir England could fall into civil warCatholic church wont let him get divorced because Henry’s wife is related to the Holy Roman Empire and Pope needs his political support
41How did Henry’s reforms continue during the short reign of Edward VI? 6b. How did Henry VIII’s children handle religious issues during their reigns?How did Henry’s reforms continue during the short reign of Edward VI?Edward VERY protestantSuppress all catholic teaching/ beliefsWhat happened to Protestantism during the rule of Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)?Mary VERY CatholicBrings back Catholicism
426b. How did Henry VIII’s children handle religious issues during their reigns? What decisions did Elizabeth I make concerning the religion of England?Elizabeth Protestant but chooses a middle road and allows some Catholic rituals to remain in Protestant country
437a. What was the Catholic Reformation? What were the purpose and goals of the Catholic Reformation in the mid-1500s?Religious upheaval that sought to reform the church
447b. In what ways did it respond to Protestant ideas? What was the role of the Council of Trent?To help direct the way people should take the reform; To make and start the reformation.Who were the Jesuits? What were their responsiblities?The Jesuits were missionary soldiersThe spread the catholic faith and protected it.
457b. In what ways did it respond to Protestant ideas? What was the Inquisition? What was the Index of Forbidden Books?The Inquisition was a church councilThis court used torture, secret testimony and execution to rid of heresyThe Index of Forbidden Books was a list of works that was against the catholic faith.