Presentation on theme: "Late Antiquity: The Transformation of the Roman Empire and the Triumph of Christianity Civ 101-03 March 6, 2015 Class 20."— Presentation transcript:
Late Antiquity: The Transformation of the Roman Empire and the Triumph of Christianity Civ 101-03 March 6, 2015 Class 20
The Legacy of Late Antiquity The Division of the Empire into East/West – The (esp. eastern) empire afforded relative stability for historical and cultural developments – Roman laws and institutions (esp. Roman imperial leadership style) in attempts to maintain dominance (mostly failed) Beginnings of “state” organizations (that will become the nations of Europe/the west) Catholic institutions integrate with civil institutions – In the west, the papacy develops
The beginning of extensive historical records as writing AND preservation are privatized. – First there is destruction of almost everything – Then there are limited efforts at preservation of selected aspects. As the Church gets into place and the wars settle down, we start to derive the benefits of writing (that we covered last time), – better history – Some conservation of ancient stuff (most of it “private” and some of it “hidden” – Loads of reconstruction of ancient stuff Lots of it was speculative/tradition based Lots of it was censored by Christian approach Even more than the Romans: COPIERS The Legacy of Late Antiquity
The Transformation of the Roman Empire The Crisis of the Third Century – Twenty-two emperors in fifty years – Institutional chaos – Threats along the frontier – Persecution of Christians
The Transformation of the Roman Empire The Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine – Tetrarchy (that doesn’t work/hold) – East and West division (that DOES) Foreshadows (and to some degree, leads to) divisions that will haunt Western Civilization – Eastern Church – Trouble with Islam
Transformation of the Roman Empire The Later Roman Empire in West and East – The end of the western empire Barbarian federates Sack of Rome, 410 Fall of western empire, 476 – Beginnings of “state” organizations (that will become nations) as invaders, indigenous people, and the Roman Empire, remix and split territory.
The Later Roman Empire in West and East The eastern empire Constantinople Along with the East, becomes Christian, BUT ends up Christian of the “other” (minority) kind (Eastern Orthodox) Transformation of the Roman Empire
The Growth of the Catholic Church – Bishops – Petrine Idea and apostolic succession – Nicene creed – Heresies – Eventually, the New Testament The Triumph of Christianity
Christian Monasticism Christianity and the Roman State – Imperial support for Christianity – Gelasius I: emperor has power, priests have authority Christianity and the Eastern State – Actually, “first” – Eventually, alternate and minority to Rome Many varieties of Christian Experience The Triumph of Christianity
The Secular Culture of Late Antiquity Philosophy – Neoplatonism Science and Medicine Law
The Visual Arts Especially related to architecture/buildings – Sculpture – Paintings/Mosaics There’s LOTS of this stuff left. – Perhaps more remnants than in any prior period
The Legacy of Late Antiquity We become what they started: Fragmented, with over-riding unities. – Really, we’re not very Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Greek, Roman. We like to think of ourselves as Western because of them, but we aren’t. Instead: We are from a wide variety of mostly European nationalities, with over-riding tones of classicism and Judeo-Christianity sprinkled in.