Presentation on theme: "RENAISSANCE – “REBIRTH” A period of great intellectual and artistic creativity."— Presentation transcript:
RENAISSANCE – “REBIRTH” A period of great intellectual and artistic creativity
Introduction The Renaissance is often considered one of the great “turning points” in the history of Western Civilization. It featured a new interest in learning about the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome.
The Big Questions: What was the Renaissance and why did it happen? What were some of the new ways of thinking during the Renaissance? Who were some of the key people and contributions of the Renaissance?
Background – The Renaissance began in Italy Location – centrally located in the Mediterranean Sea region As trade increased, Italian cities became centers of banking, commerce, and industry Merchants and nobles acted as patrons ◦ Supported artists, writers, and scholars ◦ Powerful leaders (because no single ruler had united the Italian peninsula)
Characteristics of the Renaissance Secularism (non-religious) – increased as people began to show greater interest in this world rather than the “here after” Reason – used observation and experience to explain the world rather than Christian teachings Humanism – emphasized dignity, worth, and uniqueness of individuals. (man is the focus of all things) Christian Humanism – a movement in northern Europe that promoted reason through Christian teachings
Impacts of the Renaissance Artistic Intellectual Political Economic Science and Technology
ARTISTIC: Art before the Renaissance was greatly influenced by Byzantine styles ◦ Highly decorative ◦ Flat and not life-like ◦ Figures floated in space without shadows ◦ Sized of figures were based on importance, not where it was placed in the picture Renaissance art featured new depth, dimension, and perspective
Painting and Sculpture Early Renaissance Artists ◦ Giotto ( ) – used scenes with figures in lifelike space, realistic shading, showed emotion and gestures, and figures receding in space grew smaller ◦ Massacio ( ) – used perspective (guidelines to calculate how things recede in the distance) and other realistic effects
Masters of the “High Renaissance” Leonardo Da Vinci Michaelangelo Rafael Donatello AKA: NINJA TURTLES
Leonardo Da Vinci ( ) The epitome of the “Renaissance Man” Painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist ◦ Dissected human bodies ◦ Kept a notebook of designs (machine gun, helicopter, etc.) ◦ Last Supper, Mona Lisa
Michaelangelo ( ) Sculptor and artist Paintings and statues were startlingly realistic David, Pieta, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Architecture Studied ruins of buildings from ancient Rome Abandoned Medieval styles (pointed arches, ornamentation) Used columns and circular arches of the classical period Demonstrated technical achievements of applying reason One of the most famous architects was Filippo Brunelleschi
Intellectual Impact Scholarship and Literature ◦ Petrarch – the “Father of Humanism”: collected and studied ancient texts ◦ Erasmus – questioned the Church and used satire to criticise ◦ More authors wrote on secular (non-religious) subjects Boccaccio wrote in the Italian vernacular (local language, not Latin) Rabelais (French), William Shakespeare (England), and Cervantes (Spain) also wrote in their native languages Writers described the dignity of man, pleasures of the senses, and instructed nobles in how to behave at court
Intellectual Impact continued... Science and Technology Copernicus – a polish scientist, concluded that the Earth orbited the sun. His work was banned by the Church (Church taught that Earth was the center of the universe) Galileo Galilei ( ) – Italian scientist, studied motion and laid the foundation for modern physics. Observed the heavenly bodies with one of the first telescopes and wrote about his belief in Copernicus’ theory. Was charged by the Catholic Church, ordered to appear before the Inquisition in Rome, was found guilty and confined to his home
Gutenberg and the printing revolution Johann Gutenberg (German printer) ◦ Developed a printing press with moveable type ◦ Moveable type, a special press, and oil- based inks allowed the mass production of printed books ◦ Encouraged the spread of new ideas ◦ Increased literacy
Political Impact Machiavelli – a courtier and politician in Florence ◦ Wrote “The Prince” – a guidebook in how to secure and maintain political power ◦ Argued that the most successful rulers were not those who acted according to laws or conscience, but those who were willing to do whatever was necessary to hold power (the end justifies the means) Wealthy Italian city-states, weakening of the Church, and reasoning of writers led to the concept of “reason of state” Rulers collected taxes, raised armies, hired professional soldiers, and exchanged ambassadors
Economic Impact People wanted to improve their material conditions Wealthy accumulated luxury goods Increased trade in a greater variety of products (clothes, foods, wines, and furnishings) Continued growth of cities
LEFT SIDE ACTIVITY Pretend you are an Italian Doge (noble leader of a city-state). You are wanting to become a patron. Create an advertisement seeking an artist, architect, etc. to work for your family. Be specific about what you want this person (or people) to accomplish.