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巴特神學 中華福音神學院 2014-15 學年上學期. 《安瑟倫:信心追求理解》 《安瑟倫》 1930 年三月:離開明斯特( Münster ),赴波昂 ( Bonn )任教 1931 年出版《安瑟倫》( Anselm: Fides Quaerens Intellectum )

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Presentation on theme: "巴特神學 中華福音神學院 2014-15 學年上學期. 《安瑟倫:信心追求理解》 《安瑟倫》 1930 年三月:離開明斯特( Münster ),赴波昂 ( Bonn )任教 1931 年出版《安瑟倫》( Anselm: Fides Quaerens Intellectum )"— Presentation transcript:

1 巴特神學 中華福音神學院 2014-15 學年上學期

2 《安瑟倫:信心追求理解》

3 《安瑟倫》 1930 年三月:離開明斯特( Münster ),赴波昂 ( Bonn )任教 1931 年出版《安瑟倫》( Anselm: Fides Quaerens Intellectum )

4 信仰的類比 vs. 存有的類比 巴特論安瑟倫: Anselm: Fides Quarens Intellectum (1931) 安瑟倫 Proslogion :「本體論證」 1. 上帝是至大者,沒有比上帝更大的存有 2. 「上帝」這概念存在人的思想中(『就連愚昧人都能 明白這概念』) 3. 一個同時存在於思想與現實中的存有,比單單存在於 思想中的存有更大 4. 如果「上帝」只存在於人的思想中,那麼我們就能想出 一個 比「上帝」這概念更大的存有的改念,亦即一個 「存在於思想中又存在於現實中的至大者」 5. 但「上帝」這概念的定義就是「至大者」,我們無法 想像一個比「上帝」更大的存有 6. 因此,上帝存在於現實中

5 巴爾塔薩立論 The “Von Balthasar thesis”: “turn from dialectic to analogy” 《安瑟倫》的方法論促使巴特放棄 Die Christliche Dogmatik ,並開始《教會教理學》 「從辯證到類比」: (一) 1931 突然改變 (二) 1931-1938 ( Anselm 到 CD II/1 )漸進改變 影響: T. F. Torrance 、 Hans Frei 等

6 挑戰「巴爾塔薩立論」 Eberhard Jüngel, Ingrid Spieckermann, Michael Beintker 等德語學者 當代巴特研究 paradigm : Bruce McCormack, Karl Barth’s Critically Realistic Dialectical Theology (Oxford: Clarendon, 1995)

7 McCormack’s Thesis 巴特雖與「辯證神學」學派決裂,但從未放棄 「辯證法」 《安瑟倫》並未提出新的方法論 儘管《安瑟倫》這本書到最後讓我們了解巴特的 思想遠多過這位十一世紀神學家的思想,但這仍 是巴特在討論安瑟倫,而非巴特在陳述自己的思 想

8 巴特論《安瑟倫》 CD I/1 序言: CD I/1 與 Die christliche Dogmatik 乃 “saying the same thing, but in a very different way. ” “My new task was to rethink everything far more clearly, unambiguously and simply, in accordance with the church’s belief, and yet far more freely, openly and comprehensively than I could ever have said it before.”

9 實動主義 Actualism Revelation-in-act 實動中的啟示:「信心」與「理解」跟 「啟示」相呼應 “Anselm wants ‘proof’ and ‘joy’ because he wants intelligere and he wants intelligere because he believes. Any reversal of this order of compulsion is excluded by Anselm’s conception of faith. That is to say, for Anselm, ‘to believe’ does not mean simply a striving of the human will towards God but a striving of the human will into God and so a participation (albeit in a manner limited by creatureliness) in God’s mode of Being and so a similar participation in God’s aseity, in matchless glory of his very Self, and therefore also in God’s utter absence of necessity.”

10 「在體性」與「純理性」的「理」 Noetic ratio : “knowing ratio of the human faculty of making concepts and judgments” Ontic ratio : “peculiar to the object of faith” Analogia Fidei : Intellectus Fidei = noetic ratio “conforms to” ontic ratio

11 在體性之理 分 ratio veritatis 與 ratio fidei Ratio veritatis = “identical with the ratio summae naturae, that is with the divine Word consubstantial with the Father. It is the ratio of God.” Ratio fidei :教會的 Credo 安瑟倫:聖經屬於 ratio _____ 巴特:聖經屬於 ratio _____ 上帝揀選的行動使 ratio veritatis 生發 ratio fidei

12 純理性之理 人的 intellectum 不可能直接認知 ratio veritatis 人可以藉由對 ratio fidei 的 explicatio 得到對 ontic ratio 的理解,即 intellectum fidei

13 實動主義欲定論 與哥亭跟-明斯特時期一致 “the attainment of the ratio intellectus that is in conformity with the ratio veritatis hidden in the ratio fidei depends upon a divine decision, and therefore upon grace” (Bruce McCormack)

14 啟示論 用一套新的術語表達哥亭根-明斯特時期的 subject-object dialectic 仍沿用辯證法

15 康德主義 “Barth, following Kant, accepts that we cannot know ‘things in themselves’; we work with the mediated representations of these things and, on this basis, we live in the world ‘as if’ we had immediate awareness… Only the noetic operation of the Spirit of Christ, establishing analogia fidei …, can enable us to have some understanding of the world as it is. Only God sees things as they are. This theological position, as I pointed out, critiques notions of ‘presence’ and ‘identity’, for the world (and God’s unveiling of himself within the world) is always and only mediated to us” (Graham Ward).

16 《教會教理學》 I/1

17 CD I/1 1930-1935 :於德國波昂( Bonn )任教 1931 出版 Anselm 1932 出版 CD I/1 Emphasis: Word of God (instead of Subject/Object Distinction)

18 CD I/1: 序言 & 前言 與 Göttingen-Münster 時期相比: “saying the same thing, but in a very different way.” Kirchliche Dogmatik vs. Christliche Dogmatik (Münster) “In substituting the word ‘Church’ for ‘Christian’ in the title, I have tried to set a good example of restraint in the lighthearted use of the great word ‘Christian’ against which I have protested” ; “dogmatics is not a free science. It is bound to the sphere of the Church, where alone it is possible and meaningful.”

19 CD I/1: 序言 & 前言 教理學是 “inquiry” ( Forschung )  quaerere 教理學的預設: “[it] presupposes that the true content of Christian talk about God can be known by man. It makes this assumption as in and with the Church it believes in Jesus Christ as the revealing and reconciling address of God to man.” “Talk about God has true content when it conforms to the being of the Church, i.e., when it conforms to Jesus Christ.” 因為 “Jesus Christ is the essence of the Church.”

20 CD I/1 :序言與前言 「神的話語」當中的區別: “[Christ the Word] is the truth, not merely in Himself, but also for us as we know Him solely by faith in Jesus Christ” : “in himself” ( ratio veritatis ) & “as we know Him” ( ratio fidei ) 啟示作為「事件」: “in the event of the divine action corresponding to the promise given to the Church, it is possible for it to be knowledge of the truth.”

21 CD I/1 :序言與前言 啟示作為實動事件( actualistic event ): “The fulfilment of this knowledge, the event of human action, the appropriation corresponding to this address in which, through the stages of intuitive apprehension formulated comprehension, the revelation of the analogia fidei to resultant clarity in dogmatics…, is, of course, a second event compared with the divine action itself, united with it in faith, yet also in faith to be distinguished from it.”

22 CD I/1 :序言與前言 GD 的揀選論: Doctrine of the Word of God 的基礎 “Faith… is not a determination of human action which man can give to it at will or maintain at will once it is received. On the contrary, it is the gracious address of God to man, the free personal presence of Jesus Christ in his activity. Hence, if we say that dogmatics presupposes faith, or the determination of human action by hearing and as obedience to the being of the Church, we say that at every step and with every statement it presupposes the free grace of God which may at any time be given or refused as the object and meaning of this human action. It always rests with God and not with us whether our hearing is real hearing and our obedience real obedience, whether our dogmatics is blessed and sanctified as knowledge of the true Christian utterance or whether it is idle speculation.”

23 CD I/1: 核心神學課題 “[Barth] does not ask what it means to speak of God, but, rather, in what sense God must be spoken of in order that our speaking is about God.” (Eberhard Jüngel) Human existence 的矛盾之處: “[human talk] could be and should be [talk about God, as all realities and truths distinct from God] exist from Him and to Him.” 因此 “there is no genuinely profane speech. In the last resort there is only talk about God.” 然而 “this is not at all the case, that it is quite impossible to interpret human talk as such as talk about God.”

24 CD I/1: 核心神學課題 出發點: Deus dixit (神已說話)、教會已宣告基督、人 論述神的可能性已是後驗事實 問題:墮落的人能夠論述神,是如何變為可能的? 答:神的主權 [As] man in the kingdom of grace… we stand under the sign of a decision constantly taken between the secularity [Welthalftigkeit :受困於世界的 ] and the sanctification of our existence, between sin and grace, between a being as man which forgets God, which is absolutely neutral in relation to Him and therefore absolutely hostile, and one which in His revelation is awakened by faith to being in the Church, to the appropriation of His promise.

25 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 宣講、書寫、啟示: the Word of God in its threefold form as preached, written, and revealed 宣講 = 教會任信、教導、佈道、講道、宣告 書寫 = 聖經 啟示 = 基督

26 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 教會及其宣告並非 “simply and visibly there… as that which they want to be and should be…, as realities of revelation and faith.” 教會及其宣告乃 “inherently secular” : welthaftig = confined to the world “The Word of God is the event itself in which proclamation becomes real proclamation.”

27 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 聖經亦是 inherently secular ,唯有在上帝主權實動 的事件中成為神的話語: “Recollection of God’s past revelation… is also an event, and is to be understood only as an event. In this event the Bible is God’s Word.” “The Bible, then, becomes God’s Word in this event [in which] God’s action on man has become an event…, and the Bible has grasped at man.”

28 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 上帝自我隱藏於聖經這 “fallible human word” ,為 了啟示自己,因此我們不可 “equate [Scripture] directly with this other, with revelation itself.” 「聖經」與「啟示」誠然是一體的( ‘indeed one’ ),但 “their union is really an event.” 因此 “in the statement that the Bible is God’s Word the little word ‘is’ refers to its being in this becoming. It does not become God’s Word because we accord it faith but in the fact that it becomes revelation to us.”

29 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 宣講與聖經: “[belong to] a single genus, Scripture as the commencement and present-day preaching as the continuation of one and the same event,” 儘管神的話 語 “in its writtenness as ‘Bible’… must be distinguished from and given precedence over the purely spiritual and oral life of ecclesial tradition.” 聖經並非 past revelation ,而是對啟示的見證: “[Scripture] is not in itself and as such God’s past revelation. As it is God’s Word it bears witness to God’s past revelation, and it is God’s past revelation in the form of attestation… Witnessing means pointing in a specific direction beyond the self and on to another.”

30 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 啟示的話語:宣講與書寫的話語 = “derivatively and mediately” ( abgeleitet und mittelbar ) God’s Word ;啟示的話 語 = “originally and immediately” ( ursprünglich und unmittelbar ) the Deus dixit. 啟示的話語不是被 Paulus dixit 所隱藏的 Deus dixit “revelation denotes the Word of God itself in the act of its being spoken in time.” 啟示 = 基督事件: “Revelation in fact does not differ from the person of Jesus Christ nor from the reconciliation accomplished in Him. To say revelation is to say ‘The Word became flesh.’”

31 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 啟示的媒介:歷史上的一個人,也是屬歷史、屬 世界的,因此是 improper medium : “The place where God’s Word is revealed is objectively and subjectively the cosmos in which sin reigns.” 因此 “the speech of God is and remains the mystery of God supremely in its secularity.” (巴特名言)

32 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 啟示的話語(基督)有「雙重間接性」( ‘twofold indirectness’ ): “The secularity of the Word of God does not imply only that it meets us in the garment of creaturely reality. Because this creaturely reality is that of fallen man and because the Word of God meets us in this reality, we have to say that its form is not that of a pure nature which as such stands in immediate contrast with the distorted nature of its environment.”

33 CD I/1: 上帝話語三重形式 啟示的雙重間接性 This secularity, this twofold indirectness, is in fact an authentic and inalienable attribute of the Word of God. Revelation means incarnation of the Word of God. But incarnation means entry into this secularity. We are in this world and are through and through secular. If God did not speak to us in secular form, He would not speak to us at all. To evade the secularity of His Word is to evade Christ

34 CD I/1 :信仰的類比 人類如何聆聽神在基督裡的啟示,並書寫、宣告 神的話語?答:上帝主權的實動 “Man acts as he believes, but the fact that he believes as he acts is God’s act. Man is the subject of faith. Man believes, not God. But the fact that man is this subject in faith is bracketed as a predicate of the subject of God, bracketed in the way that the Creator encloses the creature and the merciful God sinful man.”

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