Presentation on theme: "Stylistic Periods 1 Western Music can be divided into the following stylistic periods: CLASSICAL 17501820 BAROQUE 16001750 RENAISSANCE 14501600 MIDDLE."— Presentation transcript:
Stylistic Periods 1 Western Music can be divided into the following stylistic periods: CLASSICAL BAROQUE RENAISSANCE MIDDLE AGES TH CENTURY 1945PRESENT 20 TH CENTURY ROMANTIC
The Middle Ages ( ) 2
3 The Middle Ages are commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the beginning of the Renaissance in the 15th century.
The Middle Ages ( ) 4 The only medieval music which can be studied is that which was written down, and survived. Creating musical manuscripts was very expensive, due to the expense of parchment, and the huge amount of time necessary for a scribe to copy it all down, only wealthy institutions were able to create manuscripts which have survived to the present time. These institutions generally included the church and church institutions, such as monasteries; some secular music, as well as sacred music, was also preserved by these institutions.
The Middle Ages ( ) 5 These surviving manuscripts do not reflect much of the popular music of the time. At the start of the era, the notated music is presumed to be monophonic and homo rhythmic with what appears to be a unison sung text and no notated instrumental support. Earlier medieval notation had no way to specify rhythm, although neumatic notations gave clear phrasing ideas, and somewhat later notations indicated rhythmic modes.
The Middle Ages ( ) 6 The simplicity of chant, with unison voice and natural declamation, is most common. The notation of polyphony develops, and the assumption is that formalized polyphonic practices first arose in this period. Harmony, in consonant intervals of perfect fifths, unisons, octaves, (and later, perfect fourths) begins to be notated. Rhythmic notation allows for complex interactions between multiple vocal lines in a repeatable fashion. The use of multiple texts and the notation of instrumental accompaniment developed by the end of the era.
The Middle Ages ( ) The instruments used to perform medieval music still exist, though in different forms. The medieval cornett differed immensely from its modern counterpart, the trumpet, not least in traditionally being made of ivory or wood rather than metal. Cornetts in medieval times were quite short. They were either straight or somewhat curved, and construction became standardized on a curved version by approximately the middle 15th century. In one side, there would be several holes. 7
The Middle Ages ( ) The flute was once made of wood rather than silver or other metal, and could be made as a side-blown or end-blown instrument. The recorder, on the other hand, has more or less retained its past form. The gemshorn is similar to the recorder in having finger holes on its front, though it is really a member of the ocarina family. One of the flute's predecessors, the pan flute, was popular in medieval times, and is possibly of Hellenic origin. This instrument's pipes were made of wood, and were graduated in length to produce different pitches. 8
The Middle Ages ( ) Many medieval plucked string instruments were similar to the modern guitar, such as the lute, mandora and gittern. The dulcimers, similar in structure to the psaltery and zither, were originally plucked, but became struck in the 14th century, when new technology made metal strings possible. The hurdy-gurdy was (and still is) a mechanical violin using a rosined wooden wheel attached to a crank to "bow" its strings. Instruments without sound boxes such as the Jew's harp were also popular. Early versions of the organ, fiddle (or vielle), and trombone(called the sackbut) existed as well. 9
The Middle Ages ( ) Genres In this era, music was both sacred and secular, although almost no early secular music has survived, and since notation was a relatively late development, reconstruction of this music, especially before the 12th century, is currently subject to conjecture. 10
The Middle Ages ( ) Theory and notation In music theory, the period saw several advances over previous practice, mostly in the conception and notation of rhythm. Previously, music was organized rhythmically into "longs" and "breves" (in other words, “longs & shorts"), though often without any clear regular differentiation between which should be used. The most famous music theorist of the first half of the 13th century, Johannes de Garlandia, was the author of the De mensurabili musica (about 1240), the treatise which defined and most completely elucidated the rhythmic modes, a notational system for rhythm in which one of six possible patterns was denoted by a particular succession of note-shapes (organized in what is called "ligatures"). 11
The Middle Ages ( ) Theory and notation The melodic line, once it had its mode, would generally remain in it, although rhythmic adjustments could be indicated by changes in the expected pattern of ligatures, even to the extent of changing to another rhythmic mode. A German theorist of a slightly later period, Franco of Cologne, was the first to describe a system of notation in which differently shaped notes have entirely different rhythmic values (in the Ars Cantus Mensurabilis of approximately 1260), an innovation which had a massive impact on the subsequent history of European music 12
The Middle Ages ( ) Theory and notation Phillip de Vitry is most famous in music history for writing the Ars Nova (1322), a treatise on music which gave its name to the music of the entire era. His contributions to notation, in particular notation of rhythm, were particularly important, and made possible the free and quite complex music of the next hundred years. In some ways the modern system of rhythmic notation began with Vitry, who broke free from the older idea of the rhythmic modes, short rhythmic patterns that were repeated without being individually differentiated. The notational predecessors of modern time meters also originate in the Ars Nova. 13
The Middle Ages ( ) Early chant traditions Chant (or plainsong) is a monophonic sacred form which represents the earliest known music of the Christian church. The Jewish Synagogue tradition of singing psalms was a strong influence on Christian chanting. Chant developed separately in several European centers. The most important were Rome, Spain, Gaul, Milan, and Ireland. These chants were all developed to support the regional liturgies used when celebrating the Mass there. Each area developed its own chants and rules for celebration. In Spain, Mozarabic chant was used and shows the influence of North African music. The Mozarabic liturgy even survived through Muslim rule, though this was an isolated strand and this music was later suppressed in an attempt to enforce conformity on the entire liturgy. In Milan, Ambrosian chant, named after St. Ambrose, was the standard, while Beneventan chant developed around Benevento, another Italian liturgical center. Gallican chant was used in Gaul, and Celtic chant in Ireland and Great Britain. 14
The Middle Ages ( ) Early chant traditions Around 1011 AD, the Roman Catholic Church wanted to standardize the Mass and chant. At this time, Rome was the religious centre of western Europe, and Paris was the political centre. The standardization effort consisted mainly of combining these two (Roman and Gallican) regional liturgies. This body of chant became known as Gregorian Chant. By the 12th and 13th centuries, Gregorian chant had superseded all the other Western chant traditions, with the exception of the Ambrosian chant in Milan, and the Mozarabic chant in a few specially designated Spanish chapels. 15
The Middle Ages ( ) Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the western Christian Church. Although it had pretty much fallen into disuse after the 1600s, it experienced a revival in the 19th Century in the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglo-Catholic wing of the Anglican Communion. Gregorian chant was organized, codified, and notated mainly in the Frankish lands of western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, with later additions and redactions, but the texts and many of the melodies have antecedents going back several centuries earlier. Although popular legend credits Pope Gregory the Great with inventing Gregorian chant, scholars believe that the chant bearing his name arose from a later Carolingian synthesis of Roman and Gallican chant. 16
The Middle Ages ( ) Gregorian chant Gregorian chants are organized into eight scalar modes. Typical melodic features include characteristic incipits and cadences, the use of reciting tones around which the other notes of the melody revolve, and a vocabulary of musical motifs woven together through a process called centonization to create families of related chants. 17
The Middle Ages – Gregorian Chant Although the modern major and minor scales are strongly related to two of the church modes, the modern eight-tone scale is based on different harmonic principles and is organized differently from the scales of the church modes, which are based on six-note patterns called hexachords. The main notes in a hexachord are the dominant and the final. Depending on where the final falls in the sequence of the hexachord, the mode is characterized as either authentic or plagal. Modes with the same final share certain characteristics, and it is easy to modulate back and forth between them, hence the eight modes fall into four larger groupings based on their finals. 18
The Middle Ages – Gregorian Chant Music Example: Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam (We have seen his star) Alleluia from the Mass of the Epiphany Alleluia is Latinized Hebrew for meaning “Praise the Lord” 19
Music Example: Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam 20
The Middle Ages – Hildegard of Bingen 21 A German abbess, artist, author, counselor linguist, naturalist, scientist, philosopher physician, herbalist, poet, visionary and composer. Elected a magistra in 1136, she founded the monasteries of Rupertsberg in 1150 and Eibingen in She is the first composer with an extant biography. One of her works, the Ordo Virtutum, has been called the first form, and possibly the origin, of opera. She wrote theological, botanical and medicinal texts, as well as letters, liturgical songs, poems, and the first surviving morality play, while supervising brilliant miniature Illuminations.
The Middle Ages – Gregorian Chant Music Example: O successores (You successors), by Hildegard of Bingen ( ) 22 Low RegisterO successores fortissimi leonis Inter templum et altare- Dominantes in ministratione eius You successors of the mightiest lion Between the temple and the altar- You the masters in his household- Melody rises and falls Sicut adsunt sonant in laudibus, Et sicut adsunt populis in adiutorio, Vos estis inter illos, Qui haec faciunt, Semper curam habentes As the angels sound forth praises And are here to help the nations, You are among those Who accomplish this, Forever showing your care Climax on officio, long descent on agni In officio agniIn the service of the lamb.
The Middle Ages Gregorian chant had a significant impact on the development of medieval and Renaissance music. Modern staff notation developed directly from Gregorian neumes. The square notation that had been devised for plainchant was borrowed and adapted for other kinds of music. Certain groupings of neumes were used to indicate repeating rhythms called rhythmic modes. Rounded noteheads increasingly replaced the older squares and lozenges in the 15th and 16th centuries, although chant books conservatively maintained the square notation. By the 16th century, the fifth line added to the musical staff had become standard. The bass clef and the flat, natural, and sharp accidentals derived directly from Gregorian notation. 23
The Middle Ages - Organum Early polyphony: organum Around the end of the ninth century, singers in monasteries such as St. Gall in Switzerland began experimenting with adding another part to the chant, generally a voice in parallel motion, singing in mostly perfect fourths or fifths with the original tune. This development is called organum, and represents the beginnings of harmony and, ultimately, counterpoint. Over the next several centuries organum developed in several ways. The most significant was the creation of "florid organum" around 1100, sometimes known as the school of St. Martial (named after a monastery in south-central France, which contains the best-preserved manuscript of this repertory). In "florid organum" the original tune would be sung in long notes while an accompanying voice would sing many notes to each one of the original, often in a highly elaborate fashion, all the while emphasizing the perfect consonances (fourths, fifths and octaves) as in the earlier organa. 24
The Middle Ages - Estampie Musical Example: Estampie (13 th Century) A medieval dance, is one of th earliest surviving forms of instrumental music. In the manuscript for this Estampie, a single melodic line is notated and as usual no instrument is specified In this recording the melody is being played on a rebec ( a bowed string instrument) and pipe ( a tubular wind instrument) Since Medieval minstrels probably improvised modest accompaniments to dance tunes, the performers have added a drone – two simultaneous, repeated notes at the interval of a fifth, played on a psaltery (a plucked and struck sting instrument). The estampie is ins triple meter and has a strong, fast beat. 25
The Middle Ages - Organum Early polyphony: organum Later developments of organum occurred in England, where the interval of the third was particularly favored, and where organa were likely improvised against an existing chant melody, and at Notre Dame in Paris, which was to be the centre of musical creative activity throughout the thirteenth century. Much of the music from the early medieval period is anonymous. Some of the names may have been poets and lyric writers, and the tunes for which they wrote words may have been composed by others. Attribution of monophonic music of the medieval period is not always reliable. Surviving manuscripts from this period include the Musica Enchiriadis, Codex Calixtinus of Santiago de Compostela, and the Winchester Troper. 26
The Middle Ages – Liturgical Drama Liturgical drama Another musical tradition of Europe originated during the early Middle Ages was the liturgical drama. In its original form, it may represent a survival of Roman drama with Christian stories - mainly the Gospel, the Passion, and the lives of the saints - grafted on. Every part of Europe had some sort of tradition of musical or semi-musical drama in the Middle Ages, involving acting, speaking, singing and instrumental accompaniment in some combination. Probably these dramas were performed by travelling actors and musicians. Many have been preserved sufficiently to allow modern reconstruction and performance (for example the Play of Daniel, which has been recently recorded). 27
The Middle Ages – Ars antiqua The flowering of the Notre Dame school of polyphony from around 1150 to 1250 corresponded to the equally impressive achievements in Gothic architecture: indeed the centre of activity was at the cathedral of Notre Dame itself. Sometimes the music of this period is called the Parisian school, or Parisian organum, and represents the beginning of what is conventionally known as Ars antiqua. This was the period in which rhythmic notation first appeared in western music, mainly a context-based method of rhythmic notation known as the rhythmic modes. 28
The Middle Ages – Notre Dame Polyphony Music example: (from School of Notre Dame) Perotin: Alleluia: Nativitas (The Birth) Perotin was the first known composer to write for more than two voices. An Organum in three voices is based on a Gregorian alleluia melody- for the nativity of the Virgin Mary – that Perotin placed in the lowest part. In this recording the three voice parts are sung by male voices accompanied by instruments A chant that is used as the basis for polyphony is known as a cantus firmus (fixed melody) 29
The Middle Ages – Notre Dame Polyphony Music example: (from School of Notre Dame) Perotin: Alleluia: Nativitas (The Birth) Above the cantus firmus, or preexisting melody, Perotin wrote two additional lines that move much more quickly. As many as sixty-six tones of the upper voices are sung against one long tone of the chant Only three tones are treated in this dronelike way, the first, the second and the last. The relentless rhythmic patterns of long-short-long in the top juxtaposed against the rhythm of the bottom voices is typical of medieval polyphony The narrow range of the three voices is also typical and are never more than an octave apart. 30
The Middle Ages – Ars antiqua This was also the period in which concepts of formal structure developed which were attentive to proportion, texture, and architectural effect. Composers of the period alternated florid and descant organum (more note-against-note, as opposed to the succession of many-note melismas against long-held notes found in the florid type), and created several new musical forms: Clausulae - which were melismatic sections of organa extracted and fitted with new words and further musical elaboration Conductus - which was a song for one or more voices to be sung rhythmically, most likely in a procession of some sort Tropes - which were rearrangements of older chants with new words and sometimes new music. 31
The Middle Ages - Composers Composers of this time include Léonin Pérotin W. de Wycombe Adam de St. Victor Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix) Petrus is credited with the innovation of writing more than three semibreves to fit the length of a breve. Coming before the innovation of imperfect tempus, this practice inaugurated the era of what are now called "Petronian" motets. These late 13th-century works are in three, sometimes four, parts and have multiple texts sung simultaneously. These texts can be either sacred or secular in subject, and with Latin and French mixed. The Petronian motet is a highly complex genre, given its mixture of several semibreve breves with rhythmic modes and sometimes (with increasing frequency) substitution of secular songs for chant in the tenor. Indeed, ever- increasing rhythmic complexity would be a fundamental characteristic of the 14th century, though music in France, Italy, and England would take quite different paths during that time. 32
The Middle Ages 33 Time line of significant composers of the Middle ages
SECULAR MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES Troubadours and trouvères The music of the troubadours and trouvères was a vernacular tradition of monophonic secular song, probably accompanied by instruments, sung by professional, occasionally itinerant, musicians who were as skilled as poets as they were singers and instrumentalists. The language of the troubadours was Occitan; the language of the trouvères was Old French. The period of the troubadours corresponded to the flowering of cultural life in Provence which lasted through the twelfth century and into the first decade of the thirteenth. 34
The Middle Ages Troubadours & Trouveres Troubadours and trouvères Typical subjects of troubadour song were war, chivalry and courtly love. The period of the troubadours ended abruptly with the Albigensian Crusade, the fierce campaign by Pope Innocent III to eliminate the Cathar heresy (and northern barons' desire to appropriate the wealth of the south). Surviving troubadours went either to Spain, northern Italy or northern France (where the trouvère tradition lived on), where their skills and techniques contributed to the later developments of secular musical culture in those places. 35
The Middle Ages – Troubadours & Trouveres Troubadours and trouvères The music of the trouvères was similar to that of the troubadours, but was able to survive into the thirteenth century unaffected by the Albigensian Crusade. Most of the more than two thousand surviving trouvère songs include music, and show a sophistication as great as that of the poetry it accompanies. The Minnesinger tradition was the Germanic counterpart to the activity of the troubadours and trouvères to the west. Unfortunately, few sources survive from the time; the sources of Minnesang are mostly from two or three centuries after the peak of the movement, leading to some controversy over their accuracy. 36
The Middle Ages – Ars Nova France: Ars nova The beginning of the Ars nova is one of the few clean chronological divisions in medieval music, since it corresponds to the publication of the Roman de Fauvel, a huge compilation of poetry and music, in 1310 and The Roman de Fauvel is a satire on abuses in the medieval church, and is filled with medieval motets, lais, rondeaux and other new secular forms. While most of the music is anonymous, it contains several pieces by Philippe de Vitry, one of the first composers of the isorhythmic motet, a development which distinguishes the fourteenth century. The isorhythmic motet was perfected by Guillaume de Machaut, the finest composer of the time. 37
The Middle Ages – Ars Nova 38 Francesco Landini or Landino (around 1325 – September 2, 1397) was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet and instrument maker. He was one of the most famous and revered composers of the second half of the 14th century, and by far the most famous composer in Italy. Born in Florence, Italy he was blind from childhood. Landini’s works were exclusively Italian songs for two or three voices on subjects of love, nature, morality and politics and provides good examples of secular music of the period.
The Middle Ages – Ars Nova 39 Music Example: Landini -Ecco la Primavera (Spring has come) Care free song for two voices about the joys of springtime Its rhythmic vitality comes from syncopation, one of the few rhythmic possibilities of the 14 th century Both higher and lower vocal melodies generally move by step and have one tone sung on a single syllable of text
The Middle Ages – Ars Nova 40 Music Example: Landini -Ecco la Primavera (Spring has come) The form is a ballata, an Italian poetic and musical form that originated as a dance-song The text is sung to two similar units: A (longer) and B (shorter), arranged as follows: A BB AA This piece could have also been arranged for instruments as well as the two voices This performance is accompanied by a shaum early reeded woodwind instrument and a sackbut (trombone)
The Middle Ages – Ars Nova 41 Music Example: Landini -Ecco la Primavera (Spring has come) Ecco la primavera, Che ‘l cor fa rallegrare; Temp’e d’annamorare E star con lieta cera. No’ vegiam l’aria e ‘l tempo Che pur chiam’ allegrecca. In questo vago tempo Ogni cosa a vaghecca. L’erbe con grran freschecca E fior’ coprono I prati, E gli albori adornati Sono in simil manera. Ecco la primavera, Che ‘l cor fa rallegrare; Temp’e d’annamorare E star con lieta cera. Spring has come. It makes the heart joyful; Now is the time to fall in love And be happy. We see the air and the fine weather Which also call us to be happy. In this sweet time, Everyting is beautiful. Flowers and fresh green grass Cover the meadows, And the trees too Are in blossom. Spring has come. It makes the heart joyful’ Now is the time to fall in love And be happy. ABBAAABBAA
The Middle Ages France: Ars nova During the Ars nova era, secular music acquired a polyphonic sophistication formerly found only in sacred music, a development not surprising considering the secular character of the early Renaissance (and it should be noted that while this music is typically considered to be "medieval", the social forces that produced it were responsible for the beginning of the literary and artistic Renaissance in Italy—the distinction between Middle Ages and Renaissance is a blurry one, especially considering arts as different as music and painting). 42
The Middle Ages – Ars Nova France: Ars nova The term "Ars nova" (new art, or new technique) was coined by Philippe de Vitry in his treatise of that name (probably written in 1322), in order to distinguish the practice from the music of the immediately preceding age. The dominant secular genre of the Ars Nova was the chanson, as it would continue to be in France for another two centuries. These chansons were composed in musical forms corresponding to the poetry they set, which were in the so-called formes fixes of rondeau, ballade, and virelai. These forms significantly affected the development of musical structure in ways that are felt even today; for example, the ouvert-clos rhyme-scheme shared by all three demanded a musical realization which contributed directly to the modern notion of antecedent and consequent phrases. 43
The Middle Ages – Ars Nova It was in this period, too, in which began the long tradition of setting the mass ordinary. This tradition started around mid-century with isolated or paired settings of Kyries, Glorias, etc., but Machaut composed what is thought to be the first complete mass conceived as one composition. The sound world of Ars Nova music is very much one of linear primacy and rhythmic complexity. "Resting" intervals are the fifth and octave, with thirds and sixths considered dissonances. Leaps of more than a sixth in individual voices are not uncommon, leading to speculation of instrumental participation at least in secular performance. 44
Ars Nova – Guillaume de Machaut Guillaume de Machaut, (c – April 1377) Most significant composer of the Ars Nova Machaut's poetry was greatly admired and imitated by other poets including the likes of Geoffrey Chaucer. Machaut was and is the most celebrated composer of the 14th century He composed in a wide range of styles and forms and his output was enormous. Machaut was especially influential in the development of the motet and the secular song (particularly the lai, and the formes fixes: rondeau, virelai and ballade). Machaut wrote the Messe de Nostre Dame, the earliest known complete setting of the Ordinary of the Mass attributable to a single composer, and influenced composers for centuries to follow. 45
Ars Nova – Guillaume de Machaut 46
Ars Nova – Guillaume de Machaut Music Example: Puis qu’en oubli Puis qu’en oubli sui de vous dous amis Vie amoureuse et joie a dieu commant Mar vi le jour que m’amour en vous mis C’est que jamais n’aray nul autre amant Puis qu’en obuli sui de vous dous amis Via amoureuse et joie a dieu commant 47 Ill-fated was the day I placed my love in you. Since I am forgotten by you, sweet friend. But what I have promised you I will maintain, Which is that I shall never have any other lover Since I am forgotten by you, sweet friend I say farewell to the joy and a life of love a. b. a. b. a. b.
Notre Dame Mass –mid 13 th Century 48 Machaut’s Notre Dame Mass, one of the finest compositions known from the Middle ages, is also of great historical importance: it is the first polyphonic treatment of the mass ordinary by a known composer. Kyrie Lord have mercy Gloria Glory to God in the Highest Credo I believe in One God Sanctus Holy, Holy, Holy Agnus Dei Lamb of God Ordinary of the Mass
Notre Dame Mass –mid 13 th Century 49 Music Example: Agnus Dei, from the Notre Dame Mass Triple meter Solemn and elaborate Complex rhythmic patterns contribute to its intensity Two upper parts are rhythmically active and contain syncopation, a characteristic of the 14 th Century The two lower parts move in longer notes and play a supportive role Based on a Gregorian Chant, which Maucaut furnished with new rhythmic patterns and placed in the tenor, one of the two lower parts Since the chant, or cantus firmus, is rhythmically altered within a polyphonic web, it is more a musical framework than a tune to be recognized The harmonies of the Agnus Dei include stark disonances, hollow-sounding chords, and full triads Agnus Dei A B A
Notre Dame Mass –mid 13 th Century 50 Music Example: Agnus Dei, from the Notre Dame Mass Agnus Dei A B A A Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: miserere nobis Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world: have mercy on us. B Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: miserere nobis. Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world: have mercy on us. A Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: dona nobis pacem. Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world: grant us piece