Presentation on theme: "The High Middle Ages 1000-1300AD. The Age of Faith: High Middle Ages –Chartres: Cathedral of Our Lady –Opens 1180AD after 40 yrs: Link to Cathedral videoCathedral."— Presentation transcript:
RomanesqueGothic Radiating chapels and apse: –Separate compartments.Unified, unbroken space. Vault: –Mostly barrel-vaults, some groin-vaults.Groin-vaulted cathedrals. Arch type: –Rounded arches.Pointed arches. Main vault support –Thick walls, buttressesThinner piers, Exterior flying buttresses. Clerestory: –Small windows.Large stained-glass windows. Elevation: –Horizontal, modest height.Vertical, soaring. Exterior: –Plain, little decoration, solid.Ornate, delicate, lots of sculpture Sculptural decoration: –Thin, elongated, abstract figures.More realistic proportions and individualized features. Mood: –Dark, gloomy.Tall, light-filled. Examples: –St. Sernin, Toulouse, FranceChartres Cathedral, France. Notre Dame, Paris, France
High middle Ages Six KEYS 1.New farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade. 2.The Catholic Church improved through important reforms. 3.The church was a kingdom of its own that was nevertheless entangled with secular kingdoms.
…SIX KEYS… 4.Most kings gained more power over their vassals, but lost power to growing towns. 5.New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose. 6.The Catholic Church used the feudal system to try to conquer the Holy Lands, but the result was damaging to its own authority.
What new farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade? 1.New Ways of Farming Increased Food 2.Population Growth 3.Towns Grew Larger and Richer –Burghers –Banking and money circulated more widely 4.Guilds Controlled Crafts and Trade 5.Town people won new Liberties. 6.Soon, universities start to expand higher learning
Stadtluft Macht Frei Townspeople won new liberties
The Charter of Lorris (France) AD 1155 18. Any one who shall dwell a year and a day in the parish of Lorris, without any claim having pursued him there, and without having refused to lay his case before us or our provost, shall abide there freely and without molestation.
The Covered Market of Lorris, 12th century Fairs were Centers of Trade
A Fork in the Tree of Abraham Christians Into Two Branches- 1054 AD Catholic Church versus… Pope and Patriarch Excommunicate Each Other Eastern Orthodox Church Note this: not in Chapter 10
What were the Big Problems of the Church around 1000AD?? 1.Low moral standards among many priests 2.Unlawful marriage 3.Buying and selling of church positions 4.Heresy: 5.Lay Investiture: To invest a bishop with power by secular lord –Lay: Not a church person –But these Bishops sometimes cared more about their feudal powers –Where should these bishops’ loyalty be?
Pope Gregory VII Puts the Church in Order Reestablished Religious Authority over Secular Authority –Cardinals set up to choose pope Fights against –marriage of priests –Buying/selling of positions –Lay investiture What does secular mean ?
Pope Gregory vs. Emperor Henry Humbles Emperor Henry IV in 1077 Pope Reaffirms a ban on lay investiture Henry’s letter: (Review Primary Source) How would you reply if you were Pope Gregory? Reply: King’s vassals are free of king Alps, Switzerland
Under Gregory, the Church became a powerful kingdom of its own…. Like feudalism: Pope like King Cardinals like elite nobility Archbishops like great lords bishops like lesser lords, priests like: __________ Diplomats Bishops operated local courts Tax called the Tithe (10%) Social services
The Inquisition and Friars Trials run by church lawyers in church courts: –Courts arrest heretics under canon law Two new Orders of Friars: Dominicans – St Dominic Franciscans - St. Francis
Six Key Concepts (reviewed) 1.New farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade. 2.The Catholic church improved through important reforms. 3.The church was a kingdom of its own that was nevertheless entangled with secular kingdoms. 4.Most kings gained more power over their vassals, but lost power to growing towns. 5.New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose. 6.The Catholic Church used the feudal system to try to conquer the Holy Lands, but the result was damaging to its own authority.
Kings Gained Power: Where would you prefer to be king? (1100 CE) WHY? England William, Duke of Normandy Henry II France Capetian dynasty: Hugh Capet Holy Roman Empire Otto the Great & Frederick Barbarossa
“That September, a large Viking force attacked England near York. Harold made an astonishing four-day march, 200 miles across England, and beat the Vikings soundly at Stamford Bridge. Four days later, William landed, and Harold had to repeat the march -- all the way down to the south coast of England. He took up a strong position near Hastings and waited for William. The great clash of two technologies, separated by 300 years, was set. William's armored horse might well have blown Harold away, but they were fighting uphill and their timing was bad. Harold's men, fighting from behind shields, savaged the horses with battle-axes. Harold won the first round and then didn't follow up. Historian David Howarth thinks Harold was destroyed, not by end-to-end history- making marches, nor by superior armor. In his view, the papal flag, the threat of excommunication, and Harold's own exhausted confidence lost the battle. He let his men sit still in a defensive position while William lofted arrows over their shields and into their ranks. He sat dispirited in a battle he might have won. Even then, William didn't win England at Hastings. He won the war when people like Harold's sister and the Archbishop of Canterbury joined him.” Lienhard, John H. “Engines of Our Ingenuity Series: #312, The Battle of Hastings.” (1997) www.uh.edu/engines/epi312.htm (30 Nov. 2006).www.uh.edu/engines/epi312.htm Read and Answer: How did William win England?
Example of paraphrasing and quoting information from a source, and citing it properly. Historian David Howarth says that William won primarily not because of his superior weaponry and armor, but because he had on his side the Pope’s threat of excommunicating Harold, the support of members of Harold’s own family, and the advantage of Harold’s “own exhausted confidence” (Lienhard).
William Centralizes England Invades from Normandy France Wins at Battle of Hastings He takes all the lands Gives fiefs to 200 Norman lords loyal to him appointed bishops from Normandy. kept 1/5 of land for himself. Battle of Hastings 1066, defeats Harold Godwinson
Henry II, William’s Grandson How did Henry II strengthen the king’s power over the lords? (Royal judges now, not local lords’ judges) How did a jury trial work? (A jury were locals who answered a royal judges questions about the case) How was it different from the way it works today in the US?
How did Otto the Great make the king’s position stronger? 1.Otto the Great used lay investiture –cemented loyalties of bishops –a habit his grandson Henry IV goes to Canossa for… 2.Otto invaded Italy to help Pope Pope crowned emperor in 962 establishing the Holy Roman Empire Seen as continuation of the Empire of Charlemagne
Frederick I (Barbarossa) 1152-1190 Descendant of Otto Fights the Lombard League in N Italy 1167 –Battle of Legnano… –Next slide… Barbarossa was the Italians’ name for him.
An Army of Common Foot Soldiers Defeat Frederick’s Knights…OUCH
But in the Holy Roman Empire, German Kings Remained Overall Weaker than in other Kingdoms. Why? 1.They often got distracted in Italian affairs because of conflicts with the Pope. 2.Kings were elected by nobles who retained local powers.
France / Capetians Hugh Capet Ruled from Paris Avoided civil war among themselves Townspeople: new class outside of feudalism –Bourgeoisie
Chivalry and Knights Define “Chivalry” –From French Cheval: cavalier, cabellero - –In German: Ritter: –English: Rider The Song of Roland What steps were required to becoming a knight? How does the role of women change?
Women in art: How does art change over time? (pt 1) Circa 9th century AD: Church of Saint Prassede, Rome. Mary with Saints Prassede and Prudenziana. The square halo indicates the fourth person is still alive. Circa: 7 th century AD Mary and Joseph with Child
Women in art: How does art change? Part 2 1310 1400Circa 1100
The University “The universal society of teachers and students” This is a fortunate classroom…how does this compare with the description in the book?
New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose in the 1100s. Prior to the 12 th century, intellectual learning only took place in monasteries in Western Europe. 1.Describe the students’ experience at the first “universities”? 2.From what socio-economic class did most students come?
The University was incorporated like a guild with ranks (Guild: Apprentice, Journeyman, Master) Bachelors, Masters, Doctorate Classes start 6am. Up to 3-6 years for a Bachelors 3-4 more for a Masters. Subjects taught: –Theology, Latin, Greek, Law, Medicine, Philosophy Students were given the special protection under the law that clergy had, so …stories of student mayhem and pranks abound in the period! Pagan writers’ words coming into Western Europe from non-Catholics! Summa Theologiae Thomas Aquinas
Crusades: The War of the Cross Battle of Manzikert 1071 – Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines
“God Wills It!” Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades in 1095 Hopes to unite Christians from East under the Pope 8 official crusades and numerous smaller unofficial crusades follow. Video Overview of Crusades as an end to the Dark AgesOverview
Motivations for the Crusades For all: a real sense of spiritual salvation by participating in defending Christendom The Pope –To persuade the Byzantine Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church to unite with the Pope/Catholic Church –Wanted to show political power of Papacy –To regain Jerusalem, and the land where Christ lived The Knights –Without war in Europe, they are restless –Forgiveness of sins for killing Christians in the past –Promised Heaven for killing infidels –Wanted plunder The Burghers –Wealth from major trading cities in Eastern Europe and Middle East
Results of 1 st Crusade 1099AD 3/4 of Crusaders died before reaching Holy Land Christians attacked Jews in Europe Jerusalem taken, but most Muslims and Jews were slaughtered in the city Christians captured about 400 miles of land around Jerusalem –4 feudal states formed Better castles built The Knights Templar founded to protect pilgrims
Original Headquarters of Knights Templar Jerusalem
Second Crusade Results: Disaster in the East!! –The Muslim Turks under King Saladin re- conquered all of the area won by the Christians in the First Crusade. Success: In Spain, Christians take some area from Moors
King’s Tried To Retake Jerusalem Led by King Richard the Lionheart Link to Richard and Saladin Video on Youtube –King Philip Augustus, France –Emperor Frederick I, Barbarossa, Holy Roman Empire –King Richard I (the “Lionheart”), England Little success, defeated by Saladin Saladin’s chivalry? –He allowed Christians to visit peacefully –Angry Pope excommunicated Richard
The Really Bad Fourth Crusade Crusades get really distracted, attack Byzantines in Constantinople!
Crusades Changed Europe, Good and Bad… Short Terms effects… See packet for list of many outcomes!!! Temporary land gains in Palestine Sack of Constantinople Temporary gain in Pope’s power and prestige Europeans gained a bigger view of world Death of several 100,000
Long Term Effects of Crusades What declined? Decline of the pope’s prestige –Did God really want the Crusades? Why failure? Decline of noble power –Knights died in battle and of disease and lost land –Contributes to decline of feudalism –AND Rise of stronger national Monarchs Decline of Byzantine power –4 th Crusade dealt serious blow –Muslims would conquer the Constantinople in 1453.
Long Term Effects :What Increased? Increase in monarchical power –Kings took advantage of noble misfortune –…and the pope’s loss of prestige Increase in religious intolerance –Tensions between Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Muslim, and Jews –Beginning of the end of Muslims (Moors) in Spain Increase in trade –Growth of independent Italian city-states –Crusaders like spices and goods of Middle East (pepper, cinnamon) Increase in Learning and Technology –Universities grew and more were established in Western Europe –Rediscovery of Aristotle and other Greek and Roman ancients in the West –Paper introduced to replace parchment –New words: algebra, cotton, bizarre, azure, lemon, sugar –Improvements in sailing and navigation –Rounded Castles designed