7Romanesque Gothic Separate compartments. Unified, unbroken space. Radiating chapels and apse:Separate compartments. Unified, unbroken space.Vault:Mostly barrel-vaults, some groin-vaults. Groin-vaulted cathedrals.Arch type:Rounded arches. Pointed arches.Main vault supportThick walls, buttresses Thinner piers, Exterior flying buttresses.Clerestory:Small windows. Large stained-glass windows.Elevation:Horizontal, modest height. Vertical, soaring.Exterior:Plain, little decoration, solid. Ornate, delicate, lots of sculptureSculptural decoration:Thin, elongated, abstract figures. More realistic proportions and individualized features.Mood:Dark, gloomy. Tall, light-filled.Examples:St. Sernin, Toulouse, France Chartres Cathedral, France.Notre Dame, Paris, France
8High middle Ages Six KEYS New farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade.The Catholic Church improved through important reforms.The church was a kingdom of its own that was nevertheless entangled with secular kingdoms.
9…SIX KEYS…Most kings gained more power over their vassals, but lost power to growing towns.New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose.The Catholic Church used the feudal system to try to conquer the Holy Lands, but the result was damaging to its own authority.
10What new farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade? New Ways of Farming Increased FoodPopulation GrowthTowns Grew Larger and RicherBurghersBanking and money circulated more widelyGuilds Controlled Crafts and TradeTown people won new Liberties.Soon, universities start to expand higher learning
11Stadtluft Macht FreiTownspeople won new liberties
13The Charter of Lorris (France) AD 1155 18. Any one who shall dwell a year and a day in the parish of Lorris, without any claim having pursued him there, and without having refused to lay his case before us or our provost, shall abide there freely and without molestation.
14Fairs were Centers of Trade The Covered Market of Lorris, 12th century
18A Fork in the Tree of Abraham Christians Into Two Branches- 1054 AD Note this: not in Chapter 10A Fork in the Tree of Abraham Christians Into Two Branches ADCatholic Church versus…Eastern Orthodox ChurchCardinal Humbert visits Patriarch of ConstantinopleHe carries Pope Leo IX’s statement (a bull) of excommunicationPope and Patriarch Excommunicate Each Other
19What were the Big Problems of the Church around 1000AD?? Low moral standards among many priestsUnlawful marriageBuying and selling of church positionsHeresy:Lay Investiture: To invest a bishop with power by secular lordLay: Not a church personBut these Bishops sometimes cared more about their feudal powersWhere should these bishops’ loyalty be?
20Pope Gregory VII Puts the Church in Order What does secular mean?Reestablished Religious Authority over Secular AuthorityCardinals set up to choose popeFights againstmarriage of priestsBuying/selling of positionsLay investiture
21Pope Gregory vs. Emperor Henry Humbles Emperor Henry IV in 1077Pope Reaffirms a ban on lay investitureHenry’s letter: (Review Primary Source)How would you reply if you were Pope Gregory?Reply: King’s vassals are free of kingAlps, Switzerland- 3 days in the snow...ouch!
22Under Gregory, the Church became a powerful kingdom of its own…. Like feudalism: Pope like KingCardinals like elite nobilityArchbishops like great lords bishops like lesser lords, priests like: __________DiplomatsBishops operated local courtsTax called the Tithe (10%)Social servicesArchbishops as great lords, bishops as lesser lords, priests as knights…Legates: as foreign diplomats....Bishops operated local courts…canon law; Taxes: Tithes collected; Social services like hospitals and soup kitchens, orphanages
23The Inquisition and Friars Trials run by church lawyers in church courts:Courts arrest heretics under canon lawTwo new Orders of Friars:Dominicans – St Dominic Franciscans - St. FrancisDominicans – St Dominic Franciscans - St. Francissystematic educationSpanish simple povertymore intellectual love of natureItalian
24Six Key Concepts (reviewed) New farming methods improved medieval life and spurred town growth and trade.The Catholic church improved through important reforms.The church was a kingdom of its own that was nevertheless entangled with secular kingdoms.Most kings gained more power over their vassals, but lost power to growing towns.New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose.The Catholic Church used the feudal system to try to conquer the Holy Lands, but the result was damaging to its own authority.
25Kings Gained Power: Where would you prefer to be king? (1100 CE) WHY? EnglandWilliam, Duke of NormandyHenry IIFranceCapetian dynasty: Hugh CapetHoly Roman EmpireOtto the Great &Frederick Barbarossa
26Read and Answer: How did William win England? “That September, a large Viking force attacked England near York. Harold made an astonishing four-day march, 200 miles across England, and beat the Vikings soundly at Stamford Bridge. Four days later, William landed, and Harold had to repeat the march -- all the way down to the south coast of England. He took up a strong position near Hastings and waited for William. The great clash of two technologies, separated by 300 years, was set.William's armored horse might well have blown Harold away, but they were fighting uphill and their timing was bad. Harold's men, fighting from behind shields, savaged the horses with battle-axes. Harold won the first round and then didn't follow up.Historian David Howarth thinks Harold was destroyed, not by end-to-end history-making marches, nor by superior armor. In his view, the papal flag, the threat of excommunication, and Harold's own exhausted confidence lost the battle. He let his men sit still in a defensive position while William lofted arrows over their shields and into their ranks. He sat dispirited in a battle he might have won. Even then, William didn't win England at Hastings. He won the war when people like Harold's sister and the Archbishop of Canterbury joined him.”Lienhard, John H. “Engines of Our Ingenuity Series: #312, The Battle of Hastings.” (1997) (30 Nov. 2006).
27Example of paraphrasing and quoting information from a source, and citing it properly. Historian David Howarth says that William won primarily not because of his superior weaponry and armor, but because he had on his side the Pope’s threat of excommunicating Harold, the support of members of Harold’s own family, and the advantage of Harold’s “own exhausted confidence” (Lienhard).
28William Centralizes England Invades from Normandy FranceWins at Battle of HastingsHe takes all the landsGives fiefs to 200 Norman lords loyal to himappointed bishops from Normandy.kept 1/5 of land for himself.Battle of Hastings 1066,defeatsHarold Godwinson
29Henry II, William’s Grandson How did Henry II strengthen the king’s power over the lords?(Royal judges now, not local lords’ judges)How did a jury trial work?(A jury were locals who answered a royal judges questions about the case)How was it different from the way it works today in the US?
30How did Otto the Great make the king’s position stronger? Otto the Great used lay investiturecemented loyalties of bishopsa habit his grandson Henry IV goes to Canossa for…Otto invaded Italy to help PopePope crowned emperor in 962 establishing the Holy Roman EmpireSeen as continuation of the Empire of Charlemagne
31Frederick I (Barbarossa) 1152-1190 Descendant of Otto Fights the Lombard League in N Italy 1167Battle of Legnano…Next slide…Barbarossa was the Italians’ name for him.
32An Army of Common Foot Soldiers Defeat Frederick’s Knights…OUCH
33But in the Holy Roman Empire, German Kings Remained Overall Weaker than in other Kingdoms. Why?They often got distracted in Italian affairs because of conflicts with the Pope.Kings were elected by nobles who retained local powers.
34France / Capetians Hugh Capet Ruled from Paris Avoided civil war among themselvesTownspeople: new class outside of feudalismBourgeoisie
35Chivalry and Knights Define “Chivalry” The Song of Roland From French Cheval: cavalier, cabellero -In German: Ritter:English: RiderThe Song of RolandWhat steps were required to becoming a knight?How does the role of women change?
36Women in art: How does art change over time? (pt 1) Circa: 7th century ADMary and Joseph with ChildCirca 9th century AD:Church of Saint Prassede, Rome. Mary withSaints Prassede and Prudenziana.The square halo indicates the fourth person is still alive.
37Women in art: How does art change? Part 2 1310Circa 11001400
38The University “The universal society of teachers and students” This is a fortunate classroom…how does this comparewith the description in the book?
39New and higher kinds of learning and architecture arose in the 1100s. Prior to the 12th century, intellectual learning only took place in monasteries in Western Europe.Describe the students’ experience at the first “universities”?From what socio-economic class did most students come?
40The University was incorporated like a guild with ranks (Guild: Apprentice, Journeyman, Master)Bachelors, Masters, DoctorateClasses start 6am.Up to 3-6 years for a Bachelors3-4 more for a Masters.Subjects taught:Theology, Latin, Greek, Law, Medicine, PhilosophyStudents were given the special protection under the law that clergy had, so …stories of student mayhem and pranks abound in the period!Pagan writers’ words coming into Western Europe from non-Catholics!ThomasAquinasSumma Theologiae
41Crusades: The War of the Cross Battle of Manzikert 1071Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines
42“God Wills It!” Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades in 1095 Hopes to unite Christians from East under the Pope8 official crusades and numerous smaller unofficial crusades follow.Video Overview of Crusades as an end to the Dark Ages
43Motivations for the Crusades For all: a real sense of spiritual salvation by participating in defending ChristendomThe PopeTo persuade the Byzantine Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church to unite with the Pope/Catholic ChurchWanted to show political power of PapacyTo regain Jerusalem, and the land where Christ livedThe KnightsWithout war in Europe, they are restlessForgiveness of sins for killing Christians in the pastPromised Heaven for killing infidelsWanted plunderThe BurghersWealth from major trading cities in Eastern Europe and Middle East
44Results of 1st Crusade 1099AD 3/4 of Crusaders died before reaching Holy LandChristians attacked Jews in EuropeJerusalem taken, but most Muslims and Jews were slaughtered in the cityChristians captured about 400 miles of land around Jerusalem4 feudal states formedBetter castles builtThe Knights Templar founded to protect pilgrims
45Original Headquarters of Knights Templar Jerusalem
46Second Crusade Results: Disaster in the East!! The Muslim Turks under King Saladin re-conquered all of the area won by the Christians in the First Crusade.Success: In Spain, Christians take some area from Moors
48King’s Tried To Retake Jerusalem Led by King Richard the LionheartLink to Richard and Saladin Video on YoutubeKing Philip Augustus, FranceEmperor Frederick I, Barbarossa, Holy Roman EmpireKing Richard I (the “Lionheart”), EnglandLittle success, defeated by SaladinSaladin’s chivalry?He allowed Christians to visit peacefullyAngry Pope excommunicated Richardin 1192, left Muslim control of Holy land, but allowed Christians to visit and prosper.
49The Really Bad Fourth Crusade Crusades get really distracted, attack Byzantines in Constantinople!
50Crusades Changed Europe, Good and Bad… Short Terms effects… See packet for list of many outcomes!!!Temporary land gains in PalestineSack of ConstantinopleTemporary gain in Pope’s power and prestigeEuropeans gained a bigger view of worldDeath of several 100,000
51Long Term Effects of Crusades What declined? Decline of the pope’s prestigeDid God really want the Crusades? Why failure?Decline of noble powerKnights died in battle and of disease and lost landContributes to decline of feudalismAND Rise of stronger national MonarchsDecline of Byzantine power4th Crusade dealt serious blowMuslims would conquer the Constantinople in 1453.
52Long Term Effects :What Increased? Increase in monarchical powerKings took advantage of noble misfortune…and the pope’s loss of prestigeIncrease in religious intoleranceTensions between Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Muslim, and JewsBeginning of the end of Muslims (Moors) in SpainIncrease in tradeGrowth of independent Italian city-statesCrusaders like spices and goods of Middle East (pepper, cinnamon)Increase in Learning and TechnologyUniversities grew and more were established in Western EuropeRediscovery of Aristotle and other Greek and Roman ancients in the WestPaper introduced to replace parchmentNew words: algebra, cotton, bizarre, azure, lemon, sugarImprovements in sailing and navigationRounded Castles designed