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A glance at music’s history. There are 7 well-known eras of music history: 1. Ancient (Prehistoric time – 200 AD) 2. Medieval (200 – 1400 AD) 3. Renaissance.

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Presentation on theme: "A glance at music’s history. There are 7 well-known eras of music history: 1. Ancient (Prehistoric time – 200 AD) 2. Medieval (200 – 1400 AD) 3. Renaissance."— Presentation transcript:

1 A glance at music’s history

2 There are 7 well-known eras of music history: 1. Ancient (Prehistoric time – 200 AD) 2. Medieval (200 – 1400 AD) 3. Renaissance (1400 – 1600 AD) 4. Baroque (1600 – 1750 AD) 5. Classical (1750 – 1820 AD) 6. Romantic (1820 – 1900 AD) th Century (1900 – Present day)

3 Music Development: Rhythms were imitations of human movement – chanting, clapping, stomping, etc. Imitations of Nature – birds, ocean, rain, caves, etc. Spontaneous vocal expression of emotion – anger, fear, anguish, joy, etc. Communication – drums, trumpets, horns, bones

4 Proof of Music: Cave drawings Instruments have been found – whistles, drums, bones, sticks Oral and written stories have been passed down from generation to generation

5 Why Music Was Created: Accompany rituals or ceremonies – dances, births, deaths, hunting, marriage, religion, etc. Tells a story Expresses emotion and communication Magical powers – thought to affect character, life and well-being

6 The Greeks: They developed one of the first notation systems Created first music festival in 586 B.C. The words “music”, “rhythm”, “harmony”, and “cymbal” are all Greek words Proven instruments by Greeks: Lyre and the Kithara (small harps), Syrinx (panpipes), Tympanon (timpani), and Hydraulus (water organ). Oldest complete piece of music in history:

7 General Facts & Historical Events: Civilizations become more distinct and established 1209 – St. Francis of Assisi forms order of brotherhood 1271 – Marco Polo begins journey to the Orient 1337 – Beginning of the 100 year war between France and England 1347 – Black Death: 75 million people died. (1/3 of the world population!!) 1364 – Aztecs build capital city of Tenochtitlan

8 Music Facts: We begin to divide into different styles of music according to different locations Western music (Europe) develops around 300 AD The music of the Roman church becomes the basis for Western music.

9 Chant Music: 600 AD Pope Gregory I collected chants and arranged them in the order they are sung today. Chant was also known as “Plainchant” It was notated by Guido d’Arzzo (who also created Solfege). Then, the staff had 4 lines and square note heads. Chant was A Cappella and sung in unison It was sung in Latin, which was the text from the Bible No printing press, only one large song book for everyone 900 AD music became more elaborate and 2-part developed.

10 Sacred vs. Secular (Religious music vs. Non-Religious music): Common themes in secular music: Emotions – love Daily life – farming How music was used: To express emotions For entertainment To praise God.

11 Composers: Anonymous Perotin Leonin

12 Instruments: Use of instruments: To imitate voices (Sacred) Used for dances (Secular) Instruments: Lutes – early guitars Harps Strings (cellos, violin) Recorders Dulcimer [a Zither, played with lightweight hammers or sometimes by plucking the strings]

13 *CLASS ACTIVITY* You will create your own notation system with a partner: You live in a time when music has never been written down You must create your own notation system; you can’t use the staff or notes that we use today. The symbols that you choose should be based on the theme for your song. Please provide a title for your made-up song. You will NEATLY draw your form of music notation. RUBRIC (50 points): 10 points – display long/short note values 10 points – high/low pitches 10 points – artistry & legibilty 5 points – display a Key that defines the symbols 5 points – rests 5 points – originality 5 points – title

14 Historical Events: 1431 – Joan of Arc burned at the stake 1455 – Printing Press was invented 1475 – Michaelangelo was born 1492 – Columbus discovers America 1500 – First pencil was invented 1517 – Martin Luther posts 95 theses 1553 – Violin began to further develop 1564 – Shakespeare was born

15 General Facts: After the Dark Ages, this was the period of enlightenment [clarification, discoveries] Renaissance means “Rebirth” There was more artistic freedom

16 Instruments: Violin was developed Lute was at the height of popularity Bagpipes were created and played on Scottish battlefields Clavichord was developed (early piano) Instruments were used for dance music Instruments began to improvise

17 Vocal Music: Chant was still used in church and by monks Mass was created (the sung parts of our Mass – Eucharistic Liturgy) Motets – are Italian sacred pieces Chansons – are French secular songs Secular music began to sing about courtly love (which was a new idea in music) Women made music outside of church and were gradually allowed to sing in church. Men’s voices imitated women’s (they sang with Falsetto)

18 Composers: William Byrd Giovanni Gabrielli Giovanni Palestrina John Dowland

19 Ars Nova (“New Art”): Creativity Improvisation Composers emphasized human emotions Music became more lively and up-beat Polyphony was developed (music with multiple melodies)

20 Historical Events: 1609 – Galileo made the first observations with a telescope 1620 – Mayflower arrived in America 1705 – Virginia Act established public education

21 General Facts: People were either really wealthy or really poor (there was no Middle Class) Lifestyles became more elaborate (fancy) There was a rise in drama, theater, painting, architecture, and music (entertainment)

22 Music Facts: Sharp dynamic contrasts The livelihood of musicians started to come from the public Opera was invented Music became ornate Music expressed emotion (even in Church music) Piano was invented, but wasn’t yet popular Opera and other performances became accessible to the general public Brass instruments used more often

23 Composers: J.S. Bach Composed for the church Played the organ and violin Wrote music for organ and keyboards Had 20 children, 5 became musicians Composed “Toccata and Fugue in D Minor” and “Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring” Antonio Vivaldi Ordained priest Nickname – “The Red Priest” due to his bright red hair Wrote 40 operas, and 500 concertos Played the violin Primarily wrote music for strings (violin solos) Wrote “The Four Seasons” George Frederic Handel Played clavichord Composed for the church Wrote for orchestra and choir Composed “Messiah” (3 sections depicting 3 events of Jesus’ life) Wrote “Water Music” (was written for King George I)

24 Instruments: Harpsichord and strings are the most popular instruments Instrument families were combined to form smaller groups Composers wrote solos for instruments Dance music was popular (Gigue – lively tempo. Waltz – slow, stately tempo) Type s of Keyboards: Organ, Harpsichord, and Clavichord Types of Works: Fugue – music for keyboards Chamber music – music for string instruments (mainly), or for small orchestras Symphony – music for large orchestras Opera – solo singers and orchestra; Tells a story Oratorio – music for choir and orchestra. Tells a sacred story

25 Historical Events: 1750 – Benjamin Franklin discovers electricity 1765 – First steam engine 1773 – Boston Tea Party 1781 – Revolutionary War ends 1803 – Louisiana Purchase

26 General Facts: Rise of democracy History was officially recorded First vaccine is developed Discovered Oxygen, Hydrogen, and electricity

27 Music Facts: Melodies are strong and easy to hum or sing along with Piano becomes popular Opera was very popular Trumpet has keys (valves) Austria and Italy become important music centers Music is light, elegant, and fun Ballet begins and becomes popular

28 Composers: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Child prodigy Began playing piano at age 3 Began composing at age 4 and touring by age 7 Composed an opera at the age of 12 Wrote string quartets, 12 operas, and 41 symphonies Wrote “The Magic Flute” – comic opera “A Little Night Music” – sonata Joseph Hayden Composed 107 symphonies “Farewell Symphony” – at the end, musicians left the stage one by one “Surprise Symphony” – wanted to wake people up with Ludwig van Beethoven His music bridges the gap between Classical music and Romantic music

29 Types of Works: Opera: comic and serious (has a full orchestra, choir, and solos) Sonata: small ensemble with solo instruments Concerto: full orchestra with a main soloist Symphony: full orchestra (larger than Baroque’s symphony orchestra) String Quartet: made up of 2 violins, 1 viola, and 1 cello

30 Historical Events: 1828 – First passenger and freight railroad 1835 – Mark Twain is born 1836 – Texas wins its’ independence from Mexico 1837 – Music Education begins in Boston 1844 – YMCA founded 1860 – Abraham Lincoln becomes president 1861 – Civil War begins 1864 – Slavery ends 1874 – First American Zoo in Philadelphia 1876 – National Baseball League founded 1900 – Radio waves transmit human voice/speech

31 General Facts: Difficult political times in Europe (because of democracy) Pianos have become common in homes Slavery ends in America Nationality music becomes popular Impressionistic art becomes popular (less detail, more mood/emotion)

32 Music Facts: Greater variety of instruments, especially woodwinds Melodies are longer Music becomes more dramatic and emotional Tempos and dynamics are more extreme Program music becomes popular – music portrays events or tells a story Opera becomes very popular Musicals begin to be written (lighter version of opera) France and Russia become strong music centers

33 Instruments: Brass instruments have valves and become more popular Piano becomes the dominant instrument Orchestra gets larger New woodwinds invented (oboe and saxophone)Virtuosos became popular (exceptional soloists)

34 Composers: Ludwig van Beethoven: German; began going deaf in his early 30’s; composed for piano and orchestras; composed “Fur Elise”, “Moonlight Sonata”, “9 th Symphony”, and “5 th Symphony” Chopin: pianist Shubert: composed Art Songs Robert & Claire Schumann: married couple, both were pianists Wagner: composed Operas Tchaikovsky: composed Ballets and Symphonies. Wrote “The Nutcracker” and “The

35 (Composers continued) Brahms: pianist Verdi: composed Opera Faure: composed Art Songs Sousa: composed Marches

36 Types of Works: Ballet Opera Symphony Concerto Symphonic Poem (Program Music) Art Song – vocal solo, emphasis on the story

37 Historical Events: 1914 – World War I 1920 – Women gain the right to vote 1929 – Stock market crashes, Great Depression begins 1939 – WWII 1959 – Alaska and Hawaii become states 1961 – First astronaut in space 1965 – U.S. sends troops to Vietnam 1969 – Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the moon 1989 – Berlin wall was torn down 2001 – September 11 th attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon

38 General Facts: Technology is created and advances rapidly Light bulb (electricity) Radio Television Computers Personal computers

39 Global Communication & Transportation: Telephone Radio & Television Computers – & internet Automobile Airplane

40 Music Facts: World music is greatly influenced by global communication and transportation Sound recording industry created Gap grows between classical and popular music Electric instruments are created (main reason for large gap between classical and popular music) All sounds are possible – very experimental (no rules for composing music) Dissonance is added in large amounts to classical music America and Britain become a strong music influence

41 Instruments: Player piano Electric guitar Electric keyboards (piano & organ) Synthesizers (electric keyboards that imitate multitudes of sounds) Electric woodwinds Mixers

42 Composers: Scott Joplin: father of ragtime George Gershwin: took jazz to the concert hall Aaron Copland: classical, orchestral, and folk music Leonard Bernstein: orchestral, jazz influenced Duke Ellington: father of swing music Igor Stravinsky: classical, orchestral music Rogers & Hamerstein: musicals, musical theater production John Rutter: choral music Andrew Lloyd Weber: musicals (Phantom of the Opera, Cats, Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat Elvis: blues, early rock

43 (composers continued): Beatles: rock n’ roll Michael Jackson: rock/pop Madonna: pop U2: rock Rolling Stones: rock B.B. King: blues Pearl Jam: grunge

44 Styles of Music: Orchestral Choral & vocal Opera Revolutionary Folk (tells a story) Blues (African American) Gospel (African American Christian) Rock N’ Roll Jazz (African American) Country


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