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1800-1914. European Industry and Empire The 19 th century was Europe’s greatest age of global expansion - became the center of the world economy - millions.

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Presentation on theme: "1800-1914. European Industry and Empire The 19 th century was Europe’s greatest age of global expansion - became the center of the world economy - millions."— Presentation transcript:

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2 European Industry and Empire The 19 th century was Europe’s greatest age of global expansion - became the center of the world economy - millions of Europeans moved beyond Europe - explorers and missionaries went nearly everywhere - much of the world became part of European colonies Industrial Revolution fueled much of Europe’s expansion - demand for raw materials and agricultural products - need for markets to sell European products - European capitalists often invested money abroad - foreign markets kept workers within Europe employed

3 European Industry and Empire Mass nationalism in Europe fueled expansion - Italy and Germany unified by colonies became a status symbol Industrial advances aided overseas expansion - steamships - underwater telegraph - quinine - breech-loading rifles and machine guns

4 Quinine Quinine is used alone or with other medications to treat malaria (a serious or life-threatening illness that is spread by mosquitoes in certain parts of the world)

5 A New Perception of “others” In the past Europeans viewed “others” in terms of religion and often mingled with their elites The industrial age promoted a secular arrogance among Europeans - sometimes combined with a sense of religious superiority - Europeans increasingly despised other cultures - African societies lost status in European eyes - earlier: were regarded as nations led by kings - nineteenth century: became tribes led by chiefs

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7 Racism Grows Prominent New kind of racism, expressed through science - scientific “proof” of some peoples’ inferiority - creation of a hierarchy of races - view of race as determining intelligence, moral development, and destiny - view that inferior peoples threatened Europeans with their diseases A sense of responsibility to the “weaker races” - duty to civilize them - bringing them education, health care, Christianity, good government, etc., was regarded as “progress” and “civilization”

8 Social Darwinism Social Darwinism: an effort to apply Darwin’s evolutionary theory to human history - regarded as inevitable that the “unfit” races should be displaced or destroyed This is the legitimization for a second wave of imperialism

9 Herbert Spencer Spencer coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”. He was a pioneer of social Darwinism.

10 Scramble for Africa

11 China’s Century of Crisis China was, to a large degree, the victim of its own success - population grew from about 100 million in 1685 to some 430 million in but China didn’t have an accompanying Industrial Revolution - growing pressure on the land, impoverishment, starvation Chinese bureaucracy did not keep pace with growing population - central state gradually lost control of provincial officials - corruption became endemic - harsh treatment of peasants

12 China’s internal crisis: The Taiping Uprising Taiping Rebellion 1850– leader Hong Xiuquan (1814–1864) proclaimed himself the younger brother of Jesus, sent to establish a “heavenly kingdom of great peace” - called for radical equality - even planned to industrialize China - Taiping forces established their capital at Nanjing (1853) - rebellion was crushed by 1864

13 Aftermath of Taiping Resolution of the Taiping rebellion consolidated the power of the provincial gentry even more (provincial leaders put it down) - intense conservatism, so China’s problems weren’t resolved - the massive civil war had seriously weakened the Chinese economy - 20 million–30 million people died in the rebellion

14 Opium and Open Markets The Opium Wars show the transformation of China’s relationship with Europe - opium had been used in China for centuries - British began to sell large quantities of Indian opium - Chinese authorities recognized the dangers of opium addiction, tried to stop the trade - European merchants bribed officials to smuggle : the emperor decided to suppress the trade - Commissioner Lin Zexu campaigned against opium use - seized and destroyed over three million pounds

15 The Opium Wars British responded with the first Opium War (1839– 1842) - forced Chinese to accept free trade and “proper” relations among countries - Treaty of Nanjing (1842): i. China agreed to pay a $21 million indemnity ii. China ceded Hong Kong, opened more ports iii. foreigners received the right to live in China under their own laws iv. tariffs fixed at a low rate

16 The Second Opium War Second Opium War (1856–1858) - Europeans vandalized the imperial Summer Palace - more treaty ports were opened to foreigners - China was opened to foreign missionaries - Western powers were given the right to patrol some of China’s interior waterways China was also defeated by the French (1885) and Japanese (1895) “unequal treaties” inhibited China’s industrialization

17 Opium Wars Political Cartoon

18 China. Conservative Modernization Chinese government tried to act against problems - Confucianism, limited borrowing from the west - efforts to improve examination system - restoration of rural social and economic order - establishment of some modern arsenals and shipyards, some study of other languages and sciences

19 Boxer Rebellion Boxer Rebellion (1900): - militia organizations killed many Europeans and Chinese Christians, besieged foreign embassies in Beijing - Western powers and Japan occupied Beijing to crush the revolt - imposed massive reparation payments on China

20 Qing Loses the Mandate of Heaven Organizations to examine the situation and propose reforms Growing drive for a truly unified nation in which more people took part in public life Chinese nationalism was against both foreign imperialists and the foreign Qing dynasty The government agreed to some reforms in the early twentieth century, but not enough—the imperial order collapsed in 1911

21 The Ottoman Empire: Both China and the Ottoman Empire: - felt that they did not need to learn from the West - avoided direct colonial rule, but were diminished - attempted “defensive modernization” - suffered a split in society between modernists and those holding traditional values In 1750, the Ottoman Empire was still strong

22 Ottoman Expansion

23 Ottoman Decline By 1900, the Ottoman Empire was losing territory - Ottomans lost territory to Russia, Britain, Austria, and France - Napoleon’s 1798 invasion of Egypt was especially devastating - Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Rumania attained independence

24 Ottoman Decline

25 Ottoman Empire: “The Sick Man of Europe” Central Ottoman state had weakened - provincial authorities and local warlords gained more power, limited the government’s ability to raise money - the Janissaries had become militarily ineffective The economy was hit hard by Western developments - Europeans achieved direct access to Asia - cheap European manufactured goods harmed Ottoman artisans - foreign merchants won immunity from Ottoman laws and taxes Government came to rely on foreign loans to finance economic development efforts - Western European countries controlled all of the finances

26 Ottoman Reform Ambitious reforms, going considerably further than the Chinese - didn’t have an internal crisis on the scale of China - did not have to deal with explosive population growth - rulers were Turkic and Muslim, not like foreign Qing Late eighteenth century: Selim III tried to establish new military and administrative structures - sent ambassadors to study European methods - imported European advisers - established technical schools

27 Further Reforms After 1839: more far-reaching measures (Tanzimat, or “reorganization”) emerged - beginning of an extensive process of industrialization and modernization - acceptance of the principle that all citizens are equal before the law - challenged the Islamic character of the state - more Christians attained high office - tide of secular legislation and secular schools

28 Identity Supporters of reform saw the Ottoman Empire as a secular state - reform created a new class of writers, etc.—the “Young Ottomans” - urged creation of a constitutional regime - modernism: accepted technology/science not materialism Sultan Abd al-Hamid II accepted a new constitution in almost immediately suspended it - turned to decisive autocracy in the face of a Russian invasion - continued many educational, economic, and technical reforms - reactivated claim that the Ottoman sultans were caliphs and spoke for the whole Islamic world

29 Identity Opposition coalesced around the “Young Turks” (military and civilian elites) - advocated a militantly secular public life - shift to thinking in terms of a Turkish national state Ottoman Empire fell apart during WWI Distinction between Muslim and non-Muslim subjects

30 Comparing: China and the Ottoman Empire By 1900, both were “semicolonies” Both gave rise to a new nationalist conception of society China: the imperial system collapsed in 1911 a. followed by a vast revolution b. creation of a Communist regime by 1949, within the same territory Ottoman Empire: collapsed following World War I - a new, smaller nation-state created “Turkey” Chinese revolutionaries rejected Confucian culture much more than Turkish leaders rejected Islam

31 Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa shoguns had ruled since about main task was preventing civil war among rival feudal lords(the daimyo) - Japan enjoyed internal peace from 1600 to daimyo were strictly regulated but retained considerable autonomy - Japan wasn’t unified by a single law, currency, or central authority that reached to the local level - hierarchical society: samurai at the top, then peasants, artisans, and merchants at the bottom

32 Tokugawa Period

33 Change in the Tokugawa period Samurai evolved into a bureaucratic/administrative class Great economic growth, commercialization, and urban development By 1750, Japan was perhaps the most urbanized country - 10 percent of population lived in cities or towns - Edo (Tokyo) had a million residents High literacy rates (40 percent of males, 15 percent of females) - some samurai turned to commerce - many merchants prospered - many peasants moved to cities, despite edicts Corruption was widespread - uprisings of the poor, both rural and urban

34 The Meiji Restoration U.S. sent Commodore Perry in demand better treatment for castaways - right to refuel and buy provisions - the opening of trade ports The shogun gave in to Perry’s demands - the shogun’s spinelessness triggered a civil war 1868, a group of young samurai from the south took over - they claimed to be restoring the 15-year-old emperor Meiji to power - aimed to save Japan from the foreigners by transformation of Japanese society rather than resistance West wasn’t as interested in Japan as it was in China

35 Meiji Restoration

36 Japanese Modernization First task was creating national unity - attacked power and privileges of the daimyo and the samurai - dismantled the Confucian-based social order, almost all Japanese became legally equal Widespread interest in many aspects of the West, from science to hairstyles - official missions were sent to the West, hundreds of students studied abroad - translation of Western books into Japanese

37 Japanese Modernization Eventually settled down to more selective borrowing from the West - combined foreign and Japanese elements, e.g., in the 1889 constitution Feminism and Christianity made little progress Shinto was raised to the level of a state cult

38 Industrialization State-guided industrialization program - established model factories, built railroads, created postal, telegraph, and banking systems - many state enterprises were then sold to private investors - accomplished modernization without acquiring foreign debt

39 Social Effects of Industrialization Society paid a heavy price - many peasant families were impoverished - countryside suffered infanticide, sale of daughters, and famine - early urban workers received harsh treatment - efforts to organize unions were repressed - labor movements was crushed by end of authorities emphasized theme of service to the state and ideas of the enterprise as a family

40 Japan and the World By the early twentieth century, Western powers readjusted treaties in Japan’s favor Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1902 recognized Japan as an equal Japanese empire building - wars against China (1894–1895) and Russia (1904– 1905) - gained colonial control of Taiwan and Korea - won a foothold in Manchuria Japan’s rise was widely admired Colonial policies were more brutal than Europeans

41 20 th Century Japanese Imperialism


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