Presentation on theme: "Reform, Recovery and Innovation 1000-1300. Rulers of the French / France Merovingian Dynasty (428–751) Carolingian Dynasty (751–987) Capetian Dynasty."— Presentation transcript:
Rulers of the French / France Merovingian Dynasty (428–751) Carolingian Dynasty (751–987) Capetian Dynasty (987–1792) – House of Capet (987–1328) – House of Valois (1328–1589) Orléans branch (1498–1515) Orléans–Angoulême Branch (1515–1589) – House of Bourbon (1589–1792)
Hugh Capet succeeds Louis “the Lazy” Hugh begins to slowly centralize control Hugh had been Count of Paris – Paris begins to become the political center of France
England - 1066 January - Edward the Confessor dies January - Harold Godwinson elected king Throne also clamed by – Harald Hardrada – William of Normandy 25 September - Battle of Stamford – Harold marched 200 miles in 4 days – Only 25 of 300 Norwegian ships leave England 28 September - William lands on southern coast – Harold marched 240 miles south 14 October - Battle of Hastings
Henry II, 1154–1189 – Reformed the legal system. – Emphasized power of royal court. – Common Law uniform throughout England. – Married Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of Louis VII
Sons – Richard, 1189–1199 – John, 1199–1216 struggled with barons and forced to sign the Magna Carta. Magna Carta – Recognizes that king must rule according to feudal practices – Consult with barons before raising taxes. – Contributes to creation of parliament upper house of nobles lower house of commoners.
Germany decentralizes in this period with rise of five regional princes. Holy Roman Empire begins with Otto I in 962.
Electors, c. 1200 Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier Archbishop of Cologne King of Bohemia Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Saxony Margrave of Brandenburg
Society Agricultural productivity increases – More reclaimed land – three-field crop rotation – technological advancements Heavy plow Collar harness for horses Watermills European population more than doubles between 1000 and 1300. Diversity of agricultural and produced goods such as woolen textiles increased trade. – Global trade patterns reemerge – Revival of Mediterranean trade. The result of more goods and more trade was an early form of capitalism. A more capitalist, less feudal society. Increased anti-Semitism.
Social patterns altered before 1300 – More people moved to urban centers. – Urbanization and a money economy: feudalism less practical. The new bourgeoisies – not a part of the old feudal order.
Church Reform and Revitalization Revived monasticism – Cluniac reforms – Cistercians - return to the Rule of St. Benedict – Franciscans - preaching, help to the poor – Dominicans - preaching, doctrinal purity Popes Nicholas II and Urban II made church independent of secular powers. – Of particular concern was the appointing of clergy, including the pope. – College of Cardinals created to move the election of pope into the church.
Investiture Controversy from 1073 to 1122 – increased church’s independence from secular officials – further decentralized Germany. – increased public piety – led to the rise of secular bureaucracy Popular piety emphasized the role of: – the Virgin Mary – relics Increased religious fervor was one of the causes of the Crusades and Christianization of Spain and Sicily. Crusading movements also spurred by competition between Western Europe andByzantine Empire.
Crisis and Creativity: 1300–1415 Extended period of famine from 1315 to 1322 in Western Europe. – Population outgrew the available agricultural food production. – Short growing season due to cooler temperatures and large amounts of rainfall.
Why This Climate Change? Orbital shifts. – sunlight in middle latitudes changes by 25% Solar activity. Changes in ocean currents. Mount Rinjani eruption in 1258. Probably several regional changes, not a single global change.