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Popes and Rulers01.25.12 Charlemagne set out to improve the Church Many advisors were members of the clergy 799, receives visit from Pope Leo III –Wanted.

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Presentation on theme: "Popes and Rulers01.25.12 Charlemagne set out to improve the Church Many advisors were members of the clergy 799, receives visit from Pope Leo III –Wanted."— Presentation transcript:

1 Popes and Rulers Charlemagne set out to improve the Church Many advisors were members of the clergy 799, receives visit from Pope Leo III –Wanted protection from Charlemagne In thanks, Pope crowned Charlemagne emperor in a coronation 1.Strengthened power of the Church in Europe 2.Showed only Pope could crown Emperors Charl. thinks GOD made him Emperor Pope thinks CHURCH made C. Emperor After Charlemagne, Otto the Great was chosen to lead –Crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 –Used Church to support his authority 1073, Pope Gregory VII becomes Pope –Issued list of rules over the supreme authority over secular leaders and church leaders –Only Pope chose bishops, remove Emperors Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is NOT pleased, felt attacked Popes and Rulers

2 Henry names his own bishop, Gregory appoints a rival Henry tries to remove Pope, Pope excommunicates Henry –Frees Henry’s subjects from their oaths of loyalty to their emperor Divides the clergy and secular leaders –Henry begs in the snow for 3 days for forgiveness from the Pope Pope gives in, forgives! Henry then marches his army to Rome and forces the Pope out of office 1122 sign Concordat of Worms –Church appoints bishops, Emperors gives fiefs to bishops

3 Kings, Nobles, and the Magna Carta Do Now: 1.What rights did Pope Gregory VII claim as pope? 2.Why was the power to chose the bishops such a big factor in the conflict between the pope and the emperors? Vikings settled in Normandy, France as great feudal lords –Called Normans England ruled by weak king, Edward the Confessor Harold Godwin or William the Conqueror of Normandy both want to be king –Harold named King but is killed by William in 1066 in the Battle of Hastings –English have inferior weapons –End of Anglo-Saxon rule in England England changes Now about 180 feudal lords, not 5000 Power held by Normans, led to creation of English language Kings, Nobles, and the Magna Carta

4 1199 King John claims to rule Normandy as well as England –Has to raise taxes to pay for conquering, angers his lords/barons Force him to sign the Magna Carta (Great Charter) in 1215 –Says no one is above the law, even King –trials by jury in court cases, –Need council of barons to raise taxes English common law comes from local customs and judges’ decisions –ex. Habeas corpus: right to a trial –Must produce a writ: court order –Magna Carta leads to English Parliament Assembly of representatives to pass laws House of Lords – nobles House of Commons – knights, peasants

5 Do Now: Complete your vocabulary words for this chapter. This is still part of Unit 7, so you may continue on where you previously have “UNIT 7 VOCABULARY”. Words can be found on starting p. 413 in blue WORDS: Clergy Coronation Secular Excommunicate Common law Habeas corpus Writ Parliament Pilgrim Crusade Heresy Inquisition Reconquista

6 Christians traveled as pilgrims to the Holy Land in Jerusalem and Palestine Muslim Turks conquered Jerusalem, started harassing pilgrims –Byzantine Emperor (a Christian) asked Pope for help 1095 Pope Urban II called for “soldiers of Christ” to defend Constantinople, free Jerusalem –Slogan “God wills it!” (Deus Vult!) Success, took back Jerusalem! Pope compared Crusades to feudalism with God as feudal lord needing protection Difficult journey with disease, robbers, etc. Four Crusades in all, 1 st was greatest –Muslims treated with no respect –4 th Crusade attacked Constantinople, destroyed icons, attacked women What’s the problem with the 4 th Crusade attacked Constantinople? 1 sentence in your book, please! Religious Crusades

7 Effects of the Crusades: 1. Opened Europeans’ eyes to the rest of the world 2. Encouraged trade with the East –Brought home silk, spices, ideas 3. Inspired the great voyages of discovery Crusades used as an excuse for violence against non-Christians –Jews persecuted, killed, kicked out of countries (England, France) Crusades also targeted heretics –Christians must believe in what the Church says Pope Gregory IX created the Inquisition to investigate/judge heretics –Excommunication, no food, whipping, fines, imprisonment all punishments –If you did not confess, execution

8 Muslims in Spain = Moors, mainly in S. Spain Modern, advanced city of Cordoba Rulers very tolerant of Jews and Christians, very multicultural –Home of famous philosophers, Ibn Rushd and Moses Maimonides Non-Muslims had to pay special tax By 1050, the Pope encouraged Christians in N. Spain to drive the Muslims from S. Spain –Reconquista (reconquest) 1139, Portugal becomes independent 1236, Cordoba fell, only Granada stays Muslim 1469: Ferdinand marries Isabella, unites different parts of Spain Christians and Muslims in Spain

9 Granada falls in 1492 Anti-Jewish attacks start –Isabella and Ferdinand are very religious –Bring in Torquemada (a monk) to head the Spanish Inquisition –Uses torture and terror against Jews and Muslims 1492, rulers order all Jews to leave Spain and Portugal Many moved to Italy, Ottoman Empire Muslims eventually ordered out as well Loss of two groups harms Spain’s economy and culture –Loss of intellectual/cultural contributions


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