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Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy By Masayuki Sato Lecture Four Confucius and the Analects 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy By Masayuki Sato Lecture Four Confucius and the Analects 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy By Masayuki Sato Lecture Four Confucius and the Analects 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」 台灣 2.5 版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 2.5 License of “BY-NC-SA”.

2 Contents of Today’s Lecture Introduction Confucius ( BCE ) (1) Images of Confucius (2) Contents of the Analects (3) Political Nature of Confucianism (4) Main ideas in the thought of the Analects and early Confucian thought

3 (1) Images of Confucius (1) The first teacher of the whole of Chinese civilization (2) A loyalist who attempted to recover the authority of the ducal family of Lu. (3) A mutineer or a revolutionary against the old regime (4) A philosopher who brought human knowledge and vision to a new stage (5) A philosopher who critically influenced the formation Chinese and East Asian peoples’ mentality

4 (1) The first teacher of the whole Chinese civilization A idiom: “wan shi shi biao 萬世師表 ” — the teacher who has become a paradigm for ten thousands’ generation = Confucius cf. “ 有教無類 ” (“Weilinggong” Chapter) In teaching there should be no distinction of “lei” (classes, race) The posthumous rank of Confucius has risen throughout Chinese history 文宣王 (AD 739, by Emperor Xuan of Tang) 大成至聖文宣王 (AD 1307, by Emperor Cheng of Yuan) 尼父, 褒成宣尼公, 鄒国公 etc = title for respecting a subject 大成 至聖 文宣王 The Highest sage king of great culture 文宣王 (King of great culture) Promoted to the status of “king” or a ruler

5 The first teacher of the whole Chinese civilization Kong Decheng 孔德成 ( ), the 77th generation heir of Kong family moved to Taiwan in 1949 with the nationalist government. He was appointed minister of the Examination Yuan ( 1984 – 1993 ). 尼父, 褒成宣尼公, 鄒国公 etc = title for respecting a subject 大成 至聖 文宣王 The Highest sage king of great culture 文宣王 (King of great culture) Promoted to the status of “king” or a ruler

6 (2) A loyalist who has attempted to recover the authority of the ducal family of Lu. Kong Decheng 孔德成 ( ) Wiki Kolyudov Flickr 棟樑‧ Harry ‧黃基峰‧ Taiwan Worship for Confucius at the Taipei Confucian Temple Worship for Confucius at the Qufu Confucian Temple National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

7 (2) A loyalist who has attempted to recover the authority of the ducal family of Lu. From this viewpoint, Confucius has been described as a loyalist who devoted himself to protecting the authority of ducal family of Lu from the domination of major aristocrats. Confucius, a subject of Lu, must have respected the authority of the ducal family to the extent that its blood was traced back to the Duke of Zhou. However, Confucius did not seem to feel particular responsibility for its survival, as long as Lu ruler was not virtuous.

8 (2) A loyalist who has attempted to recover the authority of the ducal family of Lu. “ 季氏亦僭於公室,陪臣執國政,是以魯自大夫 以下皆僭離于正道。故孔子不仕,退而修詩書 禮樂。 ” “The power of Ji family has surpassed their lord, while such a butler of aristocrats assumes a the state power. Such presumption of political power by the lower rank was even followed by low officers so that all political figures deviated from appropriate (ethical) way for statecraft. That was why Confucius would not serve. He rather would remain a commoner, and inquired into [the spirit] of Odes, Documents, rituals and music.” –from “Biography of Confucius”, The Historical Records National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

9 (2) A loyalist who has attempted to recover the authority of the ducal family of Lu. 季氏亦僭於公室,陪臣執國政,是以魯自大夫 以下皆僭離于正道。故孔子不仕,退而修詩書 禮樂。 The power Ji family has surpassed their lord, while such a butler of aristocrats assumes a the state power. Such presumption of political power by the lower rank was even followed by low officers so that all political figures deviated from appropriate (ethical) way for statecraft. That was why, Confucius would not serve. He rather would remain a commoner, and inquired into [the spirit] of Odes, Documents, rituals and music. –from “Biography of Confucius”, The Historical Records National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

10 (3) A mutineer or a revolutionist against the old regime On the contrary, the Analects provides some textual evidence that Confucius would often participate in rebellion. Some descriptions in which Confucius expressed his willingness for joining rebellion have annoyed traditional intellectuals who were occupied with the idea that it should be impossible for such a sage as Confucius to join any rebellion.

11 (3) A mutineer or a revolutionist against the old regime 公山弗擾以費畔,召,子欲往。 Gongshan Furao attempted rebellion with the town of Bi as his military base, and invited Confucius to join. The Master wanted to join. (“Yanghuo”) 佛肸召,子欲往。 Foxi invited Confucius to his rebellion. The Master wanted to join. (“Yanghuo”) 陽貨 […] “ 日月逝矣,歲不我與。 ” 孔子曰: “ 諾。 吾將仕矣。 ” Yang Huo said “Time flies like arrow. Why don’t you join my statecraft?” Confucius replied: “I accept. I will work for you. ” (“Yanghuo”)

12 (3) A mutineer or a revolutionist against the old regime Modern scholar Guo Moruo 郭沫若( ) has specially focused on this aspect in his well-known monograph on the history of the early Chinese thought. Japanese Historian Shigeki Kaizuka 貝塚茂樹 ( ), and American Sinologist Herrlee G. Creel ( ) respectively published their monographs on the biography of Confucius, in which Confucius was described as a reformer of the old social system.

13 (4) A philosopher who led the human knowledge and vision to the new stage From this perspective Confucius is described as a proponent who has opened the door for the new era of human intellectual history. A German philosopher, Karl Yaspers ( ) in his interpretation of the world presented the idea of an “Axial age” ( BCE ), in which Confucius, Buddha and Socrates, simultaneously discovered fundamental ideas or ethical truth for human society.

14 (4) A philosopher who led the human knowledge and vision to the new stage American analytic philosopher, Herbert Fingarette: Confucius: the Secular as Sacred (1972) Magic power Performative utterance Holy Rite

15 Herbert Fingarette: Confucius: the Secular as Sacred Confucius saw, and tried to call to our attention, that the truly, distinctively human powers have, characteristically, a magical quality. His task, therefore, required, in effect, that he reveal what is already so familiar and universal as to be unnoticed. What is necessary in such a cases is that one come upon this “obvious” dimension of our existence in a new way, in the right way. Where can one find such a new path to this familiar area, one which provides a new and revealing perspective? Confucius found the path: We go by way of the notion of li. (Confucius: the Secular as Sacred, p. 6)

16 Herbert Fingarette: Confucius: the Secular as Sacred Li (….) bring out forcefully not only the harmony and beauty of social forms, the inherent and ultimate dignity of human intercourse, it brings out also the moral perfection implicit in achieving one’s ends by dealing with others as beings of equal dignity, as free co-participations on Li. (Confucius: the Secular as Sacred, p.16)

17 (5) A philosopher who critically influenced the formation of the way of thinking of Chinese (and East-Asian) people From the research framework of the history of Chinese thought, the significance of Confucius’ thought has been discovered repeatedly. Li Zehou 李澤厚, one of the most influential intellectuals in China during 1980s described Confucius as the initiator of the psycho- cultural structure of Chinese people. ( 中國人的心理文化結構 )

18 (5)A philosopher who critically influenced the formation of the way of thinking of Chinese (and East-Asian) people In Japan, Shizuka Shirakawa 白川靜 ( ) published a monograrph on a biography of Confucius in which Shirakawa argued that Confucius came from the clan which had taken charge of a ritual director, or shaman-like function for generations, and such a background enabled him to have a broad knowledge of rituals and deep insight into its significance. Shirakawa’s characteristic viewpoint can be fully exhibited in his interpretation on the formation of the character “ru 儒 ”, the social matrix of Confucians.

19 (5)A philosopher who critically influenced the formation of the way of thinking of Chinese (and East-Asian) people The formation of the character: “Ru” 儒 儒 イ イ 雨 雨 而 而

20 (5)A philosopher who critically influenced the formation of the way of thinking of Chinese (and East-Asian) people The formation of the character: “Ru” 儒 儒 イ イ 雨 雨 而 而

21 (5)A philosopher who critically influenced the formation of the way of thinking of Chinese (and East-Asian) people The formation of the character: “Ru” 儒 儒 イ イ 雨 而 而 The radical symbolizes the rain The radical symbolizes a bold-head shaman praying for rain = a man + raining + a shaman

22 (5)A philosopher who critically influenced the formation of the way of thinking of Chinese (and East-Asian) people Incorporating Shirakawa’s viewpoint into his own, Nobuyuki Kaji 加地伸行 observed that the significance of Confucius’ thought was the articulation of the thought of filial piety. Before Confucius, the sense of “filial piety” was felt in people’s mind on more religious dimension toward their ancestral worship. The early Confucians has transformed the sense of awe in their ancestral worship for the dead into the ethical code of filial piety (xiao 孝 ) to living parents.

23 Contents of the Analects Lunyu 論語 The Analects has been a collection of the words, dialogues, anecdotes, maxims, most of which have been related to Confucius and/or his disciples. The collections of Confucius’ words has been supposedly begun to be proceeded as early as before Confucius’ death. but the extant text has been obviously re-collected and re-complied for at least several centuries. Some contents rather represent the thought of the Warring state Confucians and compilers of the text. The Content of the Analects

24 Contents of the Analects Although a great amount of stories about Confucius have been transmitted to the present, since for most of his life, Confucius himself was not in such positions as would recorded by historians, there are very few reliable materials from which we can know the exact life events of Confucius. Rather, it seemed that the most of stories (e.g. those “recorded” in the Historical Records of Sima Qian were written on the basis of the contents of dialogues or the situations which the Analects described.

25 Contents of the Analects Whatever the extent of the available materials from which we can know actual life and words of Confucius, two things are worth noting. First, for more than two millennia, Chinese and East Asian intellectuals have regarded the Analects as representing the essence of Confucius’ idea. Although the importance of his words were ranked under the Five or Six classics until the Tang period, the rise of Neo-Confucianism during Song period has led the Analects to be elevated to the top of the Confucian canons. Since then, both Neo- Confucianism and its critics claimed that their ideas represent the spirit of Confucius.

26 Contents of the Analects Jinsai Itō 伊藤仁齋( ), one of the most prominent Japanese Confucians during Tokugawa 德川 period, criticized Neo-Confucianism, arguing that it would not represent Confucius’ spirit at all. Instead, he proposed to read the Analects and the Mencius directly in order to illuminate the spirit of Confucius. Jinsai has even proclaimed:

27

28 The Bible The Koran Wiki Tomislav Kraljević – Bully

29 The Analects Wiki Tomislav Kraljević – Bully

30 Contents of the Analects Lunyu 論語 The Analects consists of twenty chapters, and their titles come from the first two characters of each chapters. Cf. The Chapter One “Xue’er 學而 ” The first sentence starts with: “ 子曰:學而時習之,不宜說乎 !”

31 Contents of the Analects Lunyu 論語 The Analects consists of twenty chapters, and their titles come from the first two characters of each chapters. Cf. The Chapter One “Xue’er 學而 ” The first sentence starts with “ 子曰:學而時習之,不宜說乎 !”

32 Contents of the Analects Lunyu 論語 The Analects consists of twenty chapters, and their titles come from the first two characters of each chapters. Cf. The Chapter One “Xue’er 學而 ” The first sentence starts with “ 子曰:學而時習之,不宜說乎 !” The first sentence of the last chapter starts: “ 堯曰:咨爾舜,天之曆數在爾躬。 ” The sage ruler Yao proclaimed: “Thou, Shun!...”

33 Political nature of Confucianism Sōkicih Tsuda ( ) : The thought of Confucius can be divided two parts: (1) human ethics, and (2) method of statecraft. Confucius’ ethical thought only focused on that of the shi 士 (officer- aspirants) class people living in a specific wide of a country, which could regulate specific relations, such as father and son, as well as lord-minister relationships. His thought was not universal, nor was it proposed for the ruled people. (Tsuda: The Analects and the thought of Confucius)

34 Political nature of Confucianism Early Confucians aimed to climb higher than the ruler of local governments. The Case of Confucius: “ 其後定公以孔子爲中都宰,一年,四方皆則之 。由中都宰爲司空,由司空爲大司寇。 ” “Later, Duke Ding of Lu appointed Confucius to the governor of Middle City. After a year then, the people of surrounding areas began to became well- mannered. Confucius has been promoted to the minister of Internal and public affairs, and was again promoted to the Chief Justice the Supreme Court.” Sima Qian: “Biography of Confucius” National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

35 Political nature of Confucianism 子路曰: “ 衛君待子而為政,子將奚先? ” 子曰 : “ 必也正名乎! ” Zi Lu said: “The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be done?” The Master replied: “What is necessary is to rectify names." (Trans. by Legge)

36 Political nature of Confucianism 子路曰: “ 衛君待子而為政,子將奚先? ” 子曰 : “ 必也正名乎! ” Zi Lu said: “The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be done?” The Master replied: “What is necessary is to rectify names." (Trans. by Legge)

37 Political nature of Confucianism Examples of disciples of Confucius: Ziyou 子游 → the Governor of Wucheng 五城宰 Zigao 子羔 → the Governor of Bi 費 Zixia 子夏 → the Governor of Jufu 莒父宰 Zhonggong 仲弓, Ranqiu 冉求, and Zilu 子路 → the Prime minister of the Dominion of the Ji Family 季氏宰 Cf. The wealth and military power of Ji family overwhelmed that of the ducal family, the nominal ruler of the state of Lu.

38 Bureaucracy of Local government Bureaucracy of Local government Ruled people / peasantry rule Governors of local government Confucian “school” Bureaucracy A Ruler ministers National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

39 Beraucracy of Local government Beraucracy of Local government Ruled people / peasantry rule Confucian “school” A Ruler Beraucracy ministers Governors of local government National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

40 Bureaucracy of Local government Bureaucracy of Local government Ruled people / peasantry rule Confucian “school” A Ruler Buraucracy ministers Governors of local government Ruler and governors were to be connected with each other on ruler’s firm trust on those “Confucian” talents. National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

41 Political nature of Confucianism Confucians had an ambition that if a Confucian governor administers a city or a region, then he can create an ideal community of people based upon the trust between the ruler and the subjects. 子曰: “ 苟有用我者。期月而已可也,三年有成 。 ”(“Zilu Chapter”) The Master said: “If there were (any of the princes) who would employ me, in the course of twelve months, I should have done something considerable. In three years, the government would be perfected.” (trans. by Legge)

42 Political nature of Confucianism 子路率爾而對曰: “ 千乘之國,攝乎大國之間, 加之以師旅,因之以饑饉;由也為之,比及三 年,可使有勇,且知方也。 ” Zi Lu hastily and lightly replied, “Suppose the case of a state of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large states; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables - if I were intrusted with the government of it, in three years’ time I could make the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct.” (trans. by Legge)

43 Political nature of Confucianism 子路率爾而對曰: “ 千乘之國,攝乎大國之間, 加之以師旅,因之以饑饉;由也為之,比及三 年,可使有勇,且知方也。 ” Zi Lu hastily and lightly replied, “Suppose the case of a state of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large states; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables - if I were intrusted with the government of it, in three years’ time I could make the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct.” (trans. by Legge)

44 Political nature of Confucianism zai 宰 (top administrator ) yousi 有司 (government officials) 仲弓為季氏宰,問政。子曰: “ 先有司,赦小過 ,舉賢才。 (Zilu) Zhong Gong, being chief minister to the head of the Ji family, asked about government. The Master said, “Take your initiative in any matters before your subordinate officials start to do, pardon small faults, and raise to office men of virtue and talents.” (trans. by Legge with alternation)

45 Political nature of Confucianism zai 宰 (top administrator ) yousi 有司 (government officials) 仲弓為季氏宰,問政。子曰: “ 先有司,赦小過 ,舉賢才。 (Zilu) Zhong Gong, being chief minister to the head of the Ji family, asked about government. The Master said, “Take your initiative in any matters before your subordinate officials start to do, pardon small faults, and raise to office men of virtue and talents.” (trans. by Legge with alternation)

46 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought

47 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought What is an ideal administrator at the top of a government ? In addition to mastering of various technical skills for statecrafts

48 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought What is an ideal administrator at the top of a government ? In addition to mastering of various technical skills for statecrafts Military skill Agricultural and Astronomical Skills Knowledge of the Classics Rituals and Ceremonies MusicDivination

49 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought What is an ideal administrator at the top of a government ? In addition to mastering of various technical skills for statecrafts Military skill Agricultural and Astronomical Skills Knowledge of the Classics Rituals and Ceremonies MusicDivination

50 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought What is an ideal administrator at the top of a government ? In addition to mastering various technical skills for statecrafts (1) Integrity of personality—especially those moral values to maintain a communal order 孝 悌忠恕 信 Reciprocal sympathy: “Not to do to others as you would not wish done to yourself.” 己所不欲,勿施於人 Filial piety Fratanity Loyalty Trustfulness

51 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought What is an ideal administrator at the top of a government ? In addition to mastering various technical skills for statecrafts (1) Integrity of personality—especially those moral values to maintain a communal order

52 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought What is an ideal administrator at the top of a government ? In addition to mastering various technical skills for statecrafts (1) Integrity of personality—especially those moral values to maintain a communal order (2) Intelligence with which one can find ethical significance from the those texts of the classics 知or智 wisdom

53 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought Intelligence with which one can find ethical significance from the those texts of the classics 知or智 wisdom 溫故而知新,可以為師矣 (Weizheng) “If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others.” (trans. by Legge) “ 知之為知之,不知為不知,是知也。 ” (Weizheng) “When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it - this is knowledge.” (trans. by Legge)

54 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought What is an ideal administrator at the top of a government ? In addition to mastering of various technical skills for statecrafts (1) Integrity of personality—especially those moral values needed to maintain a communal order (2) Intelligence with which one can find ethical significance from the those texts of the classics (3) Will for practice to transform the current condition into ideal one.

55 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought (3) Will for practice to transform the current condition into ideal one. Confucius requested Confucian ruling talents to keep the accordance between deed and word. 子貢問君子。子曰: “ 先行其言,而後從之。 ”(The “Weizheng” Chapter) Zi Gong asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, “He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions.” (Trans. by Legge)

56 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought Confucius did not appreciate eloquence in his image of an ideal statesman. 子曰: “ 君子欲訥於言,而敏於行。 ” (The “Liren” Chapter) The Master said, “The superior man wishes to be slow in his speech and earnest in his conduct.” (Trans. by Legge)

57 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought Leading value ideas of the early Confucian thought: ren 仁 (benevolence), li 禮 (rituals and social norms) and xue 學 (learning): What is ren? When Confucius stated “A person is in the realm of ren”, the term ren denotes the ideal state of personality which can fully exhibit the virtue of aforementioned integrity, intelligence, and the will for practice. Thus, “the man of ren” connotes ideal statesmen who are to be stationed upper than governor level.

58 The Graph of the term “ren” 「仁」 = 「人」 (a person) +「二」 (two) 「仁」 in the Chu bamboo texts (4 th century BC) 身 字 ( body ) + 心 字 ( heart/mind ) National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

59 Multi-facet usages of the term ren in the Analects 1) Who (e.g. historical personages) have attained the realm of ren’s virtue? 2) What kind of behaviors can accord to the virtue of ren? 3) What is the essential elements of ren? 4) What kinds of virtues constitute ren? 5) What kinds of attitude does a person have to possess when s/he ? “witness” or “encounter” ren? 6) What kind of realm does the person of ren is staying? The term “ren” is very difficult to make tangible definition

60 Multi-facet usages of the term ren in the Analects 子張問仁於孔子。孔子曰: “ 能行五者於天下, 為仁矣。 ” 請問之。曰: “ 恭、寬、信、敏、惠 。 (The Chapter “Yanghuo”) Zi Zhang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, “To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue (=ren).” He begged to ask what they were, and was told, “Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness.” (trans. by Legge)

61 Multi-facet usages of the term ren in the Analects 1) Who (e.g. historical personages) have attained the realm of ren’s virtue? 2) What kind of behaviors can accord to the virtue of ren? 3) What is the essential elements of ren? 4) What kinds of virtues constitute ren? 5) What kinds of attitude does a person have to possess when s/he ? “witness” or “encounter” ren? 6) What kind of realm does the person of ren is staying? The term “ren” is very difficult to make tangible definition

62 Multi-facet usages of the term ren in the Analects 樊遲問仁。子曰: “ 愛人。 ” (Yanyuan) Fan Chi asked about benevolence. The Master said, “It is to love all men.” “ 司馬牛問仁。子曰: “ 仁者其言也訒。 ” (Yanyuan) Sima Niu asked about ren. The Master said, “The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his speech.” (All translations are Legges’)

63 Multi-facet usages of the term ren in the Analects 樊遲問仁。子曰: “ 愛人。 ” (Yanyuan) Fan Chi asked about benevolence. The Master said, “It is to love all men.” “ 司馬牛問仁。子曰: “ 仁者其言也訒。 ” (Yanyuan) Sima Niu asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, “The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his speech.” (All translations are Legges’) Cf. 子曰: “ 君子欲訥於言,而敏於行。 ” The Master said, “The superior man wishes to be slow in his speech and earnest in his conduct.” (Liren)

64 Subtle “political” implication which the term ren denotes (1) The position of ren stands below the realm of the term sheng (sagehood) A example of “Yongye” Chapter 〈雍也〉 子貢曰: “ 如有博施於民而能濟眾,何如?可謂 仁乎? ” 子曰: “ 何事於仁,必也聖乎!堯舜其 猶病諸!夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲達而達 人。能近取譬,可謂仁之方也已。

65 The value of ren as “the highest number two” Zi Gong said, “Suppose the case of a man extensively conferring benefits on the people, and able to assist all, what would you say of him? Might he be called ‘perfect accomplishment of ren 仁 ’ ?” The Master said, “Why speak only of the virtue of ren in connection with him? Must he not have the qualities of a sage (i.e., the realm of sheng 聖 )? Even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this.

66 The value of ren as “the highest number two” 夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人。能近 取譬,可謂仁之方也已。 Now the man of ren, wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others. To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves - this may be called the art for attaining the virtue of ren.”

67 The value of ren as “the highest number two” Confucius admits that Guan Zhong 管仲, the minister of Duke Huan of Qi 齊桓公 deserves to be considered to have attained a part of this virtue. Three princes of Shang who has not been contaminated by vice at the end of the Shang dynasty, in doing so, they tragedically ended their lifes. Peoples have called “Three ren princes of Shange 殷「三仁」 : Yongye Chapter: 仁者先難而後獲 The man of ren makes the difficulty to be overcome his first business, and success only a subsequent consideration. cf: “Six Virtues 六德 ” a chapter in the Bamboo tex of Guodian tomb records a passege which regards the significance of ren as the virtue of son 子德.

68 The value of ren as “the highest number two” In early Confucianism, the term ren denoted the virtue of ruler under macro-perspective of the whole state-people relationship. Nevertheless, it does not seem to designate the virtue of the ruler himself, but to designate that of the top of people just next to him. In other words, the term ren represents the realm of highest personality of “number two” in a country. Confucians needed to show such a virtue in order to provides their competent talents who at the same time would never become a danger of for superseding their lord himself.

69 The Concept of Li (with Ren) The ideal integrity of an administrator has been attained by his practice of Li. In this aspect, Li is instrumental for reaching Confucian core values, i.e., ren and xiao (filial piety). 顏淵問仁。子曰: “ 克己復禮為仁。一日克己復禮, 天下歸仁焉。 (Yanyuan) Yan Yuan asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, “To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to him.”

70 The Concept of Li (with Xiao) 孟懿子問孝。子曰: “ 無違。 ”[…] 子曰: “ 生事 之以禮;死葬之以禮,祭之以禮。 ” Meng Yi asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “It is not being disobedient.” […] The Master replied, “That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety.”

71 The Concept of Li The Mastery of Li can be helpful for transforming oneself harmonious. 子曰: “ 君子博學於文,約之以禮,亦可以弗畔 矣夫! ”(The Chapter “Yongye) The Master said, “The superior man, extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, may thus likewise not overstep what is right.”

72 Li and statecraft Thus, the practice of Li is indispensable for establishing a socio-political order of a country. 子曰: “ 能以禮讓為國乎?何有? (Chapter “Liren”) The Master said, “If an administrator is able to govern his territory with the complaisance proper to the rules of propriety, what difficulty will he have?” (Translation is Legge’s with slight alternation)

73 Concept of Xue 學 (learning) Learning is the very concrete method for oneself to reach the realm of ren. 子夏曰: “ 博學而篤志,切問而近思,仁在其中 矣。 ”(The Chapter “Zizhang”) Zi Xia said, “There are learning extensively, and having a firm and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with self- application - virtue is in such a course.”

74 Concept of Xue 學 (learning) Although a number of ambitious youth entered the early Confucian school in order to become administrator of a country, Confucius has inculcated students with the idea that learning must be for itself the purpose of one’s life. 子曰: “ 古之學者為己,今之學者為人。 ” (The Chapter “Xianwen”) The Master said, “In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of others.”

75 Concept of Xue 學 (learning) The importance of learning is presented in the first line of the Analects, which insinuates that the primary social function of the Confucian school should provide ruling talents with a very high moral education. 子曰: “ 學而時習之,不亦說乎?有朋自遠方來,不 亦樂乎?人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎? ” The Master said, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application? Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters? Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?”

76 The Confucian Idea of Integrity: “all-prevailing unity” 子曰: “ 參乎!吾道一以貫之。 ” 曾子曰: “ 唯。 ” 子出。門人問曰: “ 何謂也? ” 曾子曰: “ 夫子之 道,忠恕而已矣。 ” The Master said, “Shen, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity.” The disciple Zeng replied, “Yes.” The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying, “What do his words mean?” Zeng said, “The doctrine of our master is to be true to the principles of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others, this and nothing more.”

77 Main ideas in the thought of Analects and the early Confucian thought Integrity Intelligence Will for practice 仁 ren Benevolence 禮 li Rituals And propriety 學 xue Learning Junzi 君子 Superior man “ 一以貫之 ” Unity of personality National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

78 The model of the transmission to or transformation of a regime 天命 yes 德 no Mandate of Heaven Virtue as a world ruler A ideal ruler of China

79 The model of the transmission to or transformation of a regime 天命 yes 德 no Mandate of Heaven Virtue as a world ruler Virtue for ruling a country

80 Social Environment of a Confucian Administrator Bureaucracy people Lord parents state ancestors respect generous National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

81 Questions and further discussions (1) Which do you conceive of Confucian socio-political theory as conservative or innovative? (2) Try to conjecture the reason that Confucianism has been so dominant for the ongoing two millennia of Chinese society and culture? (3) What would be universal elements and what would be local elements in the main Confucian ethical thought.

82 Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy Thank you very much! Lecture Four Confucius and the Analects

83 WorkLicensing Author/ Source Flickr 棟樑‧ Harry ‧黃基峰‧ Taiwan 2011/09/27 visited. Wiki Kolyudov 2011/08/07 visited. National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 季氏 … 修詩書禮 樂 史記《孔子世家》 頁 8-9 National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 公山弗擾以費畔 ,召,子欲往 論語《陽貨》 Copyright Declaration

84 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 佛肸召,子欲 往 論語《陽貨》 陽貨 … 諾。吾 將仕矣 論語《陽貨》 頁 11 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET FAQ of Chinese Text Project Wiki Confucius 2011/08/07 visited. Wiki Hannah 3%83%AB:%E4%BC%8A%E8%97%A4%E4%BB%81%E6%96%8E.jpg 2011/08/07 visited. Copyright Declaration

85 WorkLicensing Author/ Source This presentation for the course is produced by copyrighted MS Office Enterprise version - Powerpoint 2007 offically purposed by NTU. The work is used subject to the fair use doctrine in accordance with regulations listed on the page 6 of the Microsoft Office Enterprise 2007 EULA (traditional chinese version: _2007_Chinese%20(Traditional)_4b6269b d5d-bfa7- 5a0ca65bcbb3.pdf) for educational purpose only. _2007_Chinese%20(Traditional)_4b6269b d5d-bfa7- 5a0ca65bcbb3.pdf Wiki Saint Benedict Press 2011/8/15 visited. Wiki User ReijiYamashina 2011/8/15 visited. Wiki Tomislav Kraljević – Bully 2011/8/15 visited. Copyright Declaration

86 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 美濃加茂市民ミュージアム in public domain under section 30 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 其後定公 … 由司空爲大 司寇。 史記《孔子世家》 頁 33 National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 頁 34 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/zi-luthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 頁 National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Copyright Declaration

87 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 子曰 … 期月 而已可也, 三年有成。 論語《子路》 子路率爾 … 可使有勇, 且知方也。 論語《先進》 仲弓為季氏 宰 … 舉賢才 論語《子路》 頁 41 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/zi-luthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 頁 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/xian-jin the FAQ of Chinese Text Project Copyright Declaration

88 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 頁 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/zi-luthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 溫故而知新 ,可以為師 矣 論語《為政》 知之為知之 … 是知也 論語《為政》 頁 53 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, zheng, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/wei- zhengthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 子貢問君子 … 先行其言 ,而後從之 論語《為政》 Copyright Declaration

89 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 子曰 … 欲訥 於言,而敏 於行。 論語《里仁》 子曰 … 欲訥 於言,而敏 於行。 論語《里仁》 頁 55 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, zheng, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/wei- zhengthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 頁 56 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, ren, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/li- renthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Copyright Declaration

90 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 子張問仁於 孔子 … 恭寬 信敏惠 論語《陽貨》 頁 60 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET FAQ of Chinese Text Project 樊遲問仁。 子曰: “ 愛人 。 ” 論語《顏淵》 司馬牛問仁 … 仁者其言 也訒。 論語《顏淵》 頁 62 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/zi-luthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project Copyright Declaration

91 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 顏淵問仁 … 天下歸仁焉 論語《顏淵》 頁 69 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, yuan, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/yan- yuanthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 孟懿子問孝 … 以禮,祭 之以禮 論語《為政》 頁 70 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, zheng, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/wei- zhengthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 子曰 … 約之 以禮,亦可 以弗畔矣夫 論語《雍也》 Copyright Declaration

92 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 子曰 … 學者為 己,今之學者 為人 論語《憲問》 頁 71 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, wen, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/xian- wenthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 子曰 … 人不知 而不慍,不亦 君子乎 論語《學而》 頁 72 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, er, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/xue- erthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project 子曰 … 夫子之 道,忠恕而已 矣 論語《里仁》 Copyright Declaration

93 WorkLicensing Author/ Source 頁 73 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, ren, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GEThttp://ctext.org/analects/li- renthe FAQ of Chinese Text Project National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato Copyright Declaration


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