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AD1400’s & AD1500’s.  “Rebirth” or “Revival”  Originates in Italy in the 14th century and from there spread to the rest of Europe  Focuses on: ◦ Arts.

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Presentation on theme: "AD1400’s & AD1500’s.  “Rebirth” or “Revival”  Originates in Italy in the 14th century and from there spread to the rest of Europe  Focuses on: ◦ Arts."— Presentation transcript:

1 AD1400’s & AD1500’s

2  “Rebirth” or “Revival”  Originates in Italy in the 14th century and from there spread to the rest of Europe  Focuses on: ◦ Arts ◦ Architecture ◦ Literature ◦ Learning ◦ Culture

3  Spiritual renewal led to a renewal of culture ◦ New ideas and culture introduced from the East ◦ All aspects of life and culture connected with the Faith  The Arts… ◦ Gothic Cathedrals ◦ Polyphonic music in the liturgy Polyphonic music ◦ Art: an object for devotion and reflection ◦ Arts explore beauty in things not directly related to the Faith

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5  Raphael – best known for his paintings of Mary and his paintings in the Vatican apartments  Petrarch – called the “Father of Humanism”  Dante Aleghieri – The Divine Comedy  Michelangelo - showed grandeur of the human person

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8  The Man who wanted to know everything! ◦ Wrote left-handed & backwards ◦ Painter  Mona Lisa  Last Supper ◦ Inventor  Flying Machines  War Machines

9  From Monastery & Cathedral schools to Universities ◦ Universities started by the Church because the monastery & cathedral schools were full ◦ Students studied under expert teachers, eventually mastering their disciplines. ◦ The goal of a university was to give students a “universal” education  The Papacy had a key role in establishing & supporting Universities

10  Various universities ◦ Paris - most influential University (philosophy & theology) ◦ Bologna (law) ◦ Salerno (medicine)  Many gov’t. and Church leaders were educated in Universities ◦ Led to great flowering of Renaissance culture  Studied “liberal arts” ◦ Trivium – grammar, rhetoric, logic ◦ Quadrivium – arithmetic, geometry, music, & astronomy

11  Scholasticism – approach to learning used in Universities ◦ St. Anselm of Canterbury was one of the first to use this method  Fides quarens intellectum ◦ Synthesis of faith and reason  Scholastic method ◦ (1) Raising a disputed question ◦ (2) Hearing arguments on both sides ◦ (3) Giving a harmonized answer ◦ (4) Offering a response to objections

12  St. Thomas Aquinas, Doctor of the Church – ANGELIC DOCTOR ◦ An intellect as advanced as the angels ◦ This dumb ox shall bellow so loud that his bellowings will fill the world ◦ Thomas' s handwriting is illegible. It is unreadable.  The high-point of Scholasticism ◦ Able to see the relationship and harmony between faith and reason, between philosophy and theology ◦ Both stem from the one truth of God  Used Aristotle’s philosophy to understand the Catholic Faith ◦ Ex. used Aristotle’s understanding of matter to show the goodness of the material universe. ◦ This will be VERY important next semester… ◦ Aristotle begins with the senses, but Plato and Plotinus dismissed the senses. Aristotle begins with the natural world.

13  Scholars turned to Greek and Latin classics ◦ Caused a desire to return to the Greco-Roman world in art, architecture, literature, etc. ◦ Bl. John Henry Cardinal Newman: The Greco-Roman civilization is the "the soil in which Christianity grew up."  Principle of Middle Ages: God is in control ◦ After Black Death, began to question this… ◦ Leads to less focus on God, more on mankind ◦ Scripture & Tradition don’t seem to answer questions

14  Scholasticism, because it was closely tied to the Church, became unpopular, and Humanism became more popular ◦ HUMANISM:14th century movement focusing on the HUMAN SPIRIT over the THEOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING of man  Denotes a certain mood and intellectual climate ◦ More secular education than Scholasticism ◦ Fascination w/human achievement and individual’s ability to shape his own destiny

15  The HUMANIST THINKER ◦ The purpose of education is to make one wiser and more virtuous … GOOD ◦ Focus was more on one’s relationship to the world instead of God… BAD

16  EFFECTS OF HUMANISM ON EDUCATION  Sometimes caused inordinate reverence for pagan thinkers & writers ◦ Caused some to focus on secular to the exclusion of anything religious  Catholicism no longer played a role in every aspect of daily life ◦ Less influential in political and academic sphere.  One good effect was that a true Christian (Christ- centered) humanism also developed

17  The union of Scholastic Philosophy and humanist ideals  Christian Humanism focuses that a person is made in the image and likeness of God ◦ Christ, as the Perfect Man, is obviously key…

18  Nicolo Machiavelli  Founder of modern political thought ◦ Developed concept of “the ends justify the means.” ◦ Over-emphasis on secular world  Cast down Christian virtues from preeminent position  Erasmus of Rotterdam  Friend of St. Thomas More  Extolled the primacy of human virtues ◦ Deep desire for reform and progress through education ◦ Suggested a more personal and subjective spirituality  Encouraged study of the Church Fathers and Scripture

19  Often lived more like worldly princes than Vicar of Christ ◦ Papacy cannot look weak as it has before ◦ Servus servorum Dei (St. Gregory the Great) is gone; it’s now about demonstrating power  Pope Nicholas V ◦ Preserved many ancient documents, founded Vatican Library ◦ Successfully integrated new humanism with Catholic faith

20  The Good (Pius III, Julius II**), the Bad (Leo X), and the Ugly (Alexander VI) ◦ Julius II – peak of Renaissance Papacy - moral, but worldly; patron of the arts  More like secular rulers than spiritual Fathers ◦ Spent much time ruling, defending, exploiting, and expanding the Papal States ◦ Possessed Papal States from AD750- AD1870

21 Meanwhile, back in the East…

22  Byzantium never really recovered after 4th Crusade & the powerful Muslim Turks  Minor Council called to reunite East & West ◦ BUT Latin bishops wanted to discuss theology… ◦ Never discussed uniting against the Turks  Eastern emperor pressured Eastern bishops to come to an agreement ◦ Temporary re-unification ◦ Laity resented the reunification, causing more resentment of the West  “Better the turban of the Prophet than the Pope’s tiara”  Papal ships arrived in 1452 with aide (too late), but Constantinople fell on May 29, 1453

23  MARKS END OF ROMAN EMPIRE!  Solidified split between Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy  Italian city-states’ trade benefited greatly ◦ Trade shifted from Constantinople to Venice, Genoa, and Florence ◦ Refugees brought a new infusion of life into the intellectual world.


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