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AP WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 23 “INDEPENDENCE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH” Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran.

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Presentation on theme: "AP WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 23 “INDEPENDENCE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH” Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 23 “INDEPENDENCE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE GLOBAL SOUTH” Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran

2 Arab Independence Saudi Arabia became independent after World War I Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Jordan gained independence after World War II with little difficulty Complete autonomy was difficult  Egypt due to Suez Canal  Cold War tensions  Other states due to oil  OPEC

3 Creation of Israel Israel was created by a UN mandate in 1947 Israel seized control of Jerusalem & all of Palestine except the West Bank & Gaza Strip in 1949 Israel easily wins the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973

4 Arab Nationalism Problems facing Arab nationalism  Cold War splits nations as some allied with the U.S. and others the USSR  Differing government types (monarchy, military dictatorships, Islamic revolutionary)  Sunni-Shi’a split Anwar Sadat facilitated peace process between Arab world & Israel (1978-1980)  His reward? He was assassinated in 1981 Sadat’s assassination made Saddam Hussein leader of the Arab world

5 Palestinian Liberation Organization Created in 1964 by Yasser Arafat to promote Palestinian rights Often resorted to “terrorism” against Israel Negotiated limited Palestinian self-rule in 1993 and 1995  PLO was replaced by Hamas as the leading anti-Israeli organization in Palestine Yasser Arafat, founder of the PLO, and Yitzak Rabin, Israel’s prime minister, shake hands after signing the Olso Accords in 1994

6 Experiments with Culture Common issue all across the developing world = how to balance older traditions with modernity and Western culture/outlooks  Older traditions: Hinduism, Confucianism, Islam, etc.  Western outlooks: scientific outlook, technology, capitalism, focus on material values, etc. Good examples of two very different approaches to this issue = Islam in Turkey vs. Islam in Iran

7 Islam in Turkey Turkey = new nation created out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire 1 st leader = General Mustafa Kemal Atatürk  Wanted to transform Turkey into a modern, secular (non-religious) state  Believed modernization required the removal of Islam from public life, leaving it only to the personal/private realm  Result = he ended the direct political role of Islam in Turkey

8 Atatürk: Political and Religious Reforms Eliminated position of sultan Abolished the “caliphate” system Closed many Sufi organizations, sacred tombs, and religious schools Abolished many religious titles Dissolved Islamic courts Replaced the sharia with secular law codes Encouraged the celebration of pre-Islamic Turkish culture Entertainment at the Turkish Olympics

9 Atatürk: Social Reforms Ordered men to abandon the traditional fez and wear brimmed hats instead Women not forced to wear a veil Encouraged European-style clothing Abolished polygamy Women granted equal rights in divorce, inheritance, and child custody 1934 = women granted the right to vote and hold public office Public beaches opened to women Mustafa Atatürk

10 Modernization in Iran Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi ruled Iran from 1941 to 1979 Promoted Iran’s modernization with his “White Revolution” Redistributed land to many of Iran’s poor peasants Granted women the right to vote Invested in rural health care and education Started many industrial projects Offered workers a share of industries’ profits Built a solid alliance with the U.S.

11 Modernization in Iran: Growing Opposition Local merchants = threatened by an explosion of imported Western goods and competition from large businesses Ulama (religious leaders) = offended by secular education programs that bypassed Islamic schools, as well as state control of religious institutions Educated professionals = found Iran’s dependence on the West disturbing Rural migrants to the cities = faced rising costs and unemployment

12 Modernization in Iran: Growing Opposition Mosques = became the main centers for this growing opposition movement  Led by Shi’ite religious leaders  Emerging leader of this movement = Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini In 1979 = massive urban demonstrations, strikes, and defections from the military forced the shah to abdicate the throne and leave Iran

13 The Iranian Revolution (1979) Also known as the Islamic Revolution Cultural revolution = exact opposite of Atatürk’s revolution and reforms in Turkey Goal = increased Islamization of public life New government = an “Islamic Republic”  Technically included a constitution and an elected parliament In reality = the ulama and other religious leaders had dominant power  Headed by Khomeini

14 The Iranian Revolution: Political Reforms Purpose of government = to apply the law of Allah as expressed in the sharia Judges not competent in Islamic law = dismissed Secular law codes under previous shah = discarded

15 The Iranian Revolution: Educational Reforms 200 universities and colleges closed for 2 years while textbooks, curricula, and faculty were “purified” of non- Islamic influences Elementary and high schools = now gave priority to religious instruction and teaching Arabic 40,000 teachers fired because not “devoted” enough to Islam Pre-Islamic history and literature = abandoned

16 The Iranian Revolution: Women 1983 = all women required to wear a hijab – head-to-toe covering  Militants/guards = enforced this  Punishments for a “bad” hijab = harassment, public lashings, or even imprisonment Sexual segregation in schools, parks, beaches, and public transportation Legal age of marriage for girls = reduced to 9 with parental consent; 13 (then 15) without it Married women could not file for divorce or go to school

17 “Exporting” Islam Khomeini wanted to spread Islam throughout the world Wanted the replacement of insufficiently Islamic regimes in the Middle East Appealed to Shi’ite minorities in Lebanon, Syria, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq Intensified the divide between the Shi’ite minority and the Sunni majority 1980-1989 = war between Khomeini’s Islamized Iran and Saddam Hussein’s highly secularized Iraq

18 Maintaining Economic Modernity in Iran Oil revenues in Iran = fund its development Early 21 st century = Iran was pursuing nuclear power and (perhaps) nuclear weapons

19 Religion and Global Modernity Despite modernity and science, religion has played a powerful role in the last century 4 major religious trends:  Further spread of major world religions  Resurgence of religions in new forms  Opposition of religions to elements of a secular and global modernity  Religions’ political role as a source of community identity and conflict

20 Religion and Global Modernity Examples of the further spread of religions:  Buddhist ideas like meditation and yoga became very popular in the West  Christianity spread widely in: non-Muslim Africa, South Korea, parts of India, and China  Millions of migrants from the Islamic world planted their religion solidly in the West

21 Fundamentalism on a Global Scale Fundamentalism = one type of religious response to the modernizing and globalizing world  Strict religious devotion that is defensive, assertive, and exclusive Fundamentalism emerged because many religions felt threatened by features of the modern world:  Scientific and secular focus of modernity challenged the core beliefs of supernatural religion  Social upheavals connected with globalization = upset the traditional class, family, and gender relationships valued by many religions  Nation-states (often associated with certain religions) = undermined by the global economy and influence of “alien” cultures

22 Christian Fundamentalists in the U.S. Outraged with: “scientific” and critical approaches to the Bible, Darwinian evolution, and liberal versions of Christianity Wanted to get back to the “fundamentals” of Christianity  Literal truthfulness of the scriptures  Belief in the virgin birth and physical resurrection of Jesus  Belief in miracles Came to oppose:  Political liberalism and “big government”  The sexual revolution of the 1960s  Rights for the LGBT community  Abortion rights

23 Hindu Fundamentalists in India Known as the Hindutva movement = Hindu nationalism Believed India was, and had always been, a Hindu land Goal for India = to make it a purely Hindu nation again with a Hindu-based government Opposed the existence of other religions, beliefs, etc. in India  Christians, Muslims, Sikhs, Secularists

24 Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam Disappointments within the Muslim world that fueled Islamic renewal:  “Western” and secular policies not successful  created overcrowded cities with few services, widespread unemployment, pervasive corruption, slow economic growth, and a widening gap between the rich and poor Issues with the West that fueled Islamic renewal:  A foreign presence still existed in the Muslim world even after decolonization  example: the creation of Israel in 1948  Increasing presence of Western culture that was offensive  Barbie dolls, alcohol, scantily clad women, American movies, secular schools, etc. Soldiers in Iran disposing of illegal alcohol

25 Examples of Violent Muslim Fundamentalists Egyptian Islamic Jihad = assassinated President Anwar Sadat (1981) because of his breakdown on Islamic and Islamic opposition groups Radical Islamic groups in Mecca = sought the overthrow of the Saudi government because of its modernity, relationship with the West, and un-Islamic lifestyle Hamas in Palestine & Hezbollah in Lebanon = target Israel because they believe its existence is illegitimate

26 Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam Various expressions of Islamic renewal:  In their personal lives, many people = became more religiously observant, attended mosque, prayed regularly, fasted, etc.  Many women = adopted modest Islamic dress and the veil voluntarily  Many governments = sought to anchor themselves in Islamic rhetoric and practice  Creation of Muslim organizations that operated to provide social services that the state offered inadequately  Islamic activists = took leadership roles in unions and professional organizations  Another expression of Islamic renewal = sought the violent overthrow of what they saw as “compromised” regimes in the Muslim world

27 Examples of Violent Muslim Fundamentalists Al-Qaeda = created by Osama bin Laden  Grew more radical when his homeland (Saudi Arabia) allowed the stationing of “infidel” U.S. troops in Islam’s holy land during and after the first American war against Iraq in 1991  Mid-1990s = he found a safe haven in Taliban-ruled Afghanistan Great enemies of al-Qaeda = not Christianity itself or even Western civilization, but:  Irreligious Western-style modernity  U.S. imperialism  An American-led economic globalization

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