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Recap the Medieval Period

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Presentation on theme: "Recap the Medieval Period"— Presentation transcript:

1 Recap the Medieval Period
A.D. Two empires – Holy Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire Self-sufficient kingdoms, monarchies, feudalism Barbarian invasions leads to less travel and the slow spread of ideas and music The growth of the Catholic church in wealth and power – use wealth to construct great cathedrals to spread influence and Christianity Church emphasis – getting into Heaven Patrons of music – churches and a few kingdoms

2 Recap the Medieval Period
Sacred music was composed in churches – written in large illuminated manuscript books that took months to create Knowledge was kept safe by the Catholic church by painstakingly copying books and keeping them within the church Education was reserved for clergymen and nobility Bubonic Plague – wipes out millions of people, creates a work shortage across Europe

3 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Renaissance = “rebirth”
Time period is characterized as the rebirth of human creativity and a revival of Greek and Roman literature and art Age of Exploration and Adventure Christopher Columbus – 1492 Vasco Da Gama – 1498 Magellan – Age of Curiosity and Individualism Leonardo Da Vinci: Michaelangelo: Galileo:

4 The Renaissance Shakespeare: Machiavelli: Thomas More: Humanism – the idea of human nature; placed a high value on the individual; emphasis on reason, ethics, and justice; decision making moves away from religious beliefs Catholic Church vs. Protestant Reformation Martin Luther: Fall of the Byzantine Empire – Constantinople was captured in 1453 Scholars escaped to Italy with writings of Greek authors – Plato and Aristotle

5 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Technology:
Guttenberg’s invention of the printing press around 1440 Petrucci developed the printing of music around 1500

6 Illuminated Manuscript (Medieval) Early printed music (Renaissance)
The Renaissance Illuminated Manuscript (Medieval) Early printed music (Renaissance)

7 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Ordinary of the Mass Songs
Proper of the Mass Songs Kyrie eleison (Greek) Gloria Credo Sanctus and Benedictus Agnus Dei Introit Gradual Alleluia or Tract Sequence Offertory Communion Masses are performed in Latin with the exception of the Kyrie, which was performed in Greek

8 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Requiem Mass Definitions
Introit Kyrie Gradual Tract Sequence Offertory Sanctus Agnus Dei Communion Pie Jesu Libera Me In Paradisium Mass of the Ordinary Mass that stays the same Mass of the Proper Mass that changes due to the season Requiem Mass Mass for the dead

9 The Renaissance Motet – a polyphonic sacred text music other than the Mass Madrigal – secular Italian vocal music, polyphonic, unaccompanied Chanson – secular French vocal music Monophony – a single melody, no accompaniment, unison Polyphony – two or more independent melodic voices Heterophony – a single melody, performed differently by rhythm or tempo Homophony – when two or more lines move together in harmony and rhythm Contrapuntal – music that is harmonically interdependent, but rhythmically independent

10 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Johannes Ockeghem 1410-1497
singer, composer, first chaplain, in charge of the court choirs for the kings of France, and treasurer of the St. Martin de Tours monastery Composed masses, motets, and chansons Considered the leading composer at the time

11 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Jacob Obrecht 1450-1505
priest, singer, composer, choir master Moved around a lot from church to church composing music In 1500, he retired to a court in Italy and in died of the plague

12 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Josquin Desprez 1440-1521
French composer, singer, choir master Existing works include 18 Masses, 95 motets, and 68 chansons Considered the greatest composer of the Renaissance Music uses four, five, and six voices Composing a mass was considered the high point of their career

13 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Heinrich Isaac
German singer and composer Born in Flanders (border of France and Belgium) Composer in the Medici court for 12 years Court composer for Emperor Maximilian I (Holy Roman Emperor) Credited for bringing music style to Germanic lands Composed approximately 40 Ordinary Masses, 100 Proper Masses, and over 50 motets and chansons Made significant contributions to the German song - Lied

14 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Pierre De La Rue Jean Moulton 1460-1518
French singer, composer Wrote 30 Masses, 30 motets, and 30 chansons Jean Moulton Wrote 15 Masses, 20 chansons, and over 100 motets Parody – borrowing lines of music from other songs and modifying them to create a new work

15 The Renaissance

16 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Second Generation Composers Jacob Clement
Composed 14 Masses, 230 motets, 79 chansons Nicolas Gombert Composed 11 Masses, 160 motets, 70 chansons Adrian Willaert Composed Masses, motets, chansons, madrigals

17 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Spain and Spanish America
Spain became a political power with the marriage of German and Spanish families is considered the “golden century” of Spanish art, literature, and music Pedro de Escobar Portuguese composer and singer Francisco de Penalosa Finest Spanish composer at the time Surviving works = 7 Masses, 10 motets, 10 secular pieces

18 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Spanish America
Cristobal de Morales First major Spanish composer Surviving works = 20 Masses, 2 Requiem Masses, over 100 motets Spanish America Cathedrals were built in major cites – Mexico City, Puebla, Cuzco, etc. Cathedrals were modeled after European Cathedrals Spanish musicians were appointed the position of chapelmaster and organists – music from Europe began to be performed and integrated into daily life Cathedrals are built with organs to “fill in” music during services while vocal music remained dominant

19 The Renaissance

20 The Renaissance

21 The Renaissance

22 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Composed 104 Masses, 375 motets, 140 secular songs Italian composer, famous for his sacred music Tomas Luis de Vitoria Composed 20 Masses, 52 motets Greatest Spanish composer of the Renaissance and of sacred music

23 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Orlande de Lassus 1532-1594
Composed over 2,000 compositions including Masses, motets, chansons, madrigals, and lieder One of the greatest composers of the late Renaissance Used his secular works as the bases for his sacred music

24 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Instruments of the Late Renaissance
Wind Instruments Recorder Cromorne Shawm Cornetto Trumpet Trombone

25 The Renaissance 1450-1600 Instruments of the Late Renaissance
Stringed Instruments Viol Violin Lute

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