2 Durkheim Theory & Methods The TheoryPreindustrialIndustrialSimple D.O.L.Complex D.O.LCollective conscienceIndividualisticMechanical SolidarityOrganic SolidaritySacredSecularSocial integration highSocial integration lowConsensual normsAnomie
3 Shifting Social Integration Mechanical SolidarityOrganic SolidaritySimple D.O.L. =same tasksCollective conscience =Same beliefsConsensual norms=behaviors=High Social IntegrationComplex D.O.L.= Different tasks Individualism = Different beliefs Different norms= different behaviors = Lower Social Integration
4 The glue that holds society together Mechanical SolidarityOrganic SolidarityHomogeneity Sameness SacredHeterogeneity Differentness Interdependent SecularMechanical Glue is Stickier than Organic GlueMechanical Glue is stickier than Organic Glue
5 The Shift in Social Integration AnomieSocial Integration
6 Theory to Research: The Social Science Leap (1897) More integration: Less Anomie Less integration: More Anomie More Anomie: More Suicide Less Anomie : Less Suicide
7 The basic scientific method Theoretical DEDUCTIVE Empirical INDUCTIVE
8 From the Theoretical to the empirical Theoretical: Less integration: More Anomie: More Integration: Less Anomie[Operationalization]Empirical: Religion Suicide RatesJews LowCatholics MediumProtestants High
9 And back to theory….Egoistic suicide: Suicide as a means to escape facing the consequences of actions.Altruistic suicide: Suicide as a means to contribute to the social group. Anomic suicide: Suicide from a loss of social contacts and sense of belonging.Fatalistic suicide: Suicide to escape the rules of a social group.