2Durkheim Theory & Methods The TheoryPreindustrialIndustrialSimple D.O.L.Complex D.O.LCollective conscienceIndividualisticMechanical SolidarityOrganic SolidaritySacredSecularSocial integration highSocial integration lowConsensual normsAnomie
3Shifting Social Integration Mechanical SolidarityOrganic SolidaritySimple D.O.L. =same tasksCollective conscience =Same beliefsConsensual norms=behaviors=High Social IntegrationComplex D.O.L.= Different tasks Individualism = Different beliefs Different norms= different behaviors = Lower Social Integration
4The glue that holds society together Mechanical SolidarityOrganic SolidarityHomogeneity Sameness SacredHeterogeneity Differentness Interdependent SecularMechanical Glue is Stickier than Organic GlueMechanical Glue is stickier than Organic Glue
5The Shift in Social Integration AnomieSocial Integration
6Theory to Research: The Social Science Leap (1897) More integration: Less Anomie Less integration: More Anomie More Anomie: More Suicide Less Anomie : Less Suicide
8From the Theoretical to the empirical Theoretical: Less integration: More Anomie: More Integration: Less Anomie[Operationalization]Empirical: Religion Suicide RatesJews LowCatholics MediumProtestants High
9And back to theory….Egoistic suicide: Suicide as a means to escape facing the consequences of actions.Altruistic suicide: Suicide as a means to contribute to the social group. Anomic suicide: Suicide from a loss of social contacts and sense of belonging.Fatalistic suicide: Suicide to escape the rules of a social group.