Presentation on theme: "Four Main Worldviews. Worldviews worldview – a way of thinking, feeling and acting about life a secular (or non-religious) view evolved from historical."— Presentation transcript:
Four Main Worldviews
Worldviews worldview – a way of thinking, feeling and acting about life a secular (or non-religious) view evolved from historical movements
Cosmocentric worldview – “nature, universe centred” nature is alive with spirit all life is dependent on nature, environment everything is part of a web of life Paganism, aboriginal spirituality/communities have this view Eastern traditions – everything is connected (past/present, community (individualism is not a priority), karma, dharma) – animal rights
Theocentric worldview – “God centred” life comes from a loving, wise, all-powerful God life’s purpose is to know God People are created in God’s image and we are co- creators Society needs values that benefit all creation; and are pleasing to God (Golden rule, natural law) all religions fit into this worldview in some way
Anthropocentric worldview – “human centred” human lives and communities are central modern worldviews, including most religious ones =anthropocentric e.g. humanism – humans have worth and freedom (combines with both secular and religious values) – based on Greek and Roman thought “reborn” in the Renaissance Respect, knowledge, free will are key to improving world The best human creations/values lead to the common good
Anthropocentric worldview – “human centred” Western religions fit the anthropocentric view: Charity is highly regarded/obligatory (tzedakah, zakat, corporal works of mercy) Ethic of Reciprocity ( Golden Rule ) Views correspond with laws of gov’ts Community relationships, worship– different view than Indian religions Scripture-based religions – knowledge, religious education a high priority
Secular worldview secular means “time” or “age” – believes in the values of the present time, no concern for eternity actively opposed to religion – think it denies humans’ power there is no divine creator or purpose – nothing is sacred emphasis on progress of society and economics nature is only matter - meets human needs humans are self-sufficient - no need for God values are created by humans and are relative – no absolute right/wrong
Some of the backstory… “ The next 10 years will be very unlike the last 10 years”
How did secularism arise? Scientific discovery (Copernicus, Newton, Galileo)– late 15 th c., navigation, math, astronomy – challenged previously-held religious beliefs Printing press – new theories spread rapidly Deism – “clock and clockmaker” The Enlightenment – 17 th -18 th c., rationalism ( universe could be understood without religion ) Voltaire – Deist, believed religion was superstitious, held humans back
How did secularism arise? Skepticism toward religion arose in this period Industrial revolution – 18 th -19 th c. – led to urbanization ( move to cities - loss of connection to nature ) Atheistic views – arose in the 19 th c, attacked the theocentric view as a creation of the human mind Karl Marx – witnessed oppression of class system, called religion the “opiate of the masses” – kept the poor ignorant and submissive. Writings borrowed from his Jewish heritage. Introduced communism.
How did secularism arise? Friedrich Nietzsche – saw religion as immature, keeping people weak. “God is dead” Sigmund Freud – studied human psyche, concluded that religion is based on a childish need to obey (“father figure”). Charles Darwin – made no statements about religion, but his theory of evolution was seen a challenge to religion – saw God as “the ultimate lawgiver” – qualified the survival of the fittest
Responses to Secularism Three modern developments have come out of the pushing aside of traditional worldviews: dominance of secular culture (3 defining features) reaction of religious fundamentalism rise of cults, sects, new age mov’ts.
3 defining features of the secular view values of secularism at its worst are (Trafford, pp 33-35): Individualism self over all others – competition, less compassion, common good? needs are met at expense of others’ needs - survival of the fittest Consumerism personal appearance and material goods are most important objects provide status, happiness and worth instant gratification, leisure time spent shopping. creates poverty, environmental destruction, self-absorption, meaninglessness Moral relativism No absolute morals Responsibility and duty are not values worth considering -success is the measure apply this to sexuality, technology, social justice, peace
Consumerism – “the story of stuff” and “the high price of materialism” Cultural Dimension (me or we)