Presentation on theme: "1400-1600. Protestant Reformation ◦ Martin Luther ◦ Chorale ◦ Vernacular language used in church service instead of Latin ◦ German Mass (much like the."— Presentation transcript:
Protestant Reformation ◦ Martin Luther ◦ Chorale ◦ Vernacular language used in church service instead of Latin ◦ German Mass (much like the Holy Roman Catholic Mass)
◦ Chorales German hymns Metric, rhymed, strophic poetry for unison, unaccompanied performance by the congregation Luther wrote many chorales himself. German version of Gregorian Chant
Purposes ◦ Group singing in home settings ◦ Performance in church by choirs, alternating stanzas with the congregation in unison ◦ Luther wanted "wholesome" music for young people, to "rid them of their love ditties and wanton song." Chorale Motets Chorale appears as a cantus firmus in long notes in some motets.
◦ Homophony Popular in the last third of the century Tune in the highest voice Accompaniment in block chords After ca. 1600 the accompaniment was usually played on organ, with the choir singing the melody in unison.
The Anglican Church/Church of England ◦ English replaced Latin text Anthem English equivalent of motet ◦ Sung by the choir ◦ Texts come from the Bible or the Book of Common Prayer ◦ Full anthem: unaccompanied, contrapuntal ◦ Verse anthem: for solo voice(s) with organ or viol accompaniment, alternating with passages for full choir doubled by instruments
Composers Thomas Tallis (ca. 1505-1585) ◦ His style weds the melody to the natural inflection of speech. William Byrd (ca. 1540-1623) ◦ The most important English composer of the Renaissance ◦ Probably studied with Thomas Tallis ◦ Composed both Anglican service music and Latin music ◦ Also composed secular music ◦ His style shows the influence of continental imitative techniques.
Composers Continued ◦ Adrian Willaert (ca. 1490-1562) ◦ Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525/1526- 1594) ◦ Tomás Luís de Victoria (1548-1611) ◦ Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594) He composed over two thousand pieces. Fifty- seven masses, and over seven hundred motets Composed Italian, French, and German songs Believed in adding expression to music
Amateur music-making inspired a flowering of national styles, in contrast to the fifteenth-century unification of styles. Amateurs wanted secular music in the vernacular. Homophonic genres for easy singing were popular in Spain and Italy.
The ability to read and perform music became a social grace in the sixteenth century. ◦ Among the elite nobility first and eventually also among middle class ◦ Amateurs constituted an eager market for a variety of secular genres.
The frottola ◦ Four-part strophic song set syllabically and homophonically. ◦ Melody in the upper voice, simple harmony, and marked rhythmic patterns ◦ Composed by Italian composers for the amusement of the courtly elite ◦ Performed by solo voice with lute ◦ Composer Marco Cara (ca. 1465-1525) ◦ The rhythm moves in six beats per measure, sometimes divided into three groups of two, other times two groups of three (hemiola effect).
The Italian madrigal ◦ The genre became an experimental vehicle for dramatic characterization. ◦ The poem consists of a four-line ripresa and a six-line stanza. Form ◦ Single stanza with no refrains or repeated lines ◦ The music is through-composed, with new music for every line of poetry.
Poetry ◦ Composers often chose texts by major poets. ◦ Topics included love songs and pastoral scenes. Music ◦ Composers used a variety of techniques and textures. ◦ All voices played an equal role, similar to the motet. ◦ Madrigals first were composed for four voices and later composed for five or more voices. ◦ Performance could be vocal, or some parts could be played on instruments.
Madalena Casulana (ca. 1544- ca.1590s), who served the duchess of Bracciano, was the first woman whose music was published and the first to regard herself as a professional composer. Women performed madrigals with men, and some became professional singers.
Italian Madrigal Composers ◦ Adrian Willaert ◦ Associated major thirds and sixths with harshness or bitterness, and minor intervals with sweetness or grief
English madrigals ◦ Italian culture was in vogue in sixteenth-century England. ◦ Italian madrigals began to circulate in England in the 1560s. ◦ Musica Transalpina, 1588 ◦ A collection of Italian madrigals translated into English ◦ Published by Nicholas Yonge, who wrote in his introduction that gentlemen and merchants sang the repertory at his own home. ◦ This and similar collections inspired composers to start writing their own madrigals in English.
Lute songs (or airs) ◦ Solo song with lute accompaniment was a popular genre in the early 1600s. ◦ More personal genre than the madrigal ◦ Less word-painting, with lute always subordinate to the melody ◦ The lute part was written in tablature, a notation telling the player where to place fingers on the strings rather than indicating pitch.
English Madrigal Composer ◦ Thomas Morley Wrote a treatise, A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practiall Musicke (1597) Aimed at unlearned amateurs and covered everything from basic notation to composing in three or more voices My bonny lass she smileth is based on the Italian balletto form. Strophic, with each stanza comprising two repeated sections (AABB) Each section begins homophonically. Sections end with a "fa-la-la" contrapuntal refrain.
The Madrigal and Its Impact ◦ The madrigal and the other vernacular genres inspired by it reflect the growing influence of humanism on music. ◦ Expressive codes developed after Willaert's time led to the development of opera. ◦ The vogue for social singing declined after 1600, but the madrigal in English survived to some extent from its origins to today.