Presentation on theme: "Ottoman Empire 1566. Early Ottoman Empire Power of the Sultan Protector of Islam: holy sites & the annual pilgrimage. The army provided protection."— Presentation transcript:
Power of the Sultan Protector of Islam: holy sites & the annual pilgrimage. The army provided protection to all the citizens under its imperial jurisdiction, especially trade routes and against foreign aggression. The Empire consisted of several provinces organised around key cities such as Baghdad, Cairo & Damascus. The stability of the empire depended on the maintenance of a fine balance between the central power and regional powers. Symbiotic relationship, based on economic, cultural & political exchange, between them.
Ottoman Society The fellahin (peasants) constituted the majority and were the most exploited. They worked the land and produced food for the empire. The Millet System recognised non-Muslim communities as integral parts of the empire. Sometimes they were allowed autonomy, especially in matters pertaining to religion and culture. Each community was responsible for the allocation and collection of its taxes, education and issues relating to personal status issues such as marriage, divorce and inheritance. The army played a central role in defending the empire and securing the authority of the Sultan.
Janissaries The standing army first organized by Sultan Murad I. Consisted mainly of Christian youths who were converted to Islam and specifically conscripted to serve in the army. To ensure the loyalty of the elite force, they were given many privileges but were separated from civil society and forbidden to marry. By 1820 there were 135 000 Janissaries
Turning Point Pressure for decentralisation from the 18 th century, which led to the accumulation of power in the hands of local rulers, at the expense of the sultan. The French invasion of Egypt in 1798 accelerated these processes. By 1801 the French were evicted by a combined force of Ottoman and British troops. From this point the Ottomans became the target of imperial rivalry between the emerging European powers of Britain, France and Russia.
After the defeat of the French forces Muhammad Ali ascended to power as the governor of Egypt. Programme of modernisation & assertion of autonomy: Industrialisation, especially manufacturing of war materials and textiles. Education was expanded, including the opening of schools to girls. Transformation of the army. Muhammad overthrown in 1840 by British and Ottoman forces. Hereditary dynasty and his sons continued to rule Egypt.
Tanzimat – Reform from above Introduction of reforms from the 1830 to modernise the empire. Led by Rashid Pasha, Minister of Foreign Affairs. Prior to this the Janissaries were violently disbanded. They had become a law unto themselves, supported conservative leaders and opposed reform. Reforms: the abolition of tax on farming; standardisation of military conscription; campaign against corruption; and the establishment of a Ministry of Education. In 1876 a new Ottoman Constitution was introduced, which allowed for elections to a chamber of deputies and senate.
British Influence Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 By 1881, 80% of the traffic passing through the Suez Canal was British owned
Cromer’s Rule Reversed the industrial programme and transformed the Egyptian economy into a single-product economy, namely, cotton to serve the burgeoning textile industry in Britain. Post-secondary education institutions were closed and tuition fees introduced Capitulations: Europeans exempted from taxation and Egyptian law. Cairo segregated along racial lines Egypt became the centre of early resistance to British imperialism
Early Resistance. In the early 1880s Urabi Movement led by Colonal Ahmed Urabi, led the anti-British resistance Drew support mainly from the fellahin. In 1882 rebellion throughout Egypt, brutally repressed by British and French forces.
Early Nationalism In the late 19 th century an array of nationalist movement developed, led by intellectuals, young officers and civil servants. Divided between support for secular and religious nationalism. Young Turks revolution in 1908 deposed Sultan Hamid and installed Mehmet V. Reform package: Guarantee of rights to non-Muslims A constitutional monarchy. Abolition of the Millet system
Mustafa Ataturk Treaty of Sevres (1920) carved up the Empire, including ceding parts of Turkey to Greece. The Sultan’s support for the Treaty ignited widespread resistance that coalesced around Mustafa Kemal.
Secular Turkey In April 1920 a National Assembly was convened which elected Kemal as president. In 1921 a new constitution was adopted that included the crucial National Pact, which renounced Turkish claims over Arab territories and affirmed Turkish sovereignty. In 1922 Kemal led a successful military campaign over Greece, reclaiming the land ceded to the latter in 1920 Ataturk’s election effectively signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire. In its place Turkey emerged as a leading secular nation.