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Ottoman Empire 1566. Early Ottoman Empire Power of the Sultan  Protector of Islam: holy sites & the annual pilgrimage.  The army provided protection.

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Presentation on theme: "Ottoman Empire 1566. Early Ottoman Empire Power of the Sultan  Protector of Islam: holy sites & the annual pilgrimage.  The army provided protection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ottoman Empire 1566

2 Early Ottoman Empire

3 Power of the Sultan  Protector of Islam: holy sites & the annual pilgrimage.  The army provided protection to all the citizens under its imperial jurisdiction, especially trade routes and against foreign aggression.  The Empire consisted of several provinces organised around key cities such as Baghdad, Cairo & Damascus.  The stability of the empire depended on the maintenance of a fine balance between the central power and regional powers.  Symbiotic relationship, based on economic, cultural & political exchange, between them.

4 Ottoman Society  The fellahin (peasants) constituted the majority and were the most exploited. They worked the land and produced food for the empire.  The Millet System recognised non-Muslim communities as integral parts of the empire.  Sometimes they were allowed autonomy, especially in matters pertaining to religion and culture.  Each community was responsible for the allocation and collection of its taxes, education and issues relating to personal status issues such as marriage, divorce and inheritance.  The army played a central role in defending the empire and securing the authority of the Sultan.

5 Janissaries  The standing army first organized by Sultan Murad I.  Consisted mainly of Christian youths who were converted to Islam and specifically conscripted to serve in the army.  To ensure the loyalty of the elite force, they were given many privileges but were separated from civil society and forbidden to marry.  By 1820 there were 135 000 Janissaries

6 Jannissaries

7 Turning Point  Pressure for decentralisation from the 18 th century, which led to the accumulation of power in the hands of local rulers, at the expense of the sultan.  The French invasion of Egypt in 1798 accelerated these processes.  By 1801 the French were evicted by a combined force of Ottoman and British troops.  From this point the Ottomans became the target of imperial rivalry between the emerging European powers of Britain, France and Russia.

8 Muhammad Ali

9  After the defeat of the French forces Muhammad Ali ascended to power as the governor of Egypt.  Programme of modernisation & assertion of autonomy:  Industrialisation, especially manufacturing of war materials and textiles.  Education was expanded, including the opening of schools to girls.  Transformation of the army.  Muhammad overthrown in 1840 by British and Ottoman forces.  Hereditary dynasty and his sons continued to rule Egypt.

10 Tanzimat – Reform from above  Introduction of reforms from the 1830 to modernise the empire. Led by Rashid Pasha, Minister of Foreign Affairs.  Prior to this the Janissaries were violently disbanded. They had become a law unto themselves, supported conservative leaders and opposed reform.  Reforms: the abolition of tax on farming; standardisation of military conscription; campaign against corruption; and the establishment of a Ministry of Education.  In 1876 a new Ottoman Constitution was introduced, which allowed for elections to a chamber of deputies and senate.

11 British Influence  Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869  By 1881, 80% of the traffic passing through the Suez Canal was British owned

12 Cromer’s Rule  Reversed the industrial programme and transformed the Egyptian economy into a single-product economy, namely, cotton to serve the burgeoning textile industry in Britain.  Post-secondary education institutions were closed and tuition fees introduced  Capitulations: Europeans exempted from taxation and Egyptian law.  Cairo segregated along racial lines  Egypt became the centre of early resistance to British imperialism

13 Early Resistance. In the early 1880s Urabi Movement led by Colonal Ahmed Urabi, led the anti-British resistance  Drew support mainly from the fellahin.  In 1882 rebellion throughout Egypt, brutally repressed by British and French forces.

14 Early Nationalism  In the late 19 th century an array of nationalist movement developed, led by intellectuals, young officers and civil servants.  Divided between support for secular and religious nationalism.  Young Turks revolution in 1908 deposed Sultan Hamid and installed Mehmet V. Reform package:  Guarantee of rights to non-Muslims  A constitutional monarchy.  Abolition of the Millet system

15 Mustafa Ataturk  Treaty of Sevres (1920) carved up the Empire, including ceding parts of Turkey to Greece.  The Sultan’s support for the Treaty ignited widespread resistance that coalesced around Mustafa Kemal.

16 Secular Turkey  In April 1920 a National Assembly was convened which elected Kemal as president.  In 1921 a new constitution was adopted that included the crucial National Pact, which renounced Turkish claims over Arab territories and affirmed Turkish sovereignty.  In 1922 Kemal led a successful military campaign over Greece, reclaiming the land ceded to the latter in 1920  Ataturk’s election effectively signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire. In its place Turkey emerged as a leading secular nation.

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