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Christian Faculty in a Secular Education Workplace EDU 746-D01: Conflict Resolution Project Deborah Davis Liberty University.

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Presentation on theme: "Christian Faculty in a Secular Education Workplace EDU 746-D01: Conflict Resolution Project Deborah Davis Liberty University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Christian Faculty in a Secular Education Workplace EDU 746-D01: Conflict Resolution Project Deborah Davis Liberty University

2 What to expect Introduction Research Summary Problem Summary Conflict Summary Conclusion “For I know the thoughts that I think toward you” (Jer 29:11, KJV)

3 Introduction Educational Roles Diversity, Tolerance, Options Christianity ▫ Historical requirement ▫ Current denigration Conflict ▫ Spiritual battle “In the world ye shall have tribulation” (John 16:33, KJV)

4 Research the Issue “(1) establish learning standards for a “no- frills” curriculum, (2) administer assessments to measure their achievement, and (3) impose sanctions if the standards were not met” (Murray, 2012, p. 53) “They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world” (John 17:14, KJV) How are school requirements defined, and where do Christians fit?

5 Schooling at the Collegiate Level three overarching faiths or ‘comprehensive beliefs’ coexist in uneasy union, ▫ Relativism ▫ Materialism ▫ Ideological Indoctrination of Change ▫ (Holden, 2009, p. 579). “... override whatever affirmative discourses of devotion, honour, praise, and joy” (Lathangue, 2012, p. 69). “... a pedagogy of mindful contemplation” (Polinska, 2011, p. 160) “Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven” (Matthew 5:16, KJV)

6 The Constitution in the Classroom “The amendment was merely intended to ensure the freedom of the states to order the relationship between faith and government” (Holden, 2009, 578). “There is an important difference between restrictions on religious discrimination and restrictions on sexual orientation discrimination” (Affolter, 2013, p. 236). C ongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech.... (U.S. Constitution)

7 Summarize the Problem “religious employer" ▫ (1) have the primary purpose of inculcating religious values, ▫ (2) primarily employ only those who share its beliefs, ▫ (3) primarily serve individuals of the same faith, and ▫ (4) qualify as a nonprofit organization under Sections 6033(a)(l) and 6033(a)(3)(A)(i) or (iii) of the Internal Revenue Code” (Rudary, 2013, p. 355). “In the world ye shall have tribulation” (John 16:33, KJV) What challenges to students and faculty face when faith comes into conflict with their collegiate presence?

8 The Secular Workplace for Education “...Christianity’s record gives reason to fear that its adherents may fail to treat other positions fairly” ▫ (MacKenzie, 2011, p. 688). “...reformulations of secularization theory now taking place,...decoupling of higher education and religion” ▫ (Gross and Simmons, 2009, p. 102). “Research on the religiosity of American professors has been limited” ▫ (Gross and Simmons, 2009, p. 103). “And be ye kind one to another...” (Ephesians 4:32, KJV).

9 The Constitution in the Classroom “The French exclude all religion from political life. They demand a secular state” ◦ (Benson. 2012, p. 180). “Confessional education, with institutional statements of faith, and sometimes also codes of conduct, to be in principle a violation of such unqualified academic freedom” (Heibert, 2014), p. 423). “It may seem, following the various court decisions separating church and state and, more specifically, religion and education, that the relationship between religion and education has long been settled and that religion is indeed absent from the halls of public education and its discourses” (Burke and Segall, 2011, p. 631).

10 “The Challenge of Academic Freedom” “... students have a right to be exposed to all points of view, and that the academic freedom for educators to express various points of view is an important constitutional right” “... open discussion of religious issues in the classroom is imperative” academic freedom is universally regarded as a central requirement of a free society and a prerequisite for social and scientific advancement The Bishop Case restricting Bishop's speech was a part of the university's right, reprimanded for his expressions solely because of the religious viewpoint presented in it (Bergman, 2011)

11 Address the Conflict “Interpersonal conflicts by their very nature make up one of the most difficult types of human relationships with which to deal” ▫ (Stevens, Williamson, and Tiger, 2012, p. 130). “Speak to the world those things which I have heard of him” (John 8:26, KJV) How can educators deal with conflict in the workplace and religious discrimination? “The university attempts to fulfill its obligation to fight harmful discrimination by adopting a policy that forbids several forms of discrimination” ▫ (Affolther, 2013, p. 236).

12 Conflict Resolution Systems Build a culture of CR Self-determination Loop-backs Proactive CR Informal CR Formal collaborative CR Formal adjudicative processes Separate power-based action Peacebuilding Ethical Issues Feedback “For in many things we offend all. If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man, and able also to bridle the whole body” (James, 3:2, KJV) (Barsky, 2007)

13 Conclusion As Christians, we are commanded to “Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature” (Mark 16:15, KJV). To censor our Christian speech in the name of academic freedom is a violation of the Constitutional rights under the First Amendment, and more importantly, a violation of our Christian duty.

14 Questions?

15 References Affolter, J. (2013). Fighting discrimination with discrimination: Public universities and the rights of dissenting students. Ratio Juris, 26(2), 235-261. doi:10.1111/raju.12012 Baker, J. O. (2013). Acceptance of evolution and support for teaching creationism in public schools: The conditional impact of educational attainment. Journal for The Scientific Study Of Religion, 52(1), 216- 228. doi:10.1111/jssr.12007 Benson, J. (2012). Religion into politics?. Dialog: A Journal Of Theology, 51(3), 180-181. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6385.2012.00681.x Bergman, J. (2011). The challenge of academic freedom. Journal Of Interdisciplinary Studies, 23(1/2), 137-164. Burke, K. J., & Segall, A. (2011). Christianity and its legacy in education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(5), 631-658. doi:10.1080/00220272.2011.590232 Callahan, D. (2012). Out of step: God & me at Harvard & Yale. Commonweal, (19), 14.

16 References (continued) Dar, L. (2012). The political dynamics of higher education policy. Journal of Higher Education, 83(6), 769-794. Downes, P. (2010). Enough! or too much. Pedagogy, 10(2), 295-315. doi:10.1215/15314200-2009-040 Elhoweris, H., Parameswaren, G., & Alsheikh, N. (2013). College students' myths about diversity and what college faculty can do. Multicultural Education, Spring/Summer. Green, D. W., & Ciez-Volz, K. (2010). Now hiring: The faculty of the future. New Directions For Community Colleges, 2010(152), 81-92. Gross, N., & Simmons, S. (2009). The religiosity of American college and university professors. Sociology of Religion, 70(2), 101-129. Hiebert, A. (2010). Academic freedom in public and christian Canadian universities. Christian Higher Education, 9(5), 423-438. doi: 10.1080/15363759.2010.503802

17 References (continued) Holden, R. H. (2009). The Public University's Unbearable Defiance of Being. Educational Philosophy & Theory, 41(5), 575-591. Huneycutt-Bardwell, S. (2013). Conflict and communication in the workplace: An inquiry and findings from XYZ University’s study on religious tolerance and diversity suggesting ironies of cultural attitude, free expression and conflict in an academic organization. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict, 17(2), 1-28. Kessler, S. J. (2013). Religion and the public university. Philosophy & Public Policy Quarterly, 31(1), 19-27. Lathangue, R. d. (2012). Disenchantment and the liberal arts. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 42(2), 67-78. MacKenzie, J. (2012). Holden's public university and its Rawlsian silence on religion. Educational Philosophy & Theory, 44(7), 686-706. doi:10.1111/j.1469-5812.2010.00734.x

18 References (continued) Mayhew, M., & Bryant, A. (2013). Achievement or arrest? The influence of the collegiate religious and spiritual climate on students' worldview commitment. Research In Higher Education, 54(1), 63-84. doi:10.1007/s11162-012-9262-7 Mayrl, D., & Uecker, J. E. (2011). Higher education and religious liberalization among young adults. Social Forces, 90(1), 181-208. Murray, F. B. (2012). Six misconceptions about accreditation in higher education: Lessons from teacher education. Change, 44(4), 52-58. doi:10.1080/00091383.2012.691866 Polinska, W. (2011). Engaging religious diversity: Towards a pedagogy of mindful contemplation. International Journal Of The Humanities, 9(1), 159-167. Ramsey, M. C., Knight, R. A., Knight, M. L., & Verdon, T. (2011). Telic state teaching: Understanding the relationships among classroom conflict strategies, humor, and teacher burnout of university faculty. Florida Communication Journal, 39(1), 1-15.

19 References (continued) Rasar, J. L. (2013). The efficacy of a manualized group treatment protocol for changing God image, attachment to God, religious coping, and love of God, others, and self. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 41(4), 267-280. Rudary, D. J. (2013). Drafting a "sensible" conscience clause: A proposal for meaningful conscience protections for religious employers objecting to the mandated coverage of prescription contraceptives. Health Matrix (Cleveland, Ohio: 1991), 23(1), 353-394. Schmalzbauer, J. (2013). Campus religious life in America: Revitalization and renewal. Society, 50(2), 115-131. Stevens, R. E., Williamson, S., & Tiger, A. (2012). Conflict resolution strategies in an academic setting. Conflict Resolution & Negotiation Journal, 2012(4), 139-150.

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