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Www.monash.edu.au PROFESSOR GARY D BOUMA UNESCO CHAIR IN INTERRELIGIOUS AND INTERCULTURAL RELATIONS – ASIA PACIFIC AUSTRALIAN SOUL : 21 ST Century Religious.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.monash.edu.au PROFESSOR GARY D BOUMA UNESCO CHAIR IN INTERRELIGIOUS AND INTERCULTURAL RELATIONS – ASIA PACIFIC AUSTRALIAN SOUL : 21 ST Century Religious."— Presentation transcript:

1 www.monash.edu.au PROFESSOR GARY D BOUMA UNESCO CHAIR IN INTERRELIGIOUS AND INTERCULTURAL RELATIONS – ASIA PACIFIC AUSTRALIAN SOUL : 21 ST Century Religious and Spiritual Challenges to Chaplaincy Source: Gary Bouma, Australian Soul: Religion and Spirituality in the 21 st Century, Cambridge University Press. 2006

2 www.monash.edu.au 2 MY CREDENTIALS CRC – PRES – QUAKER – UNITED - ANG Theology and Sociology Pastoral Care of Students Marginality of migrant / Yank Deeply concerned with ministry / chaplaincy Aim to describe changes in Australia’s religious life and impact on chaplaincy

3 www.monash.edu.au 3 BASIC ARGUMENT AUSTRALIAN RELIGION IS CHANGING –MORE DIVERSE –REVITALISED –MUCH MORE COMPLEX THESE CHANGES CHALLENGE CHAPLAINCY BY CREATING : –A DIFFERENT CULTURAL CONTEXT –DIFFERENT EXPECTATIONS –DIFFERENT CLIENTELLES

4 www.monash.edu.au 4 DRIVERS OF RELIGIOUS CHANGE 1. INCREASES IN RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY 2. REVITALISATION OF RELIGION 3. CULTURAL CHANGE

5 www.monash.edu.au 5 1. INCREASES IN RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY Migration – Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus Conversion – Pentecostals, ‘New Religious Movements’ Spiritualities, Rise of Spiritualities – census info –Spiritual not religious –Spiritual questing Note Aus m/c for over 40,000 years >Has practised inclusion rather than exclusion

6 www.monash.edu.au 6 RELIGIOUS CHANGE IN AUSTRALIA % in 191119471966199120062021 Anglican38.439.033.523.918.7 11 Catholic22.420.726.227.425.8 21 MCPRU26.522.119.412.9 8.7 4 CHRIST’N 96.988.088.274.168.0 50 Nones 0.2 0.3 0.812.918.7 25 Other Rels 0.8 0.5 0.7 2.6 5.6 8

7 www.monash.edu.au 7 AUSTRALIA’S RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY I IN 2006 National (Adelaide) {Melbourne} Catholics 25.8% (22.1) {28.3} Anglicans 18.5% (14.0) {12.1} 1921 43% No religion 18.5% (24.0) {20.0} Not stated 10.0% (11.6) {11.1) Uniting 5.7% ( 8.4) { 4.0} Presbyterian 3.0% ( 1.2) { 2.3} Lutheran 1.3% ( 3.1) { 0.7} Orthodox 3.0% ( 3.8) { 5.9} Salvation Army 0.3% ( 0.3) { 0.2} 1891 = 1.1%

8 www.monash.edu.au 8 AUSTRALIAN RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY II IN 2006 More Buddhists (2.1) than Baptists (1.6) More Muslims (1.7) than Lutherans (1.3) –In Sydney more Muslims (3.9) and more Buddhists (3.7) than Uniting (3.4) –In Melbourne: Orthodox > Uniting > Buddhist > Muslim > Presbyterian > Baptist > Hindu > Pentecostal More Hindus (0.7) than Jews (0.4) More Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventists (0.3) than Churches of Christ or Sikhs (0.1) 4 X witches than Quakers Few atheists (31,000) but growing (29%)

9 www.monash.edu.au 9 AGING AND CHRISTIANS (e.g. Adelaide) % 55+ IN AGE 2006 1996 –UCA43.1%33.7% –ANGLICAN41.6%33.7% –Baptist33.0%27.5% –Lutherans30.6%26.2% –CATHOLICS27.2%22.6% –Pentecostal20.6%14.8% –Salvationists44.0%32.8% –ADELAIDE26.7%22.9%

10 www.monash.edu.au 10 DIVERSITY: RELIGION BY BIRTHPLACE % AUS EUR OC SEA ME SA AF Christians 76 12 2 2 1 Buddhists 28 2 1 60 5 Hindus 16 2 16 4 55 2 Muslims 38 6 2 5 24 14 6 Jews 48 22 1 6 15 None 78 9 3 5 1 Nation 75 10 3 4 >12 1

11 www.monash.edu.au 11 COPING WITH RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY 1 MAJOR ISSUE = SHIFT FROM CHRISTENDOM TO RELIGIOUS PLURALITY –Old Anglican, Empire Religion domination is passing (in decline since 1926). –LOSS OF A CULTURAL ‘NORMAL’ –Loss of the ’source’ of chaplaincy –Rise of Pentecostals, Spiritualities, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and Pagans. –Rise of ‘Nones’ and Secularity

12 www.monash.edu.au 12 SECULAR SOCIETIES SECULAR DOES NOT MEAN IRRELIGIOUS –Secular vs secularism, secularist –Secularism as an ideology / perspective >Not objective, independent, or neutral In secular societies religion is Privatised ‘out of control’ of both the state and religious organisations.

13 www.monash.edu.au 13 COPING WITH RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY 2 DIVERSITY = THE NEW NORMAL SECULARITY = THE NEW NORMAL CHAPLAINCY ISSUES RAISED –How to minister to and include many religions? –How to accommodate a wider range of legitimate religious needs? >Including pagans and ‘nones’. –Whom do you represent? Include?

14 www.monash.edu.au 14 2. REVITALISATION OF RELIGION Religion is back on the agenda –Policy, politics, values debate –People searching, taking charge of selves –DaVinci code, AVATAR, TV series, books, Angels and Demons Resurgence is happening everywhere –Asia, Africa, –Removal of repressive regimes –End of cold war -> new ideological conflict –Taking new forms, challenging old

15 www.monash.edu.au 15 WHY REVITALISATION? HISTORICAL CYCLICAL PATTERN IMPACT OF DIVERSITY –Salience of religious identity –Increased participation –Religious issues in politics FAILURE OF SECULAR HUMANISM –To produce happiness –To end oppression, motivate social justice –To deliver on its promises

16 www.monash.edu.au 16 RELIGIOUS COMPETITION DIVERSITY PLUS REVITALISATION WILL BRING INCREASED : AWARENESS OF RELIGIOUS IDENTITY/DIFFERENCE COMPETITION –Seeking converts – proselytising and ‘care’ –In shaping policy – e.g. management of ‘spiritualities’ –Internal rivalries over theology, worship, ethics –Provision of chaplains – carers of elderly, sick, schools CONFLICT –Challenges to rights to exist/practice >Opposition to mosque building, entry to country, acceptable for chaplaincy –Vilification >Dehumanising the other, demonising, fear mongering –Conflict among carers and among those cared for

17 www.monash.edu.au 17 REVITALISATION LEADS TO FUNDAMENTALISATION INCREASED INTENSITY –More emotional / passionate (Scary to some) INCREASED NEGATIVE LITERALISM –Read scriptures harshly / Angry God INCREASED DRIVE TO APPLY –Competitive Piety INCREASED ENGAGEMENT. WHY? –NEW CONVERTS MORE INTENSE –COMPETITION WITH OTIOSE LIBERALS REQUIRES MARKET DEFINITION

18 www.monash.edu.au 18 A NEW RELIGIOUS CONTEXT Recent changes have made for: –A more religious / spiritual context –A more contested and conflictual context >With shared values, but from different bases >With greater diversity of groups and cultures >Ethnicity/religion/spirituality/none being less connected –Religions more of an independent force –Emergence of new alliances

19 www.monash.edu.au 19 3. CULTURAL CHANGE A CULTURAL SHIFT FROM RATIONAL TO EXPERIENTIAL MODES OF AUTHORITY

20 www.monash.edu.au 20 UNDERSTANDING AUTHORITY AUTHORITY - GIVEN / NOT POSSESSED THREE BASES OF AUTHORTY –TRADITION/POSITION >Bishop, Monarch, hierarchical –REASON/LAW, >Text based, rational, creedal –EXPERIENCE/FEELING >Awe, wonder, encounter, charisma, image

21 www.monash.edu.au 21 The Cultural Shift to Experiential Authority MOST GROUPS USE ALL THREE FORMS BUT All groups settle on one form of Authority to settle disputes –‘Ultimate’ Authority MAJOR SHIFTS FROM TRADITION TO REASON (1500-1960) –Reformation, enlightenment –Appeal to reason to WIN over Monarch FROM REASON TO EXPERIENCE (1830- –Now, from Kierkegaard, Schleiermacher, –E.g. arguments re abortion policy

22 www.monash.edu.au 22 A TRIANGULAR FORMULATION TRADITIONAL /\ \ / \/ EXPERIENTAL  RATIONAL

23 www.monash.edu.au 23 THE CURRENT SHIFT FROM RATIONAL TO EXPERIENTIAL MODES OF AUTHORITY From altars to pulpits to platforms From sacramental objectivity to feeling From preaching to ‘aerobic’ Christianity From reading to watching From sitting to moving From books to video screens From concordances to the internet From permanence to impression

24 www.monash.edu.au 24 EXPERIENCE AND CHAPLAINS PEOPLE SEEK TO ENGAGE GOD –NOT PREACHING AT, but TALKING WITH –SACRAMENTS – THE PRESENCE / GRACE OF GOD CREATING SACRED SPACES –CONNECTION WITH TRANSCENDENT / SPIRITUAL –RE-CREATING NOSTALGIC PAST –USE OF SYMBOLS -- APPEALING / ALIENATING PROBLEM OF SACRED SPACES IN HOSPITALS AND UNIVERSITIES MEANING MAKING –LINKING PAST WITH FUTURE THROUGH PRESENT –GROUP / PERSONAL – HOPE JUSTICE CREATING –Experience grace, forgiveness, being known and held

25 www.monash.edu.au 25 CHAPLAIN’S AUTHORITY PERSONAL – your own spiritual experiences. PROFESSIONAL –Degrees, training, license, >Theology vs Psychology vs Social Work ECCLESIAL –PROFOUND DISTRUST OF >formal organisations and Professionals

26 www.monash.edu.au 26 EXPERIENCE AND BEING CHAPLAIN POINTS OF SPIRITUAL CONTACT –SACRAMENTAL ROLE??? –RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES COMMUNITY BUILDERS –KIND? HOW? VIRTUAL? WHEN? >E.G. USE OF ‘FACE BOOK’ >USE OF ‘SMS’ NETWORKS WHERE DOES OLD SPIRITUAL TECHNOLOGY FIT?

27 www.monash.edu.au 27 AUTHORITY AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT E.G. Catholic Church –Uses a ‘traditional’ hierarchical authority Anglicans are Redolent with imperial imagery –Slightly tempered by rational/legal E.G. UNIVERSITIES – Cathedrals of Reason?? HOSPITALS – captive to the ‘medical model’ –Can you journey with dying –Validate religious experiences

28 www.monash.edu.au 28 21 st CENTURY CULTURAL CONTEXT RELIGION is FREE OF RELIGIOUS ORGANISATION / CONTROL SPIRITUALITIES THRIVING NO ONE VIEW / GROUP DOMINANT, OR PRIVILEGED OPEN TO THE WIDEST DIVERSITY OF VOICES, VIEWS, EXPERIENCES BIASED NEITHER TO THE RELIGIOUS NOR THE NON-, OR ANTI-RELIGIOUS

29 www.monash.edu.au 29 Spirituality and Chaplaincy in 21 st Century Australia Recognition and acceptance of spiritual dimension of health is growing Recognition and acceptance of secularist / new age / diverse views –Problem of ‘ethos’ of institution providing care –Secularism not a ‘neutral’ or objective option Provision of spiritual services when churches resile from chaplaincy Provision of diverse spiritual services –To consumers who are much more critical

30 www.monash.edu.au 30 ROLE OF CHAPLAINS??? CHAPLAIN’S AUTHORITY / ROLE –ORGANISATIONAL REPS? >RE-CREATING NOSTALGIC PAST >RECRUITING ‘ATTENDERS’ –MEANING MAKERS >GROUP >PERSONAL –POINTS OF SPIRITUAL CONTACT >SACRAMENTAL ROLE >RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES – COMMUNITY BUILDERS

31 www.monash.edu.au 31 IMPLICATIONS FOR CHAPLAINCY What is the Chaplains skill set? –Spiritual journeying/sensitivity –Knowledge about many traditions/ways –religiously specific services Multi-faith, Interreligious Chaplains –Certification? –Genericism? The threat of Psychology


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