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The Nomadic Frontiers: The Islamic World, Byzantium,

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1 The Nomadic Frontiers: The Islamic World, Byzantium,
Chapter 12 The Nomadic Frontiers: The Islamic World, Byzantium, and China ca

2 Review Questions HOW DID the Islamic world deal with its steppeland neighbors? WHAT STRENGTHS did the Turks bring to the Islamic world? HOW DID Byzantine civilization combine religious and secular values? HOW DID Byzantium survive? How far can it be said to have “declined”? HOW DID the crusades affect the Islamic world and Byzantium? HOW DID Song China deal with the northern barbarians? WHY DO nomads and settled peoples tend to be enemies?

3 How did the Islamic world deal with its steppeland (nomadic) neighbors?
A widely dispersed civilization, many resource centers: Egypt, Baghdad, Cordoba, Damascus, Mecca, etc. Islam, a universal religion Jihad appealing to warrior cultures Empire as a melting pot of cultures Arabs a minority from the beginning of empire Tolerance for new converts The threat from Seljuk Turks: Seize Baghdad in 1055 Yet their military abilities needed by the Abbasid caliphs Turks converted, religiously and culturally adopting urban lifestyles Wars against other factions within the empire: conquering Anatolia, Armenia from Christians; Syria, Palestine from Shiites Why is Islam different from Europe/China in dealing with nomadic neighbors?

4 Reaction of Byzantines to Nomadic Invaders
Military defeat: Bulgars by Basil II Colonization of the Balkans by Slavs Interaction of the Slavs & Byzantines: Christianity as a middle ground--missionaries invent alphabet for Slav languages Christianity legitimizing rulers: Slavs, Russians Religious diplomacy & “gifts” (bribes) from Byzantine rulers = commonwealth of Christian states surrounding Byzantine empire Military defeat Basil II defeats Bulgars, 1018, makes peace with Arabs After Basil II, political and military fortunes of the empire failed, Turkish migrations and invasions overcome Byzantium from the east

5 Reaction of Europe to Nomadic Threat
Long isolated from Eurasia, Western Europe develops a siege mentality Crusade as important turning point for Europeans involvement in Mideast, Islamic/Byzantine regipms Europe incorporates two groups of nomadic raiders by 1000: Magyars and Vikings. Pope Urban II and declaring war on heathens (see online reading) A route to wealth for the church Capture of Jerusalem, 1099 Creation of Crusader states Role of Knights Templar

6 Reaction of Song China to Nomadic Threat
China, like Byzantium, considers others to be “barbarians.” Unlike Byzantium, there was a long history of Chinese culture being adopted by foreign invaders. Tang Dynasty: ends in 9th century, political disintegration Uighur invasions of Yellow river region, increase in banditry Dissolution of Tang in 907, shift to Ten Kingdoms (warlordism reasserts itself Rise of Song Dynasty, 960--lasts until 1279 Sharing territory with steppeland nomadic invaders Khitan state of Liao in Mongolia/Manchuria Xia state develops between Tibet and Gobi desert Jurchen gradually intrude on Liao territory. Assimilate Chinese culture

7 Reaction to Nomads: Success and Failure
The most insular (Byzantines) were the biggest failures. Song China, though not Chinese culture and civilization, succumbs to foreign invaders. Western Europe is nearly defeated by Vikings, Slavs The Islamic Empire is a great melting pot of cultures Islamic religion is simple and flexible enough to incorporate new peoples with little difficulty.

8 Today’s Question What will China do?
Consider The precocious economic development of Song China The historical weight China has always had in world history The illusion created by the last two centuries, during which bad government and Western industrialization eclipsed China’s traditional place That China still has a preponderance in the most basic commodity of global influence, numbers of people who share a homogenous culture Have the last two centuries been an aberration? Will China again reemerge as the global superpower, as it has time and again, sometime in this century? What would be the implications of such a development ?

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