What two main events ended that allowed the Renaissance to take place? The Bubonic Plague End of the 100 years war While not a specific event, the location of Italy played a large role in the beginning of the Renaissance. The increased trade let to a stable economy which enabled patrons to spend money on the arts.
How did Middle Eastern civilizations aid in Renaissance efforts? They had preserved Greek and Roman ideals –These works were rediscovered and translated into vernacular language.
What was the name for focus on human potential and achievements? Humanism
The Renaissance’s emphasis on reason placed high priorities on using which methods to explain events? Scientific Observation
What term describes being “worldly” and concerned with the here and now? Secular
What was the name for supporters of the arts? Patrons
The addition of dimensions (3) in paintings was known as…? Perspective
What is the term for someone’s native language? Vernacular
Who wrote “The Prince” which was more concerned with what was politically effective rather than what was morally right? Niccolo Machiavelli
Which other books played a significant role in the Renaissance? The Divine Comedy –Daunte The Canterburry Tales –Geoffery Chauncer These books were written in vernacular language which helped in spreading knowledge throughout Europe and aided in developing modern language.
Which family played a major role in the Italian Renaissance? Medicis –They took control of one of the Italian city-states and were consistent patrons of the arts.
What Renaissance artist painted the Sistine Chapel? Michelangelo
What famous artist painted the “School of Athens” for the Pope? Raphael
What artist painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper? Leonardo da Vinci
Christian Humanist Thomas Moore wrote a book called…? Utopia
What English writer wrote classics such as Hamlet and Macbeth? William Shakespeare
What is the name of the machine that presses paper against a tray of inked moveable type? Printing Press
What was the first full-size book to be printed with moveable type? The Gutenberg Bible
Women’s education in the Renaissance revolved around which concepts? Religion Morality –The desire was to produce good wives and mothers, little emphasis was put genuine education.
What was the Reformation? The Reformation was a movement for religious reform.
What were some of the causes of the Reformation? Renaissance emphasis on secular. Printing press helped to spread secular ideas. Rulers resented Pope’s attempt to demonstrate power. Resentment of paying church taxes. Corruption in Catholic church –Spending on the arts –Lot living by church standards Gambling Drinking Marrying –Poor education
Name the main character in the story of the European Reformation. Martin Luther
What was Luther’s primary religious teaching? Justification by Faith
Luther first rebelled against a friar who was selling pardons called…? Indulgences
What document did Luther compose that formally listed his complaints against the church? The 95 Theses –Salvation by Faith vs. by “good works” –Authority in Bible vs. authority in Pope –Believers were equal vs. need for leaders to interpret Biblical meanings.
Luther’s followers eventually became known as? Lutherans
Princes who supported Luther, who signed a protest, were known as? Protestants
Charles (HRE) called for peace, and ordered that the religion of each German state would be determined by its ruler…what was it called? Peace of Augsburg.
King Henry of England challenged the churches authority by asking the Pope to do what? Annul (set aside) his marriage. This event lead to the creation of a church and increased conflict between Catholics and Protestants. This revolution was rooted in political power and change, not religion
Henry’s daughter Elizabeth was eventually name the head of the Church of England also known as…? The Anglican Church
What religious leader took over the Reformation after Luther? John Calvin
Calvin’s book Institutes of the Christian Religion talked about the elect, & how they had been chosen by God, an idea called…? Predestination
Eventually Calvin’s teachings became known as? Calvinism
Name the system in which the government is controlled by religious leaders. Theocracy
Followers of Knox became known as? Presbyterians
One of the Protestant divisions taught that only people old enough should be baptized known as…? Anabaptists –(baptize again)
Those who stayed loyal to the Catholic religion experienced their own reform known as…? The Catholic Reformation
Ignatius eventually created a religious order called the “Society of Jesus”…followers were known as…? Jesuits
From 1545 to 1563 Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on doctrines at an event known as…? The Council of Trent –They decided Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final. Bible and church authority were both legitimate authorities for guiding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith.
What were the lasting effects of the Reformation? Protestant churches flourish (set foundation for modern day Christianity). Religion no longer united Europe (led the way to modern nation – states). Reformers successful revolt set the stage for later rebellions (especially in Western culture).