2Questions to be asked What is conscience? Where does conscience originate?Is conscience innate or acquired?What is its function in ethical decision-making?
3Mark Twain‘I have noticed my conscience for many years, and I know it is more trouble and bother to me than anything else I started with.’
4Generic ViewsA moral faculty, sense or feeling which compels individuals to believe that particular activities are morally right or wrong.There exists a sense of moral obligation.There implies objective morality.Inherited at birth and present throughout life.
5Problems with Conscience Different people’s consciences tell them to do very different things with a clear conscience.Individual consciences seem to change with the times so that they perform contrary actions with a clear conscience.Under what conditions can conscience change?
6Religious Influences on Conscience We all have a conscience that is part of us but not identified with our physical makeup.Druids believed it was located in the liver.
7Biblical IdeasAnd the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. – Genesis 2:7When Gentiles, who do not possess the law, do instinctively what the law requires, these, though not having the law, are a law to themselves. They show that what the law requires is written on their hearts. – Romans 2:14-15a
8Biblical Ideas Implications: The conscience is God- given. Morality is objectiveAll people have the same access to morality.By following one’s conscience one is following the divine law.
9Reason seeking understanding Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274)Reason seeking understandingThe conscience is the natural ability of people to understand the difference between right and wrong using reason.The conscience is ‘The mind of man making moral judgements.’
10Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274)People innately aim for what is good and try to avoid the bad.See Natural Moral LawSin is falling short of God’s ideals – poor use of reason.See Augustine’s Evil
11Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) Synderesis (right reason) Knowledge and understanding of moral principles and values.Conscientia (right action)The actual ethical judgements / decisions a person makes.
12Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) Conscience Distinguish right from wrong Make decisions when confronted with moral dilemmas.It is right to follow your conscience because it is right to follow moral principles.Immoral actions occur because of poor reason.
13Joseph Butler (1692 – 1752) Conscience from God ‘There is a principle reflection in men by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of their own actions … this principle in man … is conscience.’This distinguishes us from animals – we are in touch with God’s Will.
14Joseph Butler (1692 – 1752) Authority The conscience ‘magisterially exerts itself’ spontaneously ‘without being consulted’ automatically and with authority .‘Had it strength, as it has right; had it power as it has manifest authority: it would absolutely govern the world.’
15Hierarchy of Human Nature Joseph Butler (1692 – 1752)Hierarchy of Human NatureConsciencePrinciples of reflectionApprove or disapprove of our actionsImpulse of Self-Love and Benevolenceselfishness and selflessnessDrivesNo thought of consequence
16Joseph Butler (1692 – 1752) Some Questions Is conscience reason or emotion?It doesn’t matter, it’s God-Given and so must be observed!If conscience identifies God’s Will, why do some people commit evil?Evil comes from blinding one’s conscience.God Wills It
17The purpose of conscience Joseph Butler (1692 – 1752)The purpose of conscienceTo guide us to a happy life.Eudaimonia!Harmonise self-love and benevolence.Love thy neighbour!
18John Henry Newman (1801-1890) The Voice of God When a person follows conscience he is simultaneously and mysteriously following a divine law.Letter to the Duke of Norfolk (1874)
19Conscience and Intuition John Henry Newman ( )Conscience and IntuitionConscience is a ‘messenger’ of God speaking to us.When we make moral decisions or feel intuition, that is God’s voice.At its best conscience detects truth.
20John Henry Newman ( )‘If, as is the case, we feel responsibility, are ashamed, are frightened, at transgressing the voice of conscience, this implies there is One to whom we are responsible, before whom we are ashamed, whose claims upon us we fear.’The Grammar of Assent (chapter 5)
21Augustine (354 – 430) Voice of God ‘Return to your conscience, question it. …Turn inward, brethren, and in everything you do, see God as your witness.’
22Secular Influences on Conscience There is no supernatural entity called conscience. It is a construct.
23The mind is mechanistic Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)The mind is mechanisticIdThe unconscious/ irrational self; drives, repressed memories.Super-EgoMind controls established by outside influences – in conflict with the id.EgoThe conscious/ rational self, perceived by the outside world.
25Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)Super-ego initialises the disapproval of others and creates guilt.Conscience is a psychological construct associated with religious/ secular authority.Moral Codes are shaped by experience.
26Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)The sense of moral obligation grows into an internal force.There is no thought or reflection.Moral behaviour is learned and observed, so action is never free.
27The Oedipus Complex Sigmund Freud and the existence of God 5. Over time, this homage becomes more focused and organised and becomes a belief in a fictitious God, the ‘leader of all leaders’1. Feeling of competition with father for affection of mother2. Tension exists between this sense of rivalry and a need for affection from father4. There is guilt, which is assuaged by paying homage to the ‘spirit’ of the dead leader.3. In the same way that pack animals grow to resent their leader to the point of murder, humans grow to resent their fathers.
28Development of the Conscience Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)Development of the ConsciencePiaget – A child’s moral development grows and the ability to reason morally depends on cognitive development.
29Stages of moral development Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)Stages of moral development1. Heteronomous moralityConsequentialistRules must not be brokenThere are punishments2. Autonomous moralitySelf-determined rulesSocial cohesionLess dependence on others for guidance
30Lawrence Kohlberg – Development of Conscience Level 1(Pre-Conventional)1. Obedience and punishment orientationHow can I avoid punishment?2. Self-interest orientationWhat's in it for me?
31Lawrence Kohlberg – Development of Conscience Level 2(Conventional)3. Interpersonal accord and conformitySocial norms; the good boy attitude4. Authority and social- order maintaining orientationLaw and order morality
32Lawrence Kohlberg – Development of Conscience Level 3(Post-Conventional)5. Social contract orientation6. Universal ethical principles
33Authoritarian Conscience Erich Fromm (1900 – 1980)Authoritarian ConscienceWe are all influenced by external authorities.Religion or Government.Individuals internalise these rules.Conscience is subjective.Guilty Conscience = displeasing the authority.If the authority is God?
34Authoritarian Conscience Erich Fromm (1900 – 1980)Authoritarian ConscienceDisobedience GuiltGuilt Weakens PowerWeakness Submission to authorityConsider the Nazi Government’s manipulation of the Germans.Fromm escaped from Nazi Germany.
35The Humanistic Conscience Erich Fromm (1900 – 1980)The Humanistic ConscienceWe assess and evaluate our own behaviour.Our conscience judges how successful we are as people and leads us to realise our potential.