4THE RENAISSANCE Renaissance means “rebirth” Was a time of great cultural awakening called “humanism”Considered to be the bridge between the Dark Ages and Modern HistoryGreat strides in the Arts & Sciences
5NOTABLE ACHIEVEMENTSDevelopment of the compass made voyages of discovery possible that opened up new worlds (Columbus, Vespucci, Ponce de Leon, etc.)Invention of printing press (c. 1455) by Johannes GutenbergMichelangelo’s DavidGreat and lavish palaces exemplified the ideals of order and balance
6PROMINENT FIGURESLeonardo da Vinci – Painter – 1452 to 1519Michelangelo – Sculptor – 1475 to 1564Martin Luther – Religious Reformer – 1483 to 1546Machiavelli – Italian Statesman – 1469 to 1527Galileo – Scientist – 1564 to 1642Shakespeare – Writer – 1564 to 1616The Renaissance marks the birth of the modern European spirit and of Western society as we have come to know it.
7Musicians in Medieval and Renaissance Society Musicians were supported by public institutions like churches and states as well as aristocracy.Employment in music-related fields was abundant (singers, composers, music printers, teachers, instrument makers, etc.)The merchant class emerged as a new group of music patrons.Most of the cultivated middle and upper class were amateur musicians.Music literacy spread dramatically due to the invention of music printing.Musicians were supported by the church, city, and state as well as royal and aristocratic courts. It was a good time for employment in music-related fields so positions such as choirmasters, singers, organists, instrumentalists, copyists, composers, teachers, instrument builders, and by the 16th century, music printers were abundant.The merchant class became a new group of music patrons. Most cultivated middle- and upper-class individuals were amateur musicians. Music literacy became more widespread as a result of music printing.Artwork: The Concert (c. 1530–40) Three ladies perform a French chanson with voice, flute, and lute. The Flemish artist is known only as the Master of the Female Half-Lengths.The Concert (c. 1530–40)
8Music of the Renaissance was both: RENAISSANCE MUSICMusic of the Renaissance was both:SACRED and SECULAR
9Renaissance Sacred Music Music still played a very prominent role in the church during the RenaissanceMost church music was in a cappella style (vocal music without instrumental accompaniment)Polyphony based on principle of imitation – musical ideas exchanged between vocal linesHarmonies based on “sweeter” sounds of thirds and sixths as compared to the fifths and octaves of medieval musicUse of fixed melody (cantus firmus) and triple meter to symbolize the holy TrinityThe 16th century can be regarded as the golden age of the a cappella style. A cappella refers to vocal music without instrumental accompaniment.Polyphony in works of this era were often based on the principle of imitation—where musical ideas are exchanged between vocal lines that are closely knit in “sweet” sounding harmonies, such as thirds and sixths, as opposed to the open fifths and octaves of medieval times.The composers would often use a fixed melody (cantus firmus) as the basis for elaborate ornamentation in other voices. Triple meter was favored, because it symbolized the perfection of the Trinity.Musical example: Palestrina: Missa in Festis Apostolorum. I. Agnus Dei. [link to excerpt]LISTEN:Palestrina - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rqN-nFrtK-g
10Renaissance Sacred Music The Motet In the Renaissance the motet was used mostly for church services and had a Latin textMost were Marian motets (in praise of the Virgin Mary)Written for three, four, or more voicesUtilized a Cantus firmus (fixed melody)In the Renaissance, the motet became a sacred form with a single Latin text for use in the Mass and other religious service.Motets in praise of the Virgin Mary were common, because there were large numbers of religious groups across Europe who were devoted to her worship.These motets were usually written for three or four voices and based on a chant melody or other cantus firmus.Musical example: Josquin: Ave maria virgo serena [link to excerpt]
11Renaissance Sacred Music Josquin des Prez (c. 1450 – 1521) Considered one of the great masters of sacred music in the RenaissanceExerted a powerful influence on generations of composers to follow…His music expressed emotion and was characterized by beautiful melodies with expressive harmonyWrote over 100 motets, 17 Masses, numerous chansons and Italian secular songsJosquin des Prez (c. 1450–1521) known as Josquin, was a Franco-Flemish composer who served for much of his career in Italy.
12Josquin des Prez: Ave Maria Josquin des Prez: Ave Maria virgo serena (Hail Mary…gentle virgin) LISTENING GUIDERenaissance motet for four voices dedicated to the Virgin MaryCombinations of voices and texturesImitative vs. homorhythmic (all voices move together rhythmically) sectionsFinal couplet: simple texture, example of humanistic spiritAttached is a listening guide for Josquin’s Ave Maria virgo serena [link to excerpt]Ave Maria virgo serena is an example of Josquin’s use of voices and textures.The work alternates between imitative and homorhythmic (a texture in which all voices move together rhythmically) textures.The final two lines of text are a personal plea to the Virgin, indicative of the emotional and humanistic spirit of the age:O Mother of God, remember me. Amen.The piece is a rhymed prayer to the Virgin Mary written for 4 voice a cappella choir. Listen for high and low voices in the melody, singing in pairs. The rhythm is duple with a shift to triple then back. The cadences are hollow sounding. The texture is primarily imitative interspersed with homorhythmic sections. The form is sectional according to the stanzas of poetry. The final personal plea from the composer is in a very simple texture.
13Listening Guide 6—Josquin: Ave Maria . . . Virgo serena
15Renaissance Sacred Music The Renaissance Mass Composers concentrated their musical settings on the “Ordinary” or fixed portion of the mass that was sung daily.The five movements of the Ordinary are:Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus DeiOriginally sung in Latin, now the Ordinary is recited or sung in the vernacular.Settings of the mass are often based on fixed voice or cantus firmus.Composers in the Renaissance concentrated their musical settings on the Ordinary or fixed portion of the mass that was sung daily.The five movements of the Ordinary of the Mass are the: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus DeiOriginally these movements were sung in Latin but now are recited or sung in the vernacular (the language of the country).Early polyphonic settings of the mass were often based on a fragment of Gregorian Chant that became the fixed voice (cantus firmus) that was the foundation of the work. Sometimes popular songs were used as a basis for a Mass.
17Renaissance Sacred Music The Reformation and Counter-Reformation Martin Luther (1483–1546) began the Protestant movement known as The Reformation in 1517 with his Ninety-Five Theses – a list of reforms he proposed for the church for which he was excommunicated.Counter-Reformation – the response of the Catholic church which focused on a return to sacred values.Council of Trent - meeting organized by the Catholic church (longest meeting in history – 1545 to 1563) in an attempt to regulate every aspect of religious practice. Took up the following issues:– Corruption of chant by embellishment– Use of certain instruments in religious services– Incorporation of popular music in Masses– Secularism of music– Irreverent attitude of church musiciansChurch leaders sought a pure vocal style that respected the integrity of the sacred textsIn 1517, Martin Luther (1483–1546), an Augustinian monk began the Protestant movement known as the Reformation with his 95 Theses—a list of reforms he proposed to the practices of the Catholic church for which he was excommunicated.The Catholic church eventually responded with its own reform movement—the Counter-Reformation—which focused on a return to values.The Council of Trent was a long committee meeting (1545–1563) that sought to regulate every aspect of religious discipline, which also included church music that Council members felt had been corrupted by embellishments, the irreverant attitudes of musicians at the worship service, and the practice of incorporating secular songs and styles .They sought a pure vocal style that would once again restore the integrity and intelligibility of the text. These traits are embodied in the works of Italian composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.Martin Luther(1483 – 1546)
18Renaissance Sacred Music Palestrina and the Pope Marcellus Mass Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina– (c. 1525–1594)– Called PalestrinaItalian composer, organist, and choirmasterMember of Sistine Chapel ChoirWrote mostly sacred music – over 100 masses and motets, most famous was the Pope Marcellus MassMusic represents a pure a cappella style of vocal polyphonyStrove to make the words understood by properly accentuating them to meet the guidelines of the Catholic reformGiovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525–1594), called Palestrina, was an Italian composer, organist, and choirmaster. For a short time, he was a member of the Sistine Chapel Choir.His output was mostly sacred, including over 100 masses and motets (his most famous is the Pope Marcellus Mass) . He also wrote madrigals (which were secular).
19Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria (Listening Guide) Published 1567Foreshadows the strict demands of the Council of Trent.Probably performed a cappellaWritten for six voice parts (a typical setting for the all-male church choirs)– Soprano (sung by boys or male falsettists – men singing in falsetto)– Alto (sung by male altos or countertenors—tenors with high voices)– Tenor I– Tenor II– Bass I– Bass IIOpens with a monophonic intonationChoral sections are polyphonic and balancedText is clear and audible.Palestrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass was originally thought to have been written to satisfy the Council of Trent’s recommendations for polyphonic church music.However, this work was written several years prior to the Council of Trent’s recommendations on music.It is written for a cappella six-voice part, all-male church choir common to the era. The highest voice parts were sung by boy sopranos, male falsettists (men singing in falsetto or head voice) the alto part by male altos or countertenors (tenors with very high voices).The opening line “Gloria in excelsis Deo” is sung monophonically by the officiating priest. Choral sections are polyphonic and balanced so that the text is clear and audible.Listen for shifts between high and low range voices in melody, slow duple meter with a weak pulse. The harmony is full and consonant. The texture begins monophonically, then becomes homorhythmic with some polyphony. It is through-composed (no major sections repeated) with some short ideas exchanged between voices. The expression focuses on the clarity of the words. It is Hymn of praise with text being that of the 2nd movement of the Ordinary of the Mass.
20Listening Guide 7—Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria
21Listening Guide 7(cont.)—Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria
22Renaissance Secular Music Music in Court and City Life Musicians were hired to entertain at court and civic functions.Secular music started to be played in the home which utilized vocals along with instrumental accompaniment (lute, keyboard)Study of music was considered to be part of the proper upbringing for a young girl and women began to have prominent roles in music performanceTwo important genres arose as a result of the fusion of poetry & music: the chanson (French) and the madrigal (Italian and English)The start of “word painting” – the musical depiction of words. This was a prominent feature of the madrigalIn the Renaissance, professional musicians were hired to entertain at court as well as civic functions. Music was played in the home as well, which created a demand for secular music that included vocals as well as vocals with instruments, such as the lute or keyboard.The study of music was considered to be part of the proper upbringing for a young girl, thus women began to have prominent roles in music performance.Two important secular genres arose that were the result of the fusion of poetry and music: the chanson and the madrigal.Word painting is the musical depiction of words from the text as an expressive device, and was a prominent feature of the madrigal.Artwork: Musicians perform a polyphonic chanson with voice, flute, and lute. The Prodigal Son among the Courtesans (16th century, artist unknown).The Prodigal Son among the Courtesans
23Renaissance Secular Music The Italian Madrigal A madrigal is a vocal piece set to a short love poem of a lyric or reflective nature – either with or without instrumentsMost important secular music genre of the RenaissanceFlourished in the Italian courts as well as homesA madrigal is a vocal piece set to a short love poem of a lyric or reflective nature, either with or without instruments.The sixteenth century madrigal was the most important secular music genre of the Renaissance, flourishing in the Italian courts as well as in the homes of cultivated amateurs in both Italy and England.Concert in the Open Air, AnonymousA stylized 16th-century painting of four singers performing from music books.
24Renaissance Secular Music The Italian Madrigal Love and unsatisfied desire were often the topics of the madrigal, though some had themes of humor, satire, politics, and scenes of city and country life, all set expressively to music.Instruments would often double voice parts.Three phases of the madrigal:– composed for amateurs– expanded to 5 or 6 voices– increase in complexity leading into the Baroque EraLove and unsatisfied desire were often the topics of the madrigal, though some had themes of humor, satire, politics, and scenes of city and country life, all set expressively to music.Instruments would often double voice parts.There were three phases of the Renaissance madrigal. In the first phase (1525–1550), they were composed with the amateur in mind—little thought was given to virtuosic display. The second phase was from 1550–1580) and the final phase was from 1580–1620, extending into the Baroque era.By the final phase, the madrigal had become a direct expression of the composer’s personality and feelings through the use of rich chromatic harmony, dramatic declamation, vocal virtuosity, and the vivid depiction of the words in the music.Musical example: Marenzio: “La bella ninfa mia”
25Renaissance Secular Music Arcadelt and the Madrigal Jacques Arcadelt (c. 1507–1568)Italian composer – highly influential in the development of the Italian MadrigalPublished book of madrigals in that became the most widely printed collection of the time period.His most famous madrigal: Il bianco e dolce cigno – “The White and Sweet Swan”Jacques Arcadelt (1507 – 1568) was an Italian composer. He published a book of madrigals in 1538 which became the most widely reprinted collection of the time.This collection includes the famous madrigal: Il bianco e dolce cigno or “The White and Sweet Swan”Il bianco e dolce cigno :Listen for lyrical, conjunct lines with a focus on the highest voice. The meter is duple with simple movement, the harmonies are mostly consonant, though there are some instances of chromaticism and dissonance. The texture is homophonic with imitative entries on the last line. It is through composed until the last line. This emotional text is a 10 line poem by Alfonso d’Avalos, set expressively with some melisma for 4 voices, a cappella. References to death in madrigal poetry were understood as erotic- which in that light, the text is given a whole new meaning.TEXT TRANSLATIONIl bianco e dolce cigno The white and sweet swancantando more. Et io dies singing. And I,piangendo giung’ al fin del viver mio weeping, come to the end of my life.Stran’ e diversa sorte, Strange and different fate,ch’ei more sconsolato, that it dies disconsolate,et io moro beato And I die happy—Morte che nel morire, a death that in dyingm’empie di gioia tutt’e di desire fills me fully with joy and desire.Se nel morir’ altro dolor non sento, If when I die no other pain I feel,di mille mort’ il dì sarei contento with a thousand deaths a day I would be content.
26Listening Guide 88—Arcadelt: Il bianco e dolce cigno
27Renaissance Secular Music The English Madrigal English further developed the Italian madrigalMusica Transalpina (Music from beyond the Alps) was the first book of English madrigals and was a translation of an Italian collectionSimpler and lighter in styleEven with humorous syllables (fa-la-la)The English continued to develop the Italian madrigal.The first book of English madrigals was a translation of an Italian collection called: Musica transalpina (Music from beyond the Alps).English composers eventually wrote their own madrigals, some in the Italian style and some with a simpler text and lighter style. Humorous madrigals were often written with refrain syllables such as “fa-la-la.”Musical Examples: Weelkes: “Welcome Sweet Pleasure” [link to excerpt]Morley: “Those Dainty Daffadillies” [link to excerpt]Weelkes: “Welcome Sweet Pleasure” - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sObuw2w1rIs“Since singing is so good a thing,I wish that all men would learn to sing.”—William Byrd
28Renaissance Secular Music Instrumental Dance Music The sixteenth century was a time of growth in instrumental music, resulting from the invention of music printingBooks of dance music were published for solo instruments and small ensemblesInstrumentation was not specified but was chosen according to the occasion—loud (haut) instruments for outdoor occasions and soft (bas) instruments for indoors.Percussion parts were not written out, but were improvisedThe sixteenth century was a time of growth in instrumental music, resulting from the invention of music printing.Books of dance music were published for solo instruments and small ensembles.These dances were often adapted from vocal works, such as madrigals and chansons.Instrumentation was not specified but was chosen according to the occasion—loud (haut) instruments for outdoor occasions and soft (bas) instruments for indoors.
29Renaissance Secular Music Instrumental Dance Music Three Popular dance types:Pavane (a stately court dance)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXZrT4fMgFkSaltarello (a quicker, jumping dance)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBThcL-rK3ohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RU8QFeDZyvgRonde (a lively romp performed in a circle)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a826x9x1oUsA number of dance types became popular during the sixteeenth century.The pavane was a stately court dance—often the first dance of a set. Other dances included the the Italian saltarello (jumping dance), the ronde (round dance), which was performed in a circle usually in an outdoor setting, and many more.Follow the Listening Guide for a ronde by the composer Tielman Susato (c. 1515–1571).Musical examples on slide: Praetorius: Terpsichore, “Courante” [link to excerpt]Praetorius: Terpsichore, “Volte” [link to excerpt]
30Renaissance to Baroque Transition By the end of the Renaissance Era, composers looked to find inventive ways to convey the text of vocal works through a single melody rather than several interweaving ones…..this gave rise to a variety of new genres which served as a transition to a new Era, the Baroque era:The Baroque era saw the rise of the vocal genres of opera, cantata, and oratorio.In addition, the development of purely instrumental forms in music gave rise to both small and large ensembles.By the end of the sixteenth century, composers had achieved new means of expression in their music.The text of vocal works were eventually conveyed with a single melody rather than the interweaving of several different ones.The Baroque era saw the rise of the vocal genres of opera, cantata, and oratorio.In addition, the development of purely instrumental forms in music gave rise to both small and large ensembles.
32IMPORTANT RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS English composer, flourished as a church musician, and is considered one of the church's best early composersComposed many styles of music, the majority of which is arranged for choir as Latin motets and English anthems.Thomas Tallis( )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yx-_XCOFX3g
33IMPORTANT RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS Considered one of the great masters of sacred music in the RenaissanceExerted a powerful influence on generations of composers to follow…His music expressed emotion and was characterized by beautiful melodies with expressive harmonyWrote over 100 motets, 17 Masses, numerous chansons and Italian secular songsJosquin Des Prez( )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUAgAF4Khmg
34IMPORTANT RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS Repertoire consists entirely of vocal musicHe preferred low voicesHis most popular work, the Requiem, and one of the earliest surviving Requiem masses, emphasizes the lower voicesRhythmic patterns and long, flowing melodies are main characteristics of La Rue's music.Pierre de La Rue( )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N5exSCwrpsM
35IMPORTANT RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS Much of Monteverdi's early years were spent composing madrigals; nine books in totalWrote first dramatic opera, OrfeoWrote revolutionary music which helped to Link the Renaissance to the Baroque Quite famous in his lifetimeClaudio Monteverdi( )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RajAq0Yd-s4
36IMPORTANT RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS Considered one of the greatest English composers of all time, with hundreds of individual compositionsConsidered by many to be the first "genius" of the keyboardWrote many works for pianoWilliam Byrd( )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVoQy4M5pxo
37IMPORTANT RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina– (c. 1525–1594)– Called PalestrinaItalian composer, organist, and choirmasterMember of Sistine Chapel ChoirWrote mostly sacred music – over 100 masses and motets, most famous was the Pope Marcellus MassMusic represents a pure a cappella style of vocal polyphonyStrove to make the words understood by properly accentuating them to meet the guidelines of the Catholic reformGiovanni Palestrina( )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1f0iCn2KieA
38IMPORTANT RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS Known for his smooth polyphonic style and beautiful motetsWith over 2,000 written works for all styles of music, including all Latin, French, English, and German vocal genresOne of Europe's most versatile composersOrlando de Lassus( )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUSeiOaTnsQ
39IMPORTANT RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS Bridges the Renaissance to the BaroquePreferred composing sacred works, he was able to create stunning musical effectsUnlike those before him, Gabrieli meticulously created and planned the use of antiphone (a choir or group of instruments first heard on the left, followed by a response from another group of musicians on theGiovanni Gabrieli( )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yB96NymHfLQ