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3-1 CHAPTER 3 THE CHANGING AMERICAN SOCIETY: VALUES.

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Presentation on theme: "3-1 CHAPTER 3 THE CHANGING AMERICAN SOCIETY: VALUES."— Presentation transcript:

1 3-1 CHAPTER 3 THE CHANGING AMERICAN SOCIETY: VALUES

2 3-2 Consumer Behavior In The News… Can You Rank the Top 3 Homebuyer Groups?  Single Males  Single Females  Married Couples Source: J. Lisle, “Single Women Become A Force in Home-Buying,” The Wall Street Journal (WSJ.com), February 20, 2006.

3 3-3 Consumer Behavior In The News… You were correct if you said: 1.Married Couples (59%) 2.Single Females (21%) 3.Single Males (11%) According to a Harvard Research Specialist: “Women are not seeing marriage as a first step to buying a home…” Source: J. Lisle, “Single Women Become A Force in Home-Buying,” The Wall Street Journal (WSJ.com), February 20, 2006.

4 3-4 Changes in American Cultural Values Cultural values Cultural values are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. cultural values Observable shifts in behavior, including consumption behavior, often reflect underlying shifts in cultural values. value shifts Therefore, it is necessary to understand the underlying value shifts in order to understand current and future consumer behavior.

5 3-5 Changes in American Cultural Values  Self-Oriented Values  Environment-Oriented Values  Other-Oriented Values

6 3-6 Changes in American Cultural Values Reflect a society’s view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society. Self-Oriented Values

7 3-7 Changes in American Cultural Values Self-Oriented Values  Religious/Secular  Sensual Gratification/Abstinence  Postponed/Immediate Gratification  Hard work/Leisure  Material/Nonmaterial  Active/Passive

8 3-8 Changes in American Cultural Values Religious/Secular Self-Oriented Values America is basically a secular society. A religious group does not control the education system, government, or political process and most Americans’ daily behaviors are not guided by strict religious guidelines.

9 3-9 Changes in American Cultural Values Sensual Gratification/Abstinence Self-Oriented Values Early traditional America favored a more religious belief in the virtue of abstinence, but as America became more secular, sensual gratification became increasingly acceptable. Today, sensual gratification is somewhat less acceptable than in the recent past. While still perfectly acceptable to consume products for pleasure, the range of products and occasions for consumption has narrowed over time.

10 3-10 Changes in American Cultural Values Postponed/Immediate Gratification Self-Oriented Values Americans are seemingly unwilling to delay pleasure. Virtually all major purchases are made on credit, and many of these involve credit card debt that is extremely expensive.

11 3-11 Changes in American Cultural Values Hard work/Leisure Self-Oriented Values Americans continue their strong tradition of hard work, leading much of the industrialized world in hours worked.

12 3-12 Changes in American Cultural Values Material/Nonmaterial Self-Oriented Values There is a strong material orientation in America, which has formed America into a consumption-driven society. Americans are working longer hours, in part, to afford material possessions! BUT… Voluntary Simplicity - there is evidence of role overload, burnout, and emotional exhaustion, causing some to rethink their priorities and try to simplify their lives.

13 3-13 Changes in American Cultural Values Active/Passive Self-Oriented Values Americans value an active approach to life. Although less than half of all American adults exercise regularly, they take an active approach to both leisure and problem-solving activities. Children spend increasing amounts of time in scheduled activities.

14 3-14 Changes in American Cultural Values Prescribe a society’s relationship to its economic and technical as well as its physical environment. Environment-Oriented Values

15 3-15 Changes in American Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values  Cleanliness  Tradition/Change  Risk Taking/Security  Problem Solving/Fatalistic  Admire/Overcome Nature  Performance/Status

16 3-16 Changes in American Cultural Values Cleanliness Environment-Oriented Values Americans have long valued cleanliness, especially personal hygiene. A recent study shows that anti- bacterial hand sanitizers such as Purell are a new additional to the arsenal of products carried around by mothers.

17 3-17 Changes in American Cultural Values Tradition/Change Environment-Oriented Values Americans have always been very receptive to change. New has traditionally meant improved! American society has remained appreciative of change, but now less so just for the sake of change. Why? The aging population, who are generally less accepting of change. However, the creative class, those who work in professions that generate new ideas and technologies accounts for an impressive 33% of the work force.

18 3-18 Changes in American Cultural Values Risk Taking/Security Environment-Oriented Values Americans have developed more of a risk-taking approach into the 21st century than had occurred throughout much of the 20th century. Previously, security was emphasized, stemming from the Depression, WWII, and the Cold War. Now, Americans are embracing increased risk-taking behavior such as space travel!

19 3-19 Changes in American Cultural Values Problem Solving/Fatalistic Environment-Oriented Values Americans take pride in being problem solvers, with most believing that virtually anything can be accomplished given sufficient time and effort.

20 3-20 Changes in American Cultural Values Admire/Overcome Nature Environment-Oriented Values Traditionally, nature was viewed as an obstacle. Americans attempted to bend nature to fit their desires without realizing the negative consequences. However, this attitude has shifted dramatically over the past 30 years.

21 3-21 Changes in American Cultural Values Performance Status Environment-Oriented Values Americans are shifting back toward a focus on performance rather than status. Consumers are still willing to buy “status” brands, however, these brands must provide style and functionality in addition to a prestigious name. This has resulted in stores competing on a combination of price, service, and quality.

22 3-22 Changes in American Cultural Values Reflect a society’s view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society. Other-Oriented Values

23 3-23 Changes in American Cultural Values Other-Oriented Values  Individual/Collective  Diversity/Uniformity  Limited/Extended  Youth/Age  Competition/Cooperation  Masculine/Feminine

24 3-24 Changes in American Cultural Values Individual/Collective Other-Oriented Values A strong emphasis on individualism is one of the defining characteristics of American society, expressing an attitude of “do your own thing.” This value affects incentive systems for salespeople, advertising themes, product design, and customer complaining behavior.

25 3-25 Changes in American Cultural Values Youth/Age Other-Oriented Values American culture has embraced youth throughout its history, valuing such characteristics as physical strength, stamina, youthful vigor, and imagination. Therefore, youth appeals in American ads continue to overshadow appeals to age and tradition.

26 3-26 Changes in American Cultural Values Competition/Cooperation Other-Oriented Values America has long been a competitive society, and this is reflected in its social, political, and economic systems. Successful competitors in business, entertainment, and sports are often rewarded with staggering levels of financial compensation. It is no wonder that America was one of the first countries to allow comparative advertising.

27 3-27 Gender-Based Marketing  Gender Identity versus Gender Roles  Ascribed versus Achievement Roles  Traditional versus Modern Gender Orientation

28 3-28 Gender-Based Marketing Gender identity Gender identity refers to the traits of femininity (expressive traits) and masculinity (instrumental traits). Individuals have varying levels of each trait. Gender roles Gender roles are the behaviors considered appropriate for male and females in a given society.

29 3-29 Gender-Based Marketing Types of Gender Roles 1.Ascribed role 1.Ascribed role is based on an attribute over which the individual has little or no control. 2.Achievementrole 2.Achievement role is based on performance criteria over which the individual has some degree of control.

30 3-30 Gender-Based Marketing Traditional Traditional versus Modern Gender Orientation A marriage with the husband assuming the responsibility for providing for the family and the wife running the house and taking care of the children.

31 3-31 Gender-Based Marketing Traditional versus Modern Gender Orientation Modern A marriage where husband and wife share responsibilities. Both work, and they share homemaking and child care.

32 3-32 Gender-Based Marketing Gender roles in the U.S. are shifting, both genders making many purchase decisions. Example: Today, women influence 80% of all vehicles sold. Implications for dealerships and sales training?

33 3-33 Gender-Based Marketing  Marketing Segmentation Based on Role Identity  Product Strategy  Marketing Communications  Retailing Strategy

34 3-34 Gender-Based Marketing Market Segmentation Neither the women’s nor men’s market is homogeneous. The following female segments provide an example of the diverse nature of the adult female population: 1.Traditional housewife 2.Trapped housewife 3.Trapped working woman 4.Career working woman The male market is also diverse in both its attitudes and behaviors toward gender roles, work, and household chores.

35 3-35 Gender-Based Marketing Product Strategy Many products are losing their traditional gender typing. The expanding wealth, independence, purchase power, and time pressure of women makes them an important target market.

36 3-36 Gender-Based Marketing Retail Strategy Men are increasingly shopping for household and other products traditionally purchased by females, and females are shopping for “masculine” products such as lawn mowers and power tools. Retailers have begun showing very masculine men shopping for household products and carry power tools targeted at women.


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