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Chapter 11: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence

2 In This Chapter

3 Adolescence

4 Physical Changes Other Body Systems: Growth Spurts First growth spurt  Cephalocaudal/ proximodistal patterns  Joint development  Gender differences Second growth spurt  Muscle fibers  Heart and lung  Body fat levels  Gender differences

5 Physical Changes The Brain Two major growth spurts in teenage years years: Largely related to parts of brain that control spatial perceptions and motor functions 15+ years: Changes in prefrontal cortex responsible for executive processing

6 Physical Changes The Skeletal System Growth patterns Gender differences Joint development

7 Physical Changes The Muscular System What do you know about…?  Growth patterns  Gender differences

8 Physical Changes The Heart and Lungs What do you know about…?  Growth patterns  Gender differences

9 Physical Changes: Milestones of Puberty Puberty: Changes needed for reproductive maturity  Endocrine glands  Pituitary gland

10 Milestones of Puberty

11 Physical Changes Endocrine and Reproductive Systems: Overview  Thyroid gland  Adrenal androgen  Gender differences

12 Physical Changes Sexual Development in Girls: Secular Trend Menarche: First menstruation  Occurs 2 years after beginning of other visible signs  Pregnancy can occur after menarche

13 Physical Changes Endocrine and Reproductive Systems: Sex Characteristics Primary sex characteristics  Growth of testes and penis  Growth of ovaries, uterus, and vagina Secondary sex characteristics  Breast development  Changing voice pitch  Beard growth  Body hair

14 Physical Changes Sexual Development in Girls: Secular Trend Secular trend: Timing of menarche  Lowering of the age of menarche by 4 months per decade  Due mainly to changes in diet and lifestyle

15 BOYS Physical Changes Sexual Development in Boys Sperm production begins between 12 and 14 First ejaculation about age 13 or 14 Genital development and pubic hair development precedes the end of the growth spurt. Development of beard and voice changes occur near the end of the sequence

16 Physical Changes Sexual Development in Girls Heredity and behavioral factors influence hormonal secretions Major body changes before age 11 or 12; consistently more negative body image Social context influences change GIRLS

17 Physical Changes Sexual Behavior: Overview  Boys more sexually active than girls  Reports of sexual intercourse varies across ethnic groups  Rate declined substantially over last three decades

18 Physical Changes Sexual Behavior: Early Sexuality Social Factors Social Factors

19 Figure 11.1 Sexual Activity in High School Students Figure 11.1

20 Physical Changes Prevalence of Sexual Behavior Age of sexual activity initiation 1988 (15-19 yrs)2008 (15-19 yrs) 60% Males43% Males 51% Females42% Females What do these data tell us?

21 Physical Changes Sexual Behavior Girls who are sexually active  Early menarche  Low interest in school and school activities  Early dating  History of sexual abuse

22 Physical Changes Sexual Behavior: Moral Beliefs Activities and moral beliefs influence lower sexual activity among teens who:  Believe premarital sex is wrong  Attend religious services  Participate in school activities  Do not use alcohol

23 Physical Changes Sexual Behavior and Education  Despite school units, teens show ignorance of STDs  Fail to discuss condom use  Abstinence and contraceptive education still controversial in many schools

24 Adolescent Sexuality Adolescent Pregnancy  Higher in U.S. than many other industrialized countries.  Far more frequent among older adolescents.  Relative frequency of teens who are unmarried has increased but teen birth rates have dropped overall.

25 Physical Changes Adolescent Pregnancy Ethnic differences in teens who marry  African Americans  Hispanic Americans  Caucasian Americans

26 Physical Changes Adolescent Pregnancy Factors in teenage pregnancy  Onset age of sexual activity  Poverty and family influence  Less school success  Less contraception use

27 Physical Changes Adolescent Pregnancy What happens when teens get pregnant? MythReality

28 Physical Changes Adolescent Pregnancy: Children of Teen Mothers Negative Outcomes  Achieve developmental milestones more slowly when infants  Grow up in poverty Positive Possibilities  Negative effects can be mitigated by support from girl’s own parents  Staying in school and social programs positively help both child and mother

29 Physical Changes Sexual Minority Youth Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents Realization  Realization begins in middle school  Few accept their homosexuality during adolescence Cause  Prenatal hormone patterns may be causal factor in homosexuality  Twin studies suggest biological basis

30 Physical Changes Transgendered Teens  Transgender teen: Psychological gender differs from their biological sex  Higher rates of depression and suicide  Cause is debated

31 Adolescent Health Sensation Seeking Sensation seeking: Desire to experience increased levels of arousal (through risky behavior)  Gain peer acceptance and autonomy from parents  Response to popular media’s messages  Brain growth

32 Adolescent Health Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use  Teen use of drugs down but still a significant problem.  Alcohol use is prevalent.  Sensation-seeking is related to increased use of alcohol and drugs.

33 Figure 11.2 Illicit Drug Use Trends Among Teenagers

34 True or False The decline in teen use of illicit drugs is due to an increased and better understanding of consequences.

35 Adolescent Health Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco Tobacco Use  Fewer teens are regular smokers than generation ago.  Teens who are more likely to smoke are influenced by smoking peers.

36 Adolescent Health Body Image and Eating Disorders Eating disorder: Mental disorder in which eating behavior goes beyond everyday experiences with trying to lose weight  Anorexia nervosa  Bulimia

37 Stop and Think! What contributes to or causes eating disorders?

38 Adolescent Health Depression and Suicide Incidence  Depression  Suicide Causes or contributing factors  Depression  Suicide Consequences  Depression  Suicide

39 Who has advantages or disadvantages – early maturing boys or early maturing girls? What happens to late maturing boys or girls? Your friend suffers from anorexia or depression. How do you help her? Questions To Ponder

40 Changes in Thinking And Memory Piaget’s Formal Operational Thought Formal Operational Stage: Reasoning logically about abstract concepts Key elements

41 Figure 11.3 Within-Stage Development in Formal Operations Figure 11.2

42 Changes in Thinking And Memory Direct Tests of Piaget’s Views on Formal Operations Tasks  Complex reasoning tasks  Metaphors  Decision-making Education levels influence use of formal operational thought

43 Changes in Thinking And Memory Advances in Information-Processing Task improvement with age  Metacognition  Metamemory  Strategy use increase  Text learning

44 Stop and Think! Research findings show achievement declines after entering high school. Why do you think such declines may occur?

45 Schooling Transition to Secondary School Is the goal the goal? Middle school  Task goals: Based on personal standards and desire to become more competent  Ability goals: Define success in competitive terms

46 Schooling Middle School: Ability Grouping  Emphasis on ability grouping  Students may change beliefs about individual abilities  High achievers  Low achievers

47 Schooling Middle School: School Climate Perception of school climate Successful intervention strategies  Mentor  Homeroom teacher  Student teams  Parental involvement

48 Schooling High School Success  Early days of high school set pattern  Activity participation helps develop psychological attributes

49 Schooling Gender, Ethnicity, and Science and Math Achievement  Girls at risk for achievement losses in transition to high school  Gender gap widest among most intellectually talented students  Girls suffer in sciences not offering hands-on activities  Girls often discouraged from taking courses in science

50 Schooling Gender, Ethnicity, and Science and Math Achievement Gender gap widens in math Ethnic variations exist

51 Schooling Dropping Out of High School Links Ethnicity, peer group, low value on completion, history of academic failure Profiles Quiet, disengaged, low-achieving, and poorly adjusted students at high risk Consequences Unemployment, lower wages, depression, and increased criminal activity

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