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Jonathan R. White Rosemary Arway Hodges University Chapter 10: Terrorism in Israel and Palestine
Palestine Liberation Organization PLO – Palestinian Liberation Organization: oSecular organization oYasser Arafet – its leader and founder (1964) oAttempted to establish a government for displaced Palestinians oPurpose was to create a political organization to help form a multinational alliance against Israel oLooked to Arab governments to jointly launch a war against Israel
Palestine Liberation Organization FATAH: oYasser Arafat formed Fatah in 1959 oPurpose was to create a guerrilla organization oAdvocated use of small unit tactics and terrorist actions oProposed terrorizing unfortified Israeli civilian targets after Six Day War defeat Merged Fatah into PLO in 1964 Media coverage of Fatah attacks raised PLO status throughout the Arab world
Palestine Liberation Organization Fatah after Karamah: oAfter Fatah’s attack on Israel, Israel respond with force. oIn 1968 Israeli Defense Force (IDF) tanks, infantry, helicopters and artillery raided the Palestinians in the village of Karamah (refuge center housing Fatah members - fadayeen). oFadayyen fought back and Israeli army had to retreat.
Palestine Liberation Organization PLO Expelled: oAs it grew, the PLO identified more closely with militant Arab states and organized its base in Jordan. oConcerned about the growing influence of foreign nationals, Jordanian King Hussein ordered PLO to stop attacking Israel. oArafat defied Hussein’s order. In 1970 Hussain ordered Marital Law. Arafat and Hussain signed a ceasefire. Arafat and the PLO fled to southern Lebanon.
Palestine Liberation Organization Black September and Munich: oBlack September was a splinter group of the PLO oFormed after King Hussein’s September attack Black September began planning a strike against Israel oWith the help of German terrorists, Black September attacked Olympic Village in September oTook most of the Israeli Olympic team hostage oKilled those who attempted escape oBotched rescue attempt by Germans ended when terrorists machine-gunned down their hostages oIn October, Arab terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa jet and demanded release of the Munich terrorist – Germans capitulated.
Palestine Liberation Organization 1982 Invasion of Lebanon: oPLO becoming potent force in southern Lebanon oIran joined fighting after Islamic revolution of 1979 oEstablished new terrorist organization called Islamic Jihad oEndemic civil war raged in Lebanon Operation Peace for Galilee oIDF forces invaded Lebanon oPLO retreat from Lebanon oFighting in Lebanon continued with a new group: Hezbollah – an umbrella-style organization oIsrael's fight with PLO shifted from Lebanon to Palestinians areas in Israel
Yom Kippur/ Ramadan War caused shift in Middle East terrorism 1967 – 1973 PLO characterized by internal splintering Several groups split from Arafat oDemocratic Front for Liberation of Palestine oPopular Front for the Liberation of Palestine oPopular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, General Command oSabri al Banna - Abu Nidal Organization Factionalism in Palestinian Terrorism
Abu Nidal Organization Abu Nidal: oCreated rebel organization called Black June oJointed Fatah for the purpose of regaining a Palestinian homeland oBecame disillusioned with Fatah and Arafat oWith Iraqi assistance built an infrastructure to support his terrorist organization oMoved his operations to Damascus in 1983 oIn 1987 Moumar Gadhafi brought Abu Nidal to Libya ▪From there Abu Nidal organization operated as private contractor
Abu Nidal Abu Nidal: oOperated on the international level ▪Particularly ruthless – terrorists became noted for the brutality of their attacks oChanged the face of Middle Eastern terrorism ▪Increased activities in Europe ▪Created a large terrorist group ▪Immersed himself in the Lebanese Civil War ▪Terrorism become the meaning for existence oBegan working as a mercenary for foreign governments
Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) oSecular group arising after Yom Kippur War oSmall group that emerged in Egypt oInfluenced by militant Salafism oDisillusioned with the Muslim Brotherhood PIJ founders: oFathi Shekaki oAbdul Aziz oBashir Musa
Palestinian Islamic Jihad Fathi Shekaki oLonged to take direct – military – action against infidels oSupported Iranian revolution oLeft Egypt in 1981 with Aziz and Musa to settle in the Gaza Strip oAdvocate of umbrella-style organization and the suicide bomber (Hezbollah innovations) oDiscovered that small groups are virtually invisible for enemies, and for that reason let his group split. ▪The U.S.A. Department of State sees the structure of PIJ as a pillar of strength.
Palestinian Islamic Jihad PIJ terrorists gained power through group’s hidden structure oNo infrastructure or visible means of support ▪Invisibility partially due to growing number of groups claiming the name Islamic Jihad oImpossible to fight a non-organization oNot concerned with claiming credit for operations ▪1987 First Intifada – PIJ joining street fights ▪1993 Oslo Accord promises peace in Middle East - Fathi Shekaki joins a new Rejectionist Front
Palestinian Islamic Jihad Shekaki was assassinated in Malta in Shekaki’s succesor, Ramadan Abdullah Sallah, maintained Shekaki philosophy. In 2001 PIJ launched a suicide bombing campaign: oSought deeper ties to Hezbollah and Hamas Department of Justice (DOJ) believes PIJ has an organized network of financial supporters including some within the U.S. oU.S. government claims to have uncovered a PIJ financial and administrative network at a Florida University.
Hamas and the Rise of Religious Organizations Palestinian Muslim Brothers would become the nucleus of Hamas oHamas formed in 1987 oTied to Sheik Ahmed Yassin oWanted to steer the resistance movement along a religious course oHamas Charter published in 1988 – declares Palestine as a God-given land from the Jordan river to Mediterranean Sea oHamas reflects non-violence ideas against fellow Palestinians oHamas opposes PLO oHamas maintains political wing to oversee internal and foreign affairs
Hamas and the Rise of Religious Organizations Struggles for Leadership: oYassin was jailed from 1989 to 1997 oMusa Abu Marzuq took over Hamas ▪Strategy more violent than Yassin’s ▪Launched savage suicide bombings in Israel ▪Created ‘outside’ leadership basing Hamas outside of Palestine territory oIn 1997 Yassin was released from prison and while under house arrest he gradually reasserted control over Hamas.
Hamas and the Rise of Religious Organizations In 2003 Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmud Abbas brokered a limited ceasefire, asking Hamas, the PIJ and related groups to end their campaigns. Arafat and PIJ dominate Palestinian politics In 2006 Fatah lost its position and Hamas won the election. oThe U.S.A and UE did not recognize Hamas’s victory. o Hamas had driven Fatah from Gaza and Abbas dissolved the government and formed a new one without Hamas. o Operation Cast Lead: Israel assaults Gaza.
The Future In March 2004 Israeli helicopters fired three missiles at Yassin. oHamas announced his replacement with Abdel Aziz Rantisi. ▪Israeli assassinated Rantsi in the same manner as Yassin. A new leader was appointed but his identity is kept in secret. oThere is a suspicion the new leader (Khalid Mashal) acts outside of Palestine from Damascus. oIt is suspected that he may develop an international orientation and present a threat to the U.S.
The Future Reuvan Paz Hamas is: Shifting targets and focus Strong Sunni organization Palestinian extension of the Muslim Brotherhood Influenced by militant Salafi Puritanism Supported by Saudi sympathizers Closer to the revolutionary Shi’ites in general Falling into Hezbollah orbit Matthew Levitt Hamas is: Engaged in anti-America rhetoric Refused to join al-Qaeda and the international Jihad because its focus is on Israel International Disincentives for attacking the West Militant theology behind Hamas may encourage individual terrorists to take action against the West
al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (Brigades) formed to put Fatah at the center of the new Intifada. oBegan as secular group oIncreasing use of Jihadist rhetoric oFirst secular Palestinian group to use suicide tactics ▪Suicide bombing became the most important tactic of all the Palestinian terrorist groups Brigades recognize Israel’s right to exist. oIntend to stop Israeli incursions and attacks in Palestinian areas oPunish Israel for each attack
al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades’ effective tactics: oDrive-by shootings oSnipers oAmbushes oKidnap-murders osuicide bombings Brigade suicide bombers were frightening for two reasons: oThey were secular oSought out crowded civilian targets Purpose is to kill and maim as many victims as possible in the most public way possible
al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades Leadership in the Martyrs Brigades oAl Aqsa has little centralized structure ▪Its strength comes from the fact that small cells are able to operate without a strong leader ▪Administration is pushed to the lowest operational level ▪Cells function almost autonomously ▪Effective because they operate in a network ▪Effective without centralized leadership oAl Aqsa is suspected of being associated with Fatah oMarwan Barghouti is the commander oArafat pays the expenses and set the agenda (Israelis report) ▪There is no evidence that he has control over the organization
Violent Jewish Fundamentalism Jewish Fundamentalism: oInvolved in terrorist violence oMilitant Judaism is based on the biblical notion that God has promised to restore the state the Israel Rabbi Meir Kahane oIn 1968 created the Jewish Defense League oInvolved in several terrorist incidents in the U.S. oFormed the militant group – Kach oAssassinated in 1990 in the United States
Violent Jewish Fundamentalism Kahane Chai: oCombined politics and biblical literalism to demand all Arabs be expelled from Israel’ occupied territories oInvolved in threatening Palestinians oThreatened to attack Arabs and Israeli officials seeking peace oCommitted to stop any peace proposal recognizing territorial rights of Palestinians Gush Emunim ofundamentalist Israeli settlement in Palestinian territory, gets political support from Israel oSame set of beliefs as violent fundamentalists oRhetoric appears normative compared with violent rhetoric of other groups
Violent Jewish Fundamentalism Problems with Jewish militant extremism: Hanauer: oExtremists claim the exclusive right to determine the truth. oThey advocate an ideal order ▪Gush Emunim and Kach claim the Messiah can come only when the existing order is purified. oNational identify of Israel and its political legitimacy can only be determined through religion. oAll current events are defined within a narrow set of beliefs that define a limited worldview and identify only a few people as being chosen by God.
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies Many Israeli police and military units have established excellent reputations in counterterrorist operations. Tactical operations are second to none. oMossad – Israeli intelligence service oShin Beth – Domestic Israeli security service oIDF – Israeli Defense Force oIsraeli police – able to handle bombs, kidnappings, snipers
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies International controversy oBulldozing ▪Purpose is to destroy the family homes of suicide bombers ▪Suspected leaders in militant groups and others were targeted ▪Farms and other areas were bulldozed oThe Wall ▪Condemned by the international community, a concrete and barbed-wire barrier cut through Palestinian areas. ▪Construction reduced suicide attacks ▪Construction separated Palestinians from their jobs, families and services
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies oInvading Lebanon ▪First invasion, 1982, to rid south of the PLO, ended with 18 year occupation and the creation of Hezbollah. ▪1993 offensive in Lebanon to disrupt Hezbollah operations ▪Operation Grapes of Wrath: destruction of bridges, power plants, and other infrastructure ▪Attempt to create a wedge between Lebanon and Hezbollah ▪July 2006 another invasion ▪Israeli Air Naval and IDF attacked Lebanon with an attempt to destroy Hezbollah; they defended its action saying the Lebanon government was unable to disarm and confront Hezbollah on its own.
Controversial Counterterrorist Policies Selective Assassination oPaz ▪might internationalize the conflict oBayman ▪is publicly transparent oKrauthammer ▪Israelis feel that harsh policies must be implemented to deter terrorism. ▪U.S. repeatedly has taken the stance that Israel cannot be condemned for harsh measures until the international community also condemns Palestinian terrorism.