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Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Galileo Galilei 1564-1642.

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Presentation on theme: "Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Galileo Galilei 1564-1642."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Galileo Galilei

2 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Did away with question of the purpose of events. Galileo Galilei

3 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Did away with question of the purpose of events. Settled for knowing the reliably regular patterns – “laws of nature” mathematically measurable matter in motion. Galileo Galilei

4 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Most scientists were religious, but.... Galileo Galilei

5 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Most scientists were religious, but.... E.g., Laplace ( ) “Sire, I have no need of that hypothesis.” [God] Galileo Galilei

6 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism a natural theology--“argument from design” awe at the intelligible order of nature Galileo Galilei

7 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism a natural theology--“argument from design” awe at the intelligible order of nature cannot possibly be by mere accident Galileo Galilei

8 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism a natural theology--“argument from design” awe at the intelligible order of nature cannot possibly be by mere accident therefore it must have been designed Galileo Galilei William Blake, 1794 “Ancient of Days”

9 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism “argument from design” Skeptical about miracles E.G. -- Boyle: God not a “puppetmaster” “original contrivance” is enough (and the “divine concursus”) Robert Boyle Strasbourg clock

10 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: The assumption that all events are due to fully natural causes Robert Boyle

11 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - metaphysical = no God at all Robert Boyle

12 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - metaphysical = no God at all - cosmological = no interventions Robert Boyle

13 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - metaphysical = no God at all - cosmological = no interventions - methodological = “as if” science is limited to finding natural causes. Robert Boyle

14 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - methodological = “as if” science is limited to finding natural causes. Discuss: Why can’t scientists say miracles may cause some events? Robert Boyle

15 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms - methodological = “as if” (got deists used to thinking that no supernatural acts occur) Robert Boyle E.g. Jefferson’s bible END 3/29

16 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms 2. Religious Humanism God made an intelligible world. God gave humans intelligence. So humans should rely on themselves, for progress.

17 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Georg Gisze, merchant Oil on wood By Hans Holbein, Notable about this: the figure is not a saint, nor a character in a Bible story. He is “secular” – a sign of humanism, treating humans as truly important.

18 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms 2. Religious Humanism 3. For Religious Tolerance What if there is only one religion, based on reason? Lord Herbert of Cherbury

19 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Religious Tolerance Holy Inquisition Lord Herbert of Cherbury

20 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Religious Tolerance Holy Inquisition 70 K Huguenots killed includes St. Bartholomew’s day massacre Lord Herbert of Cherbury

21 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Religious Tolerance Holy Inquisition 70 K Huguenots killed includes St. Bartholomew’s day massacre 30 years’ war up to 2/3 died in major parts of Germany Lord Herbert of Cherbury

22 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Religious Tolerance Herbert wrote: De Veritate arguing that reason, not faith or authority or sacred texts, should guide people -- Deism Lord Herbert of Cherbury

23 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Deism -- 4 supports for it 1. Naturalism: 3 forms 2. Religious Humanism 3. For Religious Tolerance 4. Argument from Design Supppose you found a watch upon the heath. Could its structure be due to accident? William. Paley

24 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Charles Darwin A 1840 portrait by Geo.Richmond

25 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection Or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life Charles Darwin A 1840 portrait by Geo.Richmond

26 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Pre-Darwin Theories of Change Chas Darwin Kant ca Laplace ca 1797.]

27 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Pre-Darwin Theories of Change Chas Darwin James Hutton Theory of the Earth 1795 The discovery of “deep time.”

28 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Pre- Darwin Theories of Change -- Chas Darwin Auguste Comte, “Positivism” Systeme de Politique Positive 3 stages of culture: --theological (superstition) --philosophical (speculation) --“positive” science (real knowledge)

29 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism PreDarwin Theories of Change Chas Darwin Herbert Spencer, Coined the expression: “survival of the fittest.” Later called a “Social Darwinist” [a phrase to be explained later].

30 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Pre-Darwin Theories of Change Chas Darwin Society has been evolving From primitive foraging to agriculture, to commerce to current industrialization

31 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Theories of Biological Evolution: Erasmus Darwin, Charlie’s gramps : Zoonomia Lamark: theory of acquired characteristics.

32 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory an account of HOW evolution could occur

33 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity

34 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity

35 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity

36 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity

37 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity 2. Variation among offspring

38 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory 1. Superfecundity 2. Variation among offspring 3. Natural selection – survival more likely for those which happen to be “adapted.”

39 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Natural Selection replaces Paley’s argument from design. this replaces this

40 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Chas Darwin Implications of Darwin’s theory Bible in error? Unplanned process? Brutal Process? Humans just animals? Materialism/naturalism as basic truth?

41 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Chas Darwin Implications of Darwin’s theory in 19th cent.

42 Ch. 12 WIPEOUTS!!! 65 mya – 15% of 650 families 245 mya – 50% of 400 families, ca. 85% of all species Plus 3 other major ones, Plus dozens of minor ones

43 Ch. 12 A ragged process. Difficult to see any purposeful pattern

44 Ch. 12 Evidence: Homologous Structures

45 Ch. 12 Evidence: Homologous Structures Fish embryo Chicken embryo Pig embryo Human embryo

46 Ch. 12 Evidence: Homologous Structures Similar DNA: degrees of difference seem to reflect degrees of evolutionary divergence over time.

47 Ch. 12

48

49 Hominid family tree. [mtDNA says Neandertals* are not ancestral to humans *Neanderthals]

50 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Chas Darwin Implications of Darwin’s theory in 19th cent. Bible in error? Unplanned process? Brutal Process? Humans just animals? Materialism/naturalism as basic truth?

51 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Chas Darwin Agnosticism and Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer, “survival of the fittest.” “Social Darwinism”

52 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Chas Darwin Agnosticism and Social Darwinism “law of organic progress” This world will get better through free competition.

53 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Darwin’s Theory Chas Darwin Agnosticism and Social Darwinism [Extreme versions: immoral to aid the weak eugenics valuable]

54 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Chas Darwin

55 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms secular = this-worldly Chas Darwin

56 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms secular = this-worldly evolutionary = belief in social progress Chas Darwin

57 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms secular = this-worldly evolutionary = belief in social progress humanism = a) BVM morality b) confidence in human abilities and moral goodness. Chas Darwin

58 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms A substitute for religion (more on this a bit later) -- two examples: Marx, 19th century J. Huxley, 20th century Chas Darwin

59 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx ( ) A sketch of Marx as a young man

60 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory cultural evolution, guided by economics

61 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory cultural evolution, guided by economics

62 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory cultural evolution, guided by economics

63 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory cultural evolution, guided by economics

64 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory cultural evolution, guided by economics

65 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory cultural evolution, guided by economics industrialization can make all people ‘rich’ and happy

66 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory cultural evolution industrialization can make all ‘rich’ and happy greedy capitalists are in the way [Photo is from

67 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory cultural evolution, guided by economics industrialization can make all people ‘rich’ and happy greedy capitalists are in the way

68 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory “Workers of the world unite. You have nothing to lose but your chains.” (Communist Manifesto, Marx & Engels)

69 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory After the revolution: state socialism for a while; then perfect democracy.

70 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory As a quasi-religion -- ? Marx called religion “the opiate of the people.” When social conditions improve, this opium will become unnecessary.

71 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory As a quasi-religion -- ? QUES: how does Marxism promise salvation from the three forms of estrangement? (First remind yourselves what these 3 forms are.)

72 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Karl Marx -- basic theory No afterlife -- but a good earthly life. Cooperation replaces competition. A worthy selfhood

73 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Julian Huxley’s earthly religion Religion without Revelation ( 1928 & 1956.)

74 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Julian Huxley’s earthly religion Religion without Revelation ( 1928 & 1956.) The Young Huxley

75 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Julian Huxley’s earthly religion Religion without Revelation & 1956.

76 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Julian Huxley’s earthly religion ongoing differentiation ongoing complexification ongoing conscientization

77 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Julian Huxley’s earthly religion ongoing conscientization biological: CNS, up to human cerebrum

78 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Julian Huxley’s earthly religion ongoing conscientization biological social – cultural evol.

79 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Julian Huxley’s earthly religion ongoing conscientization Social: e.g. globalization; e.g. the internet.

80 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms Julian Huxley’s earthly religion We humans are evolution become conscious of itself. Our role is to be “cosmic managers.”

81 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms with Hidden Forms of Salvation From limits of earthly conditions utopian – “millenarian” e.g. Marx. progressivist – e.g. Huxley (settles for gradual development)

82 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms with Hidden Forms of Salvation From limits of earthly conditions future hope gives meaning to the struggles of life provides a worthy identity as part of a noble band.

83 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms with Hidden Forms of Salvation The End of Easy Optimism

84 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms with Hidden Forms of Salvation The End of Easy Optimism

85 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms with Hidden Forms of Salvation The End of Easy Optimism trench warfare; mustard gas, gatling gun rabid nationalism

86 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms with Hidden Forms of Salvation The End of Easy Optimism ‘rational’ beliefs?? humanism?? progress??

87 Science & Secularity: The Modern Era Begins Ch. 12 Early Modern Science Evolution and Agnosticism Secular Evolutionary Humanisms with Hidden Forms of Salvation The End of Easy Optimism For some people severe disillusionment. (See ch. 13: “Life without Religion”)


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