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E&P NORM Characteristics Gert Jonkers Engineering & Analytical - GSEA/4 “ Problem Solving ” (Shell E&P Ionising Radiation/NORM HSE Expert CHP) location.

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Presentation on theme: "E&P NORM Characteristics Gert Jonkers Engineering & Analytical - GSEA/4 “ Problem Solving ” (Shell E&P Ionising Radiation/NORM HSE Expert CHP) location."— Presentation transcript:

1 E&P NORM Characteristics Gert Jonkers Engineering & Analytical - GSEA/4 “ Problem Solving ” (Shell E&P Ionising Radiation/NORM HSE Expert CHP) location Shell Research & Technology Centre, Amsterdam P.O NL-1030 BN Amsterdam the Netherlands

2 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam Cosmogenic NOR ’ s induced by interaction between ‘ particle radiation ’ and elements in the outer atmosphere ( “ ionosphere ” ) thereby generating Naturally Occurring Radionuclides 3 H (T 1/2 = 14 y), 7 Be (53 d), 14 C (5730 y), etc. e.g. 14 N + 1 n 1 p + 14 C; Terrestrial NOR ’ s radionuclides, which have been present ever since the planet Earth was formed some 4.5  10 9 years ago; 40 K (1.28  10 9 y), 87 Rb (5  y), 232 Th (1.41  y), 235 U (7.04  10 8 y), 238 U (4.47  10 9 y) Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NOR ’ s) vs. Anthropogenic Radioactivity

3 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam 238 U 4.5  10 9 y E&P RELEVANT TERRESTRIAL NOR’s 40 K and 232 Th-, 235 U- & 238 U- decay series 235 U 4.5  10 8 y 232 Th 1.4  y 40 K 1.3  10 9 y 0.01% 99.72% 0.27% 100%.00  RADIOACTIVITY Becquerel (1 nuclear disintegration/s) SI unit for total amount of radioactivity (Bq), or concentration of radioactivity ( Bq/g or Bq/L) Half-Life time period, in which the total activity or activity concentration, is reduced to half its value PHYSICS/CHEMISTRY activity-mass conversion factors Bq[ 40 K]/g[K] Bq[ 232 Th]/g[Th] Bq[ 235 U]/g[U] Bq[ 238 U]/g[U] << Low abundance << Low abundance, << homeostatic take up

4 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam K, Th and U Concentrations in Sedimentary Rocks

5 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam 238 U 10 9 y 234 Th 234m Pa 234 U 230 Th 226 Ra 1600 y 222 Rn 4 d 218 Po 214 Pb 214 Bi 214 Po 210 Pb 22 y 210 Bi 210 Po 138 d 206 Pb stable TERRESTRIAL NOR ’ s: 232 Th- & 238 U- Decay Series 208 Pb stable 212 Po & 208 Tl 212 Bi 212 Pb 216 Po 220 Rn 224 Ra 4 d 228 Th 2 y 228 Ac 228 Ra 6 y 232 Th y 99.7% 100% Primordial NOR’s 232 Th and 238 U are special Heading a Series of Successive Nuclear Decays Relevant Gas/Oil Time Scales Diagenesis > 10 6 years Reservoir Accumulation > 10 5 years Production ~ 50 years (Gas) Transport Time ~ days Half-lives < “1 week” too short to develop the chemistry of the element

6 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam 238 U 234 Th 234m Pa 234 U 230 Th 226 Ra 222 Rn 218 Po 214 Pb 214 Bi 214 Po 210 Pb 210 Bi 210 Po 206 Pb Secular Equilibrium Secular equilibrium is ‘radioactive’ equilibrium, in which the parent activity does not decrease significantly during many daughter half lives. A steady state is established in which the rate of formation of the daughter nuclides is just equal to their rate of decay. The rate of decay, i.e. de number of disintegrations per second or Bq, of all radionuclides in a series in secular equilibrium will be the same as that of the parent. The shorter-lived daughters then appear to decay with the half-life of the long-lived parent. If undisturbed the daughters of the 238 U-decay series all appear to decay with the half-life of uranium being 4.5 × 10 9 years.

7 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam For example: a “ system ” consists of a formation with entrapped pore water. As waters start to move, dissolved radium-ions may be transported to somewhere far from the originating formation, i.e. far from its parent 238 U. Consequently, no ingrowth of 226 Ra anymore by nuclear decay > unsupported. 226 Ra will form a new secular equilibrium with its short-lived daughters > 226 Ra or 226 Ra eq sub-series. If a “ system ” is not closed to radionuclide migration the secular equilibrium will become disturbed. The migrated daughter nuclide will start a decay series for its own, so- called sub-series will be formed. 226 Ra 222 Rn 218 Po 214 Pb 214 Bi 214 Po 210 Pb 210 Bi 210 Po 206 Pb 238 U 234 Th 234m Pa 234 U 230 Th 222 Rn 218 Po 214 Pb 214 Bi 214 Po 210 Pb 210 Bi 210 Po 206 Pb Disturbed Secular Equilibrium

8 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam 232 Th- & 238 U- Decay Series Member Transport

9 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam Leaching (Pb carrier) transport via water electrochemical deposition 226 Ra 222 Rn 218 Po 214 Pb 214 Bi 214 Po 210 Pb 210 Bi 210 Po 206 Pb 222 Rn 218 Po 214 Pb 214 Bi 214 Po 210 Pb 210 Bi 210 Po 206 Pb Leaching transport via water Emanation / Dissolution transport with gas / (oil/water) 210 Po 206 Pb mechanism? transport via NGL/condensate NOR transport with reservoir material only 238 U 10 9 y 234 Th 234m Pa 234 U 10 5 y 230 Th 10 5 y 226 Ra 1600 y 222 Rn 4 d 218 Po 214 Pb 214 Bi 214 Po 210 Pb 22 y 210 Bi 210 Po 138 d 206 Pb stable 206 Pb c) e) E&P NORM CHARACTERISTICS U decay series 210 Pb 210 Bi 210 Po

10 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam NOR transport with reservoir material only 232 Th y 228 Ra 6 y 228 Ac 228 Th 2 y 224 Ra 4 d 220 Rn 1 min 216 Po 212 Pb 212 Bi 212 Po & 208 Tl 208 Pb stable 228 Ra 228 Ac 228 Th 224 Ra 220 Rn 216 Po 212 Pb 212 Bi 212 Po& 208 Tl 208 Pb 224 Ra 220 Rn 216 Po 212 Pb 212 Bi 212 Po& 208 Tl 208 Pb Leaching transport with water Leaching transport with water a) b) c) E&P NORM CHARACTERISTICS Th decay series Emanation / Dissolution transport with gas / (oil/water)

11 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam Activity Concentration Range: E&P Product Streams

12 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam Activity Concentration Range: E&P Waste Streams

13 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam External Dose Rate Range: E&P Facilities

14 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam E&P NORM: What to Monitor?

15 E&P NORM Workshop Muscat, February 21-24, 2005 tel G. Jonkers, GSEA/4 at SRTCA P.O. Box 38000, 1030 BN Amsterdam  Regulatory Requirements (Unwillingly & Surprisingly Encounter of E&P NORM, Low Specific Activity [IAEA transport regulations], large volume of Low Level Waste [IAEA waste definition], E&P vs ‘other’NORM)  Company Management System (Leadership & Commitment / Policy & Strategic Objectives / Organisation, Responsibilities, Resources, Competence, Standards & Documents / Hazards and Effects Management Process / Planning / Implementation, Corrective Action & Performance Reporting / Audit / Management Review)  External Radiation Survey Proactive Counteract E&P NORM Surprise (Inventory, Sampling, Measurement & Analysis, HSE rules – Operations & Maintenance)  Sample Measurement & Analysis (Standardised E&P NORM Analysis Methods, Standardised Reporting, Quality Assurance & Quality Control)  E&P NORM Disposal Options (long term risk/dose based, cost-benefit ) Knowing All This Impacts


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